王蒙《宰牛》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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宰牛

Ox-Slaughtering 
王蒙
Wang Meng
 
🔥背景知识:王蒙(1934-),著名作家,祖籍河北南皮,生于北京,著述颇丰,1953年创作长篇小说《青年万岁》,1956年发表短篇小说《组织部新来的年轻人》,有《王蒙文集》行世。1986-1989年任中华人民共和国文化部部长。《宰牛》是他写于1991年3月19日的一篇散文,文字隽永精练。
 
“它知道的,它要挨刀了!”房东说。
“The cow is expecting itself to be knifed soon,” said my landlord.
🎈「它」指「牛」,译为The cow。英语cow本作「母牛」或「奶牛」解, 但常泛指「牛」,不分公母老幼,如cowhide(牛皮)、cowshed(牛棚)、cowboy(牛仔)等。
🎈expecting这里不取「期待」之意,没有任何一种生物会对自己死去感到期待。expect还可以表示「预期、料到(知道某事会发生)」

 
纳赛尔江拿出刀来,喊一声“安拉,艾斯敏拉”(以真主的名义),
Nasser took out a knife and shouted, “In the name of Allah!” 
🎈「安拉」或「真主」应译为Allah,为伊斯兰教所信奉的惟一神的名称。
🎈以……名义in the name of…或 in …’s name
例句
crimes committed in the name of religion
以宗教名义进行的犯罪活动
 

照准牛脖子飞快地一下,样子一点也不凶恶。
Thereupon he plunged the knife right into the neck of the animal. He did it agilely without showing nastiness.
🎈thereupon意为「随即、随后」,表示动作在时间上的顺承。
🎈「照准牛脖子」译为right into the neck of the animal,其中right(恰好地)表达原文的「照准」
🎈「样子一点也不凶恶」译为without showing nastiness,其中nastiness 作「一副凶相」解。此句也可译为without a nasty look cm his face。

 
牛“哞”地一声闷叫,血喷如注, 
The animal uttered a muffled moo as blood started gushing out of the cut. 
🎈「哞」地一声闷叫 译作uttered a muffled moo,其中muffled(沉闷的、压抑、模糊不清的)一词用的非常巧妙。原文中「闷叫」是对被宰牲畜死前的描述:牲畜由于疼痛想哀嚎,但来不及发完声音,其生命便走到了尽头。
🎈 the cut是名词,指伤口。
 

牛的眼睛在这一瞬间突然睁大,应该说是突然放出了痛苦的强光,旋即暗淡、固定,变成两枚乌溜溜的玻璃珠子。
Its eyes, ablaze with acute pain, suddenly dilated and then turned dim and static, like two black glass balls.
🎈ablaze with acute pain是对eyes的补充说明。
🎈dilate是动词,名词形式为dilation,常指瞳孔放大pupil dilation
 

穆斯林是严禁食用动物的血的,他把牛血放净、埋好,
As it was strictly banned among Moslems to eat animal blood, Nasser had the cow’s blood buried underground. 
🎈As it was strictly banned among Moslems to eat animal blood:as引导原因状语从句。
🎈 had the cow’s blood buried underground是have…done的结构。
 

用了不多的时间就宰好了牛,倒挂在房檐上,开始按一块钱一公斤的价格出售了。
It took him only a short time to finish the butchering. He then had the slaughtered cow hung upside down under the eaves and began selling the beef at one yuan per kilo.
🎈had the slaughtered cow hung upside down是have…done的结构。其中,upside down是倒置的意思。我们在描述「贴福字」的时候就可以说put/place Fu upside down.
 

空气里充满了牛血牛肉的腥气。
The air was full of the rank smell of the slaughtered animal and its blood. 
🎈rank熟词僻义,作形容词,指「臭气难闻的,气味令人恶心的」
 

虽然用土掩埋了牛血,仍然立即引来了许多只乌鸦,真是不祥的鸟。
Although the blood had been buried, flocks of crows nevertheless appeared on the scene by following up the scent. O ill-omened birds!
🎈「仍然立即引来了许多只乌鸦」译为flocks of crows nevertheless appeared on the scene by following up the scent,其中 following up the scent 作「闻着臭迹追赶」解。
🎈「真是不祥的鸟」译为O ill-omened birds!,其中ill-omened意同 unlucky 、inauspicious等。惊叹词O是译文中的添加词,有助于更好地表达原意。

这天晚上海丽琪罕熬了一大锅牛杂碎汤,我只觉得腥,勉强吃了半碗就不肯再吃,使房东二老颇觉疑惑。
That evening, Hailiqi prepared a potful of chopped beef tripe stew. It was too smelly for me, so I managed to eat only half a bowl. That very much perplexed my landlord and his wife.
🎈「牛杂碎汤」本可译为 chopped stewed entrails of the cow 或 chopped stewed internal organs of the cow,均欠理想,现译chopped beef tripe stew较简练通俗,其中以常用的beef tripe(牛肚)一词概括「牛杂碎」,便于理解。
🎈「勉强吃了半碗就不肯再吃」译作so I managed to eat only half a bowl。so是增译成分,补充逻辑关系;manage to形容「费很大力气以达成某事」,用以指代我喝牛杂汤的「勉强」
🎈「房东二老」即指「房东夫妻二人」,译作landlord and his wife即可。

 
第二天一早,我腹痛如绞,腹泻如注。
Early the next morning, I suffered from a severe stomach-ache and diarrhea. 
🎈Early the next morning:在平时的学习中,我们注意到一般的时间状语前都有介词in/on/at或for等,而实际上在英语中,有不少表示时间的状语前是不加介词的:
①在today, tomorrow, yesterday, the day before yesterday等表示时间概念的名词前一般不用介词
例句
We have had six lessons today.
我们今天上了六节课。
②由this, that ,these, those 等用于表示时间概念的名词前,前面往往不加介词
例句
What are you busy with these days?
这几天你在忙些什么?
③由next, last, the next, the last 等用于表示时间概念的名词前时,前面不用介词修饰
例句
We planted many trees last spring.
去年春天我们栽了许多树。
④在each, any, every, some, all 等用于表示时间概念的名词前,一般不用介词来修饰
例句
We have to get up very early every day.
每天我们都必须早早起来。(有时候加on等,是因为是具体的某天上午或下午前)

 
从这一件事上,我已经看准了自己的无用。
I blamed myself for being so fragile.
🎈对……应负责任;应该为某事负责be to blame for…
例句
Beer is also blamed for yobbish behavior.
啤酒会产生暴力事件。
 

后来队里的一次宰牛,我也看到了,印象要淡得多。
Later, I witnessed ox-slaughtering again, this time at my Team, but I was not longer impressed.
🎈与「印象」有关的表达
给某人留下印象 leave sb with an impression/ leave an impression on sb
得到……的印象 have/get the impression (that)
产生影响,起作用 make an impression
给某人留下坏印象 make a bad impression on sb.
给某人留下好印象 create a good impression on sb.
第一印象 first impression 
假象/错觉 false/wrong/misleading impression 
不可磨灭的印象 lasting/indelible impression
总体感觉 overall/ general impression
 

那是为了迎接夏收开镰吧,队里组织了农忙地头食堂,宰牛开张。
By order of our Team leaders, we had a temporary kitchen set up at the edge of the field, probably in anticipation of busy season of wheat harvest.
🎈by order of表示「按……的命令」,其中by意为「根据,按照某种标准」。又,「队里」应指「队领导」,故译为our Team leaders。
🎈旺季 busy season
淡季slack season
 

宰牛本身已无所谓,令人难忘的是日落西山放牧的牛群回村里时,
Ox-slaughtering was commonplace. But something most unforgettable happened one afternoon when a herd of cattle were returning to the village from the grazing ground in the setting sun.
🎈「宰牛本身已无所谓」按「宰牛已经司空见惯/宰牛是平常的事」译为Ox-slaughtering was commonplace. 
🎈…happened one afternoon when…:when引导定从,先行词是afternoon。
🎈夕阳the setting sun
朝阳the morning sun
 

经过村口宰过牛的地方,牛群彳亍不前,吼声大作,悲怆鸣叫,牛蹄踏踏不已。
At the village entrance, the animals slowed down and then stopped moving ahead, meanwhile bellowing loudly and mournfully and thumping the ground again and again with their hooves. 
🎈彳亍,左脚向前迈出一小步,称之为彳;右脚向前迈出一小步,称之为亍。彳亍不前就是说行动缓慢,直至停止脚步。现把「彳亍不前」译为slowed down and then stopped moving ahead。
 

老乡们说,牛是闻得出味道来的,一旦“得知”一位同类归西,呼天唤地之状,令人震惊。
The villagers told us that the cattle had found their way to the spot by scenting out the blood of the slaughtered cow, and then lamented loudly, to our astonishment, over the death of an animal of their kind.
🎈结合上句,「牛是闻得出味道来的」按「牛是能闻着味道找到(宰牛的)地方的」之意理解。又,scent out 察觉到、闻出。
🎈to our astonishment是插入语,把其前后的部分连起来理解即可。又,lament over…表示为…哀悼。
 
🔥必背词汇
lament         v.为…悲痛,哀叹,痛惜
英义
If you lament something, you express your sadness, regret, or disappointment about it. 
例句
Ken began to lament the death of his only son.
肯开始对独子的死悲痛不已。
 
hoof        cn.马等动物的蹄
英义
The hooves of an animal such as a horse are the hard lower parts of its feet. 
例句
The horses’ hooves often could not get a proper grip.
马蹄经常会打滑。
 
mournful       adj. (声音)凄楚的,凄厉的,悲切的
英义
A mournful sound seems very sad.
例句
the mournful wail of bagpipes
风笛凄厉的哀诉声
 
bellow       v.公牛、大象等大型动物咆哮,吼叫
英义
When a large animal such as a bull or an elephant bellows, it makes a loud and deep noise. 
例句
A heifer bellowed in her stall.
小母牛在牛栏里吼叫。
 
ox         cn.阉牛,去势公牛
英义
An ox is a bull that has been castrated. Oxen are used in some countries for pulling vehicles or carrying things.
例句
He yoked the oxen to the plough.
他用轭把牛套上犁。
 
temporary        adj.暂时的,临时的,短暂的
英义
Something that is temporary lasts for only a limited time.
例句
His job here is only temporary.
他在这儿的工作只是临时的。
 
diarrhea       un.腹泻
英义
an illness in which waste matter is emptied from the bowels much more frequently than normal, and in liquid form 
例句
Symptoms include diarrhoea and vomiting.
症状有腹泻和呕吐。
 
perplex       v.使困惑,使担心,迷惑
英义
If something perplexes you, it confuses and worries you because you do not understand it or because it causes you difficulty.
例句
It perplexed him because he was tackling it the wrong way.
由于处理不当,这个问题令他大伤脑筋。
 
🔥重点表达
猛然插入,插进 plunge sth into sth
(从……中)喷出,冒出,涌出 gush out of
放出痛苦的强光 ablaze with acute pain
倒挂hang upside down 
屋檐下 under the eaves
一大锅 a potful of
牛杂碎汤 chopped beef tripe stew
哀悼 lament over
 
🔥复盘测试
猛然插入,插进
(从……中)喷出,冒出,涌出
放出痛苦的强光
倒挂
屋檐下
一大锅
牛杂碎汤
哀悼
🔥表达对比
「困惑」有几种表达?
 
……使房东二老颇觉(疑惑)
…That very much perplexed my landlord and his wife.
小偷们又害怕又(疑惑)。 
The thieves were frightened and confused.
她的全科医生建议她去看专科,但她的病情让医生们(困惑)了好几个星期,直至体检才发现她出现了严重肾衰。 
Her GP referred her to a specialist, but her illness confounded doctors for weeks, until tests revealed her kidneys were severely damaged.
我盯着该笔记,完全(困惑)不知道这个笔记怎么会有任何重要价值,它看上去和我的生活无关。
I stare at it, completely puzzled as to how the note is applicable to anything significant. It seems irrelevant to my life.
在我泪眼(迷惘)满腹伤感的时候,我发现有一双眼睛在关切地注视着我。 
I am at a loss in the tearful eyes full of sadness, I found a pair of eyes watching me with concern.

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