Crossing the Gobi Desert ——Zhe Zhong🔥背景知识：哲中(1933- )，安徽省肥东县人，当代作家，1959年于中国人民大学法律系毕业后，志愿赴新疆工作。著有小说散文集《天山的阳光》、长篇游记《一个神秘世界的见闻》、散文集《大漠的歌》等。所著《过戈壁》一文选自1986年10月14日《人民日报》。茫茫的戈壁望不到边，黄羊不落脚，马儿不敢走。The Gobi Desert was boundless, so even Mongolian gazelles and horses dared not venture into it.🎈「黄羊不落脚，马儿不敢走」可按「黄羊和马儿都不敢冒险进入」之意译为even Mongolian gazelles and horses dared not venture into it，其中venture into作「冒险涉足」解。🎈dare（敢）的两种用法：其一，dare用作情态动词，后跟动词原形，主要用于疑问句、否定句和条件句中。例句Dare you catch the mouse? 你敢抓这只老鼠吗？ 其二，dare用作实义动词，有人称和数及时态变化。其后的动词不定式可带to也可不带，一般肯定句中要有to，否定句和疑问句中可有可无。例句I dare to jump down from the top of the wall.我敢从墙头跳下来。She doesn’t dare (to) face her mother.她不敢面对母亲。遍地铺着尖利的石头，步行更是困难。The desert plain, covered with sharp-edged rock fragments, was even more difficult for foot travelers to negotiate.🎈列举cover的部分用法。1、覆盖遍地铺着尖利的石头covered with sharp-edged rock fragments2、掩护在夜色的掩护下under cover of night3、报道采访过滇缅路covering the Yunnan-Burmese Road4、封面我少有全体读完的大部的书I seldom read a thick book from cover to cover🎈「步行更是困难」译为was even more difficult for foot travelers to negotiate，其中foot travelers作「徒步旅行者」解，to negotiate的意思是「胜利通过」「越过」等。我呆呆地望着前方。I stood gazing blankly into the distance.🎈blankly刘白羽《白蝴蝶之恋》我痴痴望着它。I stared at it blankly, … 此句意同「我呆呆地看着它」「我茫然凝视着它」等，可译为 I stared at it blankly (或vacantly)林海音《冬阳·童年·骆驼队》我看得呆了……I looked blankly…何为《照片上的童年》我漠然看着……I stared blankly …🎈stood gazing…：可把gazing…理解为伴随状语，或者主补。傍晚时分，戈壁上传来悠扬的驼铃。Towards evening, the sweet jingling of camel bells was heard from across the desert.🎈傍晚时分Towards evening1999年底 Towards the end of 1999🎈悠扬的驼铃the sweet jingling of camel bells冰心《再寄小读者》悠扬的钟声 melodious sound of bells一峰骆驼（身后还有一峰小骆驼），兴冲冲地向我走来。A camel, followed by a baby camel, came towards me sprightly.🎈came towards me也可替换为walked up to me。驼背上没有骑手，旁边也不见人影。骆驼主人呢？难道它是野骆驼吗？No one was sitting astride the animal, nor any one standing beside it. Who was its master? Was it a wild camel?🎈astride是介词，指「跨坐/骑在…上」🎈nor any one standing beside it：nor是并列连词，此处为省略结构（若并列句中左右两个分句出现重复的部分，则后一个分句可以省略重复的部分）。补充完整为nor any one was standing beside it。它走向前来，拿粉红色的舌头舔我手背，用鼻头拱我口袋。As it moved closer to me, it stuck out its pink tongue to lick the back of my hand and dug its snout into my pocket.🎈伸出，探出stick out吐舌头 stick out one’s tongue我拿出干粮招待它。I gave it a feed of the food I had brought with me for the journey.🎈干粮 a feed of the food。其中，a feed of是数量的描述词。它吃完干粮，转身卧到地上，示意请我骑到背上。After eating, it turned to lie on the ground, motioning me to ride on it.🎈motioning me to ride on it作伴随状语。🎈卧到地上lie on the ground从地上飘起drift from the ground夷为平地been raged to the ground跪地伏拜throw oneself on the ground我犹豫了一下，终于骑上去。I did accordingly after some hesitation.🎈did accordingly表示「照（骆驼示意的）做」此时夕阳西去，夜幕缓缓升起。The sun was setting in the west and night was falling. 🎈补充几个表达夕阳setting sun破晓，黎明 dawn arrives；the day is breaking…刚刚黎明The day is just dawning在破晓时分at the crack of dawn整日from dawn till dusk晨昏时节at dawn or dusk我忐忑不安，不知是悲是喜？I felt uneasy, not knowing if I was sad or happy.🎈not knowing if I was sad or happy作伴随状语。戈壁之夜，繁星在头上闪烁，月华如银，我仿佛走进梦中。It was a starry moonlit night on the Gobi. I felt like in a dream.🎈「戈壁之夜，繁星在头上闪烁，月华如银」合并译为It was a starry moonlit night on the Gobi，涉及转化。又，繁星stars、繁星点点的star-studded、星空the starry sky。在驼背上，我甚至产生怀疑，怕它对我怀着歹意。Sitting astride on the camel’s back, I even became suspicious, fearing that the camel might have malicious intent against me. 🎈「歹意」即「恶意」，现译作malicious intent (against)。一夜就这么提心吊胆地过去了。I was nervous the whole night.🎈「一夜」译作the whole night，也可译作all night。第二天，太阳从东方升起，我的神经才稍稍松弛了一些。It was not until the next dawn that I became somewhat relaxed.🎈译文为not until的强调举行。🎈somewhat作副词，表示「有点儿，有些，有几分，稍微」骆驼仍然驮着我缓缓地由东向西行进。The camel, carrying me on its back, continued to move slowly from east to west.🎈「仍然」按「继续」之意译作continued to。过了戈壁，就是我此行的目的地了，但我仍然揣摩不透它的心意。I was to reach my destination after getting out of the Gobi, but I still couldn’t figure out the earners intention.🎈弄懂，弄清楚，弄明白 figure out戈壁上突然刮起龙卷风，我们置身风暴当中。A tornado suddenly whirled over the Gobi and we were caught in a violent storm.🎈「我们置身风暴当中」中的「置身」有「陷入困境」(to get trapped)的含义，全句可译为We were caught in a violent storm。天昏地暗，飞沙走石。It turned dark all round and the fierce wind sent sands flying about and pebbles hurtling through the air.🎈彻底地、全面地 all round例句a good performance all round从各方面看来都精彩的演出🎈「飞沙走石」译为the fierce wind sent sands flying about and pebbles hurtling through the air，其中sand本是不可数的物质名词，用复数形式，是为了加强语气。又，使进入(某种状态) send sb. into…/send sb. V-ing/ send sb adj骆驼站立着，稳如泰山，让我藏到它身子下面，我才免遭风沙伤害。The camel, however, stood rock-firm. I hid myself under its belly so as to protect myself from the sand storm.🎈however是增译成分，将「我」的狼狈与骆驼的「稳如泰山」进行对比。🎈 rock-firm 副词，指「坚如磐石、屹立不动」风沙过去了，它又驮着我继续前行。After the sand storm passed off, the camel, with me on its back, started to move forward again.🎈（以某方式）发生并完成pass off例句The demonstration passed off peacefully.示威游行始终和平地进行。🎈「又驮着我继续前行」译作started to move forward again。也可以用resume一词。我的心便从怀疑而至感激了。A sense of gratitude had then replaced suspicion in my heart.🎈…感 a sense of责任感a sense of responsibility感激a sense of gratitude成就感 a sense of accomplishment走了一天一夜，已经很疲乏了，骆驼也得休息一下。A day and night passed and I felt tired out. And the camel was in need of a rest too.🎈筋疲力尽be tired/worn out例句He returned home as wet as a rag, and tired out from weariness and hunger.皮诺乔像只落汤鸡似地回家里，他又累又饿，一点力气也没有了。我找到了一块洼地住下，让骆驼到戈壁滩上去吃草。I found a low-lying place for a stopover. Then the camel went grazing at a sandy beach.🎈洼地a low-lying place盆地basin平原basin🎈「找到了一块洼地住下」就是「找块洼地休息一下」，现译作for a stopover。stopover意为「中途停留」🎈戈壁沙漠是世界上巨大的荒漠与半荒漠地区之一，绵亘在中亚浩瀚的大地，跨越蒙古和中国广袤的空间。戈壁多数地区不是沙漠而是裸岩。戈壁，在蒙古语中有沙漠、砾石荒漠、干旱的地方等意思。是夜云头很低，睡梦中觉得谁在拽我裤腿。It was a night with clouds hanging low. I was roused from sleep by somebody pulling me by the trouser legs.🎈 I was roused from sleep（被从睡梦中叫醒）是增译成分，原文虽无其词而有其意。才翻身，眼前闪动着一双双绿幽幽的眼睛。I turned over in bed and saw pairs of eerie green eyes glistening.🎈「眼前闪动着一双双绿幽幽的眼睛」译为I … saw pairs of eerie green eyes glistening，其中eerie的意思是「令人害怕的」「怪异的」，是译文中的增添词，原文虽无其词而有其意。我一骨碌从地上坐起，狼知道我没有死，一起向我裂开大嘴。So I sat up from the ground abruptly. Seeing that I was alive, the wolves bared their fangs ferociously.🎈「一起向我裂开大嘴」如按字面the wolves opened their mouths wide (或opened their big mouths)，未能充分传神达意，现译为the wolves bared their fangs ferociously (露出一付利牙尖齿的凶相)，似较可取。这时远处一声怒吼，在那边吃草的骆驼冲过来，和狼厮打到一块。At this very moment, the camel rushed with an angry roar from its grazing land to fight the wolves.🎈「这时」译作At this very moment，其中very是形容词，与名词连用，起强调作用。例如：History is taking place before your very eyes.历史就在你的眼前发生。原文中虽写的是「这时」，其实蕴含「千钧一发」的含义，毕竟是生死关头。三头狼，一头被咬死，一头受伤，一头吓跑了。Consequently, one of the three wolves was bitten to death, another was injured and still another fled through fear.🎈…to death表示「……而亡」，例如：饿死starve to death；流血而亡is bleeding to death；被打死be beaten to death；被咬死be bitten to death。骆驼将我揽到身边，像是怕狼再来吃我。The camel then took care to keep me close to itself for fear that the wolves might come again to attack me.🎈小心做某事take care to do例句But they took care to prevent me from learning their name.可他们提防着不让我知道他们的名字。我扑到它身上，一个劲地亲。I threw myself on it and kissed it vigorously.🎈扑到它身上threw myself on it何为《回忆一个历史镜头》跪地伏拜throw oneself on the ground（扑倒在地）经过五天五夜，我们走出了戈壁。We were out of the Gobi five days and nights later.🎈「走出了戈壁」译作were out of the Gobi，也可译作went out of…和骆驼分别时，我有许多话要说，但它不懂，只好摆摆手走了。At parting, there were many things I could have said to the camel, but I refrained because it could never understand human speech. All I did was walk away waving my hand.🎈介词短语At parting作时间状语。🎈refrain from (doing) sth表示「不去做某事、避免做某事」例句Please refrain from smoking during the performance.演出时请勿吸烟。我走了很远，它还站在原地向我凝望。After walking a long way off, I still saw it stand fixing its eyes on me.🎈很长一段路 a long way off例句But that goal is a long way off.不过，要实现这一目标还有很长的一段路要走。🎈盯着，凝视，凝望 feast/fix one’s eyes on sth.到了目的地，友人说，驮我过戈壁的骆驼的主人，是塔吉克的牧驼人。On reaching my destination, a friend of mine there told me the camel that had carried me across the Gobi belonged to a Tajik trainer of camels.🎈「是」不只有be一种翻法，比如这里的belong to。而且，中文的「是」很多情况下包含了其他的意思。“牧驼人呢？我没有见到他呀！”我很诧异。“老牧驼人要是活着，也该有几百上千岁了。”“Where is he? I haven’t seen him yet,” I asked in astonishment. “If the old herdsman were still alive, he should be several hundred or even more than a thousand years old.”🎈 yet在否定句中常译作「还、尚、迄今、到那时」“他有后代吗？”“他有儿子、孙子、重孙，子子孙孙，都在戈壁上牧驼。” “How about his descendants?”“He had sons, grandsons and grand grandsons — all of them looking after camels on the Gobi.”🎈「他有后代吗？」未直译，而是意译为「那他的后代呢？」，较为礼貌。🎈— all of them looking after camels on the Gobi：独立主格结构一般用逗号与主句分开(有时也用破折号)。“老人家怎么把骆驼驯养得这么听话？”“这话奇怪。老人家没有驯养出来这样的骆驼，你能走过戈壁吗？”“How did the old man manage to raise and train the camels until they were so tame and gentle?”“Well, had it not been for the old herdsman, you wouldn’t be able to cross the Gobi, would you?”🎈 had it not been for 为虚拟条件从句 if it had not been for的倒装(省略if),也可改用but for表达。🎈you wouldn’t be able to cross the Gobi, would you?是反义疑问句。回来的路上，我又骑上那峰骆驼。On my return trip over the Gobi, I rode on the same camel.🎈回程return trip单程票a one-way ticket往返票a round-trip ticket/a return ticket到了戈壁才发现，随身带的水壶忘了装水。没有饮水，这长长的戈壁怎么过去？I realized on my arrival at the Gobi that I had forgotten to replenish my canteen with water, which was indispensable for travelers on the Gobi.🎈「没有饮水，这长长的戈壁怎么过去？」译作which was indispensable for travelers on the Gobi。对于问句的处理，有三种办法:1仍以问句译出；2用I wonder…；3若为反问句类型，可用陈述句译出其真正含义。这里的太阳火炉一样，烤得我浑身冒汗，口干得张不开。Under the scorching sun, I was sweating all over and my mouth was parched.🎈表达「天气炎热」1、（赤日炎炎）的酷暑，人们怕太阳，太阳并不总赐予幸福，它可能是伪君子，它令禾苗枯萎，荼毒生灵。 People dread the sun in （sweltering） summer days. The sun does not always give us blessings. It may be a hypocrite, causing seedlings to wither and plunging people into the depth of misery.2、在超过 90 华氏度的高温下，乘客（热得要命）。 Passengers （sweltered） in temperatures of over 90°F. 3、尽管（高温）酷暑，但大部分游客都能从容接受。But despite （the searing temperatures）, tourists largely seemed to take it in stride.4、那是一个（大热天）。It was （a scorching hot day）.5、来自阿富汗的民众在（酷热）中排着长队等候。Those coming over from Afghanistan described long lines （in the blistering heat）.头一天熬过去了，第二天处于半昏迷状态，第三天一头栽倒在戈壁上。I managed to pull through on the first day, I had fainting fits on the second day, and I fell onto the ground on the third day.🎈渡过难关、艰难度过或完成（某件困难的事）pull through例句It’s going to be tough but we’ll pull through it together.这件事会很棘手，但我们将协力把它完成。昏睡中我感到嘴唇湿润湿润的，有一股泉水往嘴里流。I fell into a lethargic state. My lips became moistened through water being poured into my mouth.🎈陷入昏睡的状态fell into a lethargic state🎈through water being poured into my mouth中through换作with也可以。being poured into强调动作正在进行。我贪婪地喝着，体内的血液迅速奔涌起来。As I was gulping it down greedily, blood flowed rapidly through my body.🎈「喝着」没有译作drink，更没有译作sip（嘬），而是译为gulping it down（狼吞虎咽），以此说明我的身体处在极度缺水的状态，也更符合缺水情况下人的行为表现。好容易，我半睁开眼睛，看到跟前坐着一个汉子。It was with difficulty that I managed to have my eyes half opened. Then I saw a man sitting in front of me.🎈「好容易」=「好不容易」，译作It was with difficulty that…。又，managed to（竭力做……）和difficult相呼应，manage to也可换做strive to。看出那是年轻的牧驼人。I could tell that he was a herdsman.🎈译时要补充出主语i。他身后卧着一片黑压压的骆驼。Behind him was a dark mass of camels lying on the ground.🎈Behind him was…是倒装结构。当句子是主系表结构时且表语置于句首时，后面的句子需要使用全部倒装。🎈英语中，有些倒装是出于语法上的需要，非用倒装语序不可，具有强制性；有些则是为了达到某种修辞效果，如强调、平衡、衔接等。我想站起来，腿不听使唤，激动之后，我又昏迷了过去。I wanted to rise to my feet, but my legs gave way. At the end of my excitement, I turned lethargic again.🎈「我想站起来，腿不听使唤」不宜直译为I wanted to get up, but my legs would not obey me，现译为I wanted to rise to my feet, but my legs gave way，其中gave way作「(腿)发软」解。此句也可译为I felt like getting up, but my legs would not hold me up。🎈to one’s feet站起来(常与 bound, dart, jump, start 等连用)rise to one’s feet站起来drop to one’s knee跪下第二天，牧驼人和骆驼不见了，The next day, the herdsman and his camels were nowhere to be found.🎈were nowhere to be found be to do的常见用法之一：表示「可以，可能」，相当于may, can。例句The news is to be found in the evening paper.这条消息可以在晚报上见到。Such people are to be found everywhere.这种人到处都有。She is nowhere to be found.在哪里也找不着她。唯有驮我的骆驼仍站在身旁守候。Only the camel that had carried me across the Gobi was standing beside me, keeping watch.🎈「守候」译作了keeping watch（警戒）。结合被狼群袭击的经历，keep watch比accompany更合适。由于饮了水，体力恢复了许多，水壶里也灌满了水，我又能骑着骆驼上路了。After drinking the water, I felt very much recovered physically. And the canteen had also been filled with water. So I resumed my journey astride the camel.🎈「由于饮了水」中的「由于」未处理为因果关系，而是处理为了时间上的逻辑关系，此处是完全可以的，不会引发歧义。驼铃声声，在广袤的戈壁上空回荡。The jingling bells of my camel echoed through the boundless Gobi.🎈 boundless可以说已经成了形容「无边无际、一望无际」的专用词。茅盾《白杨礼赞》望不到边际的高原 boundless plateau李大钊《艰难的国运与雄健的国民》平原无际plains lying boundless on either side黄药眠《杂感集》汪洋大海a boundless sea那是经人饲驯的专门载着旅客走戈壁的“沙漠之舟”呀，可不是野骆驼。It was not a wild camel, but a camel known as the “ship of the desert” that had been raised and trained specifically to carry travelers across the Gobi.🎈a camel known as the “ship of the desert”也可写为a camel called the “ship of the desert”🎈（骆驼）沙漠之舟ship of the desert（雨林）地球之肺lungs of the earth🔥必背词汇lethargic adj.慵懒的，没精打采的，懒洋洋的英义If you are lethargic, you do not have much energy or enthusiasm.例句He felt too miserable and lethargic to get dressed.他心情低落，无精打采，完全没有心思穿衣整装。parched adj.嘴、喉咙或嘴唇干燥的英义If your mouth, throat, or lips are parched, they are unpleasantly dry.例句His lips were parched and cracked. 他的嘴唇干裂。tame adj.(动物)驯化的，驯服的英义A tame animal or bird is one that is not afraid of humans.例句The deer never became tame; they would run away if you approached them.那些鹿一直没有被驯服：你一靠近，它们就跑开。eerie adj.怪异的，可怕的英义If you describe something as eerie, you mean that it seems strange and frightening, and makes you feel nervous.例句I walked down the eerie dark path.我走在那条漆黑恐怖的小路上。fangs n.尖牙，犬齿，（蛇的）毒牙英义either of two long sharp teeth at the front of the mouths of some animals, such as a snake or dog 例句Dogs came lunging forward with their fangs bared.狗龇牙咧嘴地扑过来。🔥重点表达徒步旅行者foot travelers胜利通过、越过negotiate呆呆地望着前方gazing blankly into the distance悠扬的驼铃the sweet jingling of camel bells野骆驼a wild camel吐舌头stick out one’s tongue示意请我骑到背上motioning me to ride on it忐忑不安felt uneasy不知是悲是喜not knowing if I was sad or happy 歹意malicious intent揣摩不透它的心意couldn’t figure out the earners intention彻底地、全面地 all round（以某方式）发生并完成pass off感激a sense of gratitude筋疲力尽be tired/worn out被咬死be bitten to death扑到它身上threw myself on it很长一段路 a long way off盯着，凝视，凝望 feast/fix one’s eyes on sth.回程return trip渡过难关、艰难度过或完成（某件困难的事）pull through陷入昏睡的状态fell into a lethargic state站起来rise to one’s feet 沙漠之舟ship of the desert🔥复盘测试徒步旅行者胜利通过、越过呆呆地望着前方悠扬的驼铃野骆驼吐舌头示意请我骑到背上忐忑不安不知是悲是喜歹意揣摩不透它的心意彻底地、全面地（以某方式）发生并完成感激筋疲力尽被咬死扑到它身上很长一段路盯着，凝视，凝望回程渡过难关、艰难度过或完成（某件困难的事）陷入昏睡的状态站起来沙漠之舟🔥表达对比「感激」有几种表达？我的心便从怀疑而至（感激）了。 A sense of gratitude had then replaced suspicion in my heart.我应该（感谢）母亲，她教给我与困难作斗争的经验，我在家庭生活中已经饱尝艰苦，这使我在三十多年的军事生活和革命生活中，再没有感到困难和被困难吓倒。 I owe mother a debt of gratitude because she taught me how to cope with the numerous difficulties that I ran into at home so that later during my over 30 years of military and revolutionary life I have never bowed down to any difficulty.我们都提醒女儿，她应该（感激）班主任老师。 We all reminded our daughter that she should feel grateful to her head teacher.你能做些什么来给某人展现你是多么（感激）他或她吗？ What could you do to show someone how much you appreciate him or her?不要期盼有多安逸的生活，我们有床可以睡觉，有屋顶可以为我们挡风遮雨，你应该对此（心存感激）。 Don’t expect comfort. You’ve just got to be thankful if we get a bed to sleep on and a roof over our heads.