季羡林《我和北大图书馆》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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我和北大图书馆

季羡林
Peking University Library and I 
Ji Xianlin
 
🔥背景知识:《我和北大图书馆》是我国著名教授、学者、散文家、翻译家季羡林(1911—2009)写于1991年的一篇散文。酷爱书籍,乃文人学者本色,作者私人书斋藏书几万册,1946年入北大工作,视藏书甲全国大学的北大图书馆为安身立命的地方,「书城」使他「忘记了尘世的一切不愉快的事情,怡然自得」,得以毕生潜心搞学问,笔耕不辍,他的散文文思畅快,平实自然,言简意赅,真切动人。
 
我对北大图书馆有一种特殊的感情,这种感情潜伏在我的内心深处,从来没有明确地意识到过。
I cherish a particular affection for Peking University Library—an affection that has hidden deep in my heart without my knowledge.
Q:为什么「有」不翻译为have,而选择cherish呢?
🎈「对……抱有感情」汉译英很容易条件反射have a feeling for sth,但实际上have a feeling for sth意思是「对某事有悟性(天分)」,比如说「你似乎对绘画很有天分」可以表达为You seem to have a feeling for drawing。
have没有cherish选词准确,看英英解释第二条,to keep an idea, a hope or a pleasant feeling in your mind for a long time,显然cherish比have包含的感情更多。新概念3的第34课《a happy discovery》里面有一句: He must cherish the hope that one day he will be amply rewarded. 中文意思是:他必须抱有这样的希望,终有一天,他的努力会取得丰硕的成果。
中文的「有」很多情况下不直接翻译成have,经济学人中经常用boast,比如说:「深圳有大量高速增长的科技公司」英文可以说:Shenzhen boasts a large number of fast growing technology companies. 根据boast的本意「吹嘘」可以知道,一般情况下这种「有」是好的东西,boast的英英解释有一条是:(a person, place, or thing) possess (a feature that is a source of pride)。政府工作报告中夸中国地大物博、物产丰富之类的也常用boast。
Q:「……感情,这种感情……」重复部分为什么不用定语从句连接,而用破折号,还重复了一遍affection呢?
🎈 I cherish a particular affection which has hidden deep in my heart without my knowledge. 定语从句一般情况下修饰的是紧跟的那个名词,如果要用定语从句连接,那么北大图书馆这个信息点放哪儿好呢?这里学到一个新的翻译手法:如果有个名词出现了两遍,又因为别的信息干扰,无法处理成简洁的定语从句,那么可以用破折号连接,重复一遍那个名词,起到解释说明的作用。切莫因为追求简洁而没有忠实原文,翻译时遗漏信息点就没有达到「信」

 
最近图书馆的领导同志要我写一篇讲图书馆的文章,我连考虑都没有,立即一口答应。
Therefore, recently when the curator asked me to write an article on the library, I readily agreed without any hesitation.
🎈「连考虑都没有,立即一口答应」译作readily agreed without any hesitation。「立即一口答应」按「欣然答应」之意译作了readily agreed。
 

但我立刻感到有点吃惊。我现在事情还是非常多的,抽点时间,并非易事。
Nevertheless, immediately afterwards, I felt a bit surprised at the rash promise I had made, for, with already too many irons in the fire, I could hardly have time to spare.
🎈「但我立刻感到有点吃惊。我现在事情还是非常多的,抽点时间,并非易事」可按「我立刻对自己的轻率允诺感到吃惊,因为我有许多事要办, 很难抽出时间」理解。译文中rash作「仓促作出的」「轻率的」解, 是译文中的添加词,原文虽无其词而有其意。又,too many irons in the fire 是常用英语成语,作「同时有许多事要做」解。又,I could hardly have time to spare作「我几乎抽不出时间」解,意同「抽点时间,并非易事」
 

为什么竟立即答应下来了呢?如果不是心中早就蕴藏着这样一种感情的话,能出现这种情况吗?
What had made me give the promise? Could I have done that had it not been for my deep-seated affection for the University library?
🎈如果不是心中早就蕴藏着这样一种感情的话,能出现这种情况吗?译为Could I have done that had it not been for my deep-seated affection for the University library。其中 had it not been for 为虚拟条件从句 if it had not been for的倒装(省略if),也可改用but for表达。原文从句也可译为without my deep-seated affection for the University library。
🎈翻译是语法正确包括语态和时态,其中时态准确十分重要。比如前面的I felt a bit surprised at the rash promise I had made,匆忙地答应发生在惊讶之前,也就是过去的过去,所以匆忙答应需要用过去完成时。翻译的时候不要忽略这个细节,had done和did含义相差很大。
 

树有根,水有源,我这种感情的根源由来已久了。
Every tree has its roots and every river its source. My deep affection for the University library has an origin of long standing.
🎈Every tree has its roots and every river its source:为了避免重复、突出新信息并使上下文紧密连接,英语中常常会省略。并列句中,如果后面的句子和前面句子有相同的成分,往往都会省略以避免重复。
《二级笔译实务配套训练》第二单元汉译英《汉族人的宗教》使用了大量省略句。原文是:掌管宇宙的玉皇大帝,掌管吃喝和一家祸福的灶神,掌管雨水的龙王,象征长寿的南极寿星。翻译是:the Jade Emperor was in charge of the entire universe, the Kitchen God of food, drinks, happiness and misfortunes, the Dragon King of rain and floods, and the South-Pole Star of Longevity was symbolic of long lives.
 

1946年,我从欧洲回国。去国将近11年,在落叶满长安(长安街也)的深秋季节,又回到了北平。
In 1946, I returned to China after staying Europe for about eleven years. When I arrived in Peiping, it was late autumn, with Chang’an Street strewn with fallen leaves.
🎈with Chang’an Street strewn with fallen leaves是with复合结构,表示伴随。
 

在北大工作,内心感情的波动是难以形容的,既兴奋,又寂寞;既愉快,又惆怅。
My first days at Peking University found me experiencing an indescribable mixed feeling of both elation and loneliness, and both joy and gloom.
🎈「在北大工作,内心感情的波动是难以形容的,既兴奋,又寂寞;既愉快,又惆怅」可按「初到北大,内心感情……」译为My first days at Peking University found myself experiencing an indescribable mixed feeling of both elation and loneliness, and both joy and gloom。说「心情复杂」时可借鉴表达mixed feeling
 

然而我立刻就到了一下可以安身立命的地方,这就是北大图书馆。
Fortunately, I soon found a place where I could settle down to a tranquil life and get on with my work, that is, Peking University Library.
🎈译文中fortunately为增词,指明上下文逻辑关系,起承上启下的作用。汉译英中经常会出现逻辑增词,比如「少年易老学难成,一寸光阴一寸金」这句话的译文是:Growing old is easy for a young person, but scholarship is difficult. Therefore one must treasure every moment of life.这里面的therefore也属于增加逻辑连接词,表因果。
🎈安身立命这个四字成语需要靠解释来翻译:安定下来过着平静安宁的生活,继续稳定的工作。现译作settle down to a tranquil life and get on with my work。
🎈tranquil在文学翻译中常见。在《韩刚90天突破二级笔译》中有句翻译:都市繁忙的工作和匆忙的生活节奏,使人们向往在节假日远离喧闹的大都市,到郊外度假休闲。译文是:During holidays, people tend to leave their fast-pace urban life behind, getting away from the hustle and bustle for peace and tranquility in a suburban retreat.这里面hustle and bustle表示喧闹繁忙,peace and tranquility表示安静祥和,不仅意境表达到位,而且对仗工整。
 

当时我单身住在红楼,我的办公室(东语系办公室)是在灰楼。图书馆就介乎其中。
At that time, I lived alone at the Red Building and my office, the office of the Oriental Languages Department, was in the Gray Building. And the University library was situated in-between.
🎈「单身住在红楼」中的「单身」可不是单身狗的单身,而是独自一人,现译作alone。
🎈积累原文()转化成译文中同位语的处理方式,有时也可处理为破折号。
其中was situated in-between,译法简洁明了。
 

承当时图书馆的领导特别垂青,在图书馆里给了我一间研究室,在楼下左侧。
Thanks to the thoughtfulness of the curator, I was allotted a research room in the library, on the left side of its ground floor. 
🎈「承当时图书馆的领导特别垂青……」可按「承图书馆馆长(管理人员)的照顾」译为Thanks to the thoughtfulness of the curator …。「当时」体现在了时态中,不需要字面翻译。至于「垂青」,如果想不到thoughtfulness,也可以处理成「欣赏或者青睐」,也就是appreciation或者favor。但是thoughtfulness多了层褒奖管理员的含义,英英释义:showing that you think about and care for other people. 在欣赏和青睐季羡林的基础上,还体现了馆长本人的优点。
 

窗外是到灰楼去的必由之路。经常有人走过,不能说是很清静。
It was a bit noisy out of the window due to a passage alongside the building, which was the only way leading to the Gray Building. 
🎈注意译文对语句顺序的调整,把「必经之路」这一分句处理为了非限制性定从,和对逻辑关系的补充,增译due to表示因果。

 
但是在图书馆这一面,却是清静异常。
But it was very quiet in the library itself though.
🎈准确理解「在图书馆这一面」的意思,其实就是在图书馆里,译作in the library itself。
 

我的研究室左右,也都是教授研究室,当然室各有主,但是颇少见人来。
Around me were also research rooms belonging to other professors, but I seldom saw them. 
🎈Around me were also research rooms belonging to other professors是倒装结构。又,belonging to other professors是rooms的后置定语。

 
所以走廊里静如古寺,真是念书写作的好地方。
So it was all quiet in the corridor, like in an ancient temple. It was an ideal place for doing studies and writing indeed.
🎈「念书写作」按「学习和写作」之意译作doing studies and writing indeed。
 

我能在奔波数万里、扰攘十几年,有时梦想得到一张一尺见方的书桌而渺不可得的情况下,居然有了一间窗明几净的研究室,简直如坐天堂,如享天福了。
Imagine how overwhelmed with joy I was to have a bright research room complete with a desk after spending more than a decade rushing about form place to place sometimes with the vain dream of getting a mere small desk of my own!
🎈how引导的感叹句类型
①How+形容词+主语+谓语!
②How+副词+主语+谓语!
③How+主语+动词!
④How+ many/much/few/little+ 名词+主语+谓语!
🎈complete with a desk 作room的后置定语,其中,complete with表示「附带、连同」
例句
I thought you might like a little treat complete with candy corn.
我想你或许喜欢带玉米糖的小礼物。
🎈有时梦想得到一张一尺见方的书桌而渺不可得译为sometimes with the vain dream of getting a small desk of my own,其中把「有时梦想……而渺不可得」意即「有时妄想得到」译为sometimes with the vain dream of getting …。又,「一尺见方的」意即「小型的」,故译为small。
🎈「简直如坐天堂,如享天福了」不宜直译,可按我多么喜出望外啊!译为 Imagine how overwhelmed with joy I was。
 

研究室的真正要害还不在窗明几净——当然,这也是必要的——而在有没有足够的书。
To me, however, what really mattered in a research room were not bright windows and clean desks, which were of course also indispensable, but sufficient books.
🎈「真正要害」可按「真正重要」译为What really mattered/counted
 

在这一点上,我也得到了意外的满足。
Now I had my wish unexpectedly gratified.
🎈my wish即指上句所说的「有足够的书」。又,had my wish unexpectedly gratified是have…done结构。
 

图书馆的领导允许我从书库里提一部分必要的书,放在我的研究室里,供随时查用。
I was given permission from the curator to equip my research room with necessary books for easy reference taken direct from the stack rooms.
🎈积累equip…with…的表达,非常亮眼。
🎈「供随时查用」意即「以便查用」故译为for easy reference
 

我当时是东语系的主任,虽然系非常小,没有多少学生,一些公要办,所以也并不太闲。
As head of the Department of Oriental Languages, I was busy with meetings and official duties although the said Department had a relatively small enrollment.
🎈「系非常小,没有多少学生」可译为the said Department was relatively small with not too many students, 但不如the said Department had a relatively small enrollment 简洁。
 

可是我一有机会,就遁入我的研究室去,“躲进小楼成一统”,这地方是我的天下。
In spite of that, I would withdraw at the first opportunity to my research room to enjoy the privacy of having a place all to myself, a place where I was my own master.
🎈「可是我一有机会,就遁入我的研究室,‘躲进小楼成一统’,这地方是我的天下。」译为In spite of that, I would withdraw at the first opportunity to my research room to enjoy the privacy of a place all to myself, a place where I was my own master,其中at the first(或earliest) opportunity 是成语,意同as soon as possible,用来表达「一有机会」

 
我一进屋,就能进入角色,潜心默读,坐拥书城,其乐实在是不足为外人道也。
As soon as I entered the room, I began to live my part as an avid reader sitting among a roomful of books. The great pleasure I enjoyed at the moment was beyond description.
🎈「我一进入屋,就能进入角色,潜心默读,坐拥书城」译为As soon as I entered the room, I began to live my part as an avid reader sitting among a roomful of books,其中把「进入角色」译为to live my part,此乃英语成语, 其意思是:淋漓尽致地扮演一种角色。
 

我回国以后,由于资料缺乏,在国外时的研究工作,无法进行,
Upon my return to China, I had to discontinue, for lack of reference materials, the research I had been doing abroad. 
🎈Upon my return to China:upon+…结构可作时间状语。
老舍《养花》
送牛奶的同志,进门就夸“好香”!这使我们全家都感到骄傲。
It filled the whole family with pride whenever the milkman exclaims on entering our gate, “What a sweet smell!”
 

只能有多大碗,吃多少饭,找一些可以发挥自己的长处而又有利于国计民生的题目,来进行研究。
I had to adapt to the new circumstances by working only on themes most familiar to me and having direct bearing on national economy and the people’s livelihood.
🎈「有多大碗,吃多少饭」在文中指「习惯回国后的条件」,故译作adapt to the new circumstances。
🎈most familiar to me and having direct bearing on national economy and the people’s livelihood是themes的后置定语。having direct bearing on表示「对……有直接影响」
 

北大图书馆藏书甲全国大学,我需要的资料基本上能找得到,因此还能够写出一些东西来。
As Peking University Library boasted the largest collection of books of all university libraries in the country, I was able to write with materials available to me. 
🎈「北大图书馆藏书甲全国大学」按「北京大学藏书量(在所有大学中)全国第一」译作As Peking University Library boasted the largest collection of books of all university libraries in the country。甲有「最,第一」的意思,比如桂林山水甲天下,他们是一个句型。又,这里的boast用来夸北大「有」很多书,比have地道。

如果换一个地方,我必如车辙中的鲋鱼那样,什么书也看不到,什么文章也写不出。
Otherwise, with no access to books I needed, I would have accomplished nothing at all, like a fish stranded in a dry rut.
🎈「如车辙中的鮒鱼那样」来自典故「涸辙之鮒」,可译为like a fish stranded in a dry rut
 

作为全国最高学府的北京大学,我们有悠久的爱国主义的革命历史传统,有实事求是的学术传统,这些都是难能可贵的,
As one of the highest institutes of learning in the country, Peking University has a long history of revolutionary patriotism as well as an academic tradition of seeking truth from facts. All that is praiseworthy.
🎈悠久的爱国主义的革命历史传统a long history of revolutionary patriotism
实事求是的学术传统an academic tradition of seeking truth from facts
原文中虽然「这些都是难能可贵的」前是逗号,但译时另起一句(如参考译文以all that指代所说的传统,译作All that is praiseworthy)也是完全可以的。
 

但是,我认为,一个第一流的大学,必须有第一流的设备、第一流的图书、第一流的教师、第一流的学者和第一流的管理。五个第一流,缺一不可。
However, in my opinion, a first-rate university should have facilities, library, teaching staff, scholars and administration of the best quality.
🎈 first-rate表示「一流的,极好的,高级的」,例如:a first-rate swimmer(优秀游泳运动员)
🎈此句中「第一流」出现了很多次。在修饰大学时,翻作了first-rate;在细数五个「第一流」时,为避免重复使用同一表达,译作了of the best quality,且将其处理为后置定语。
 

我们北大可以说具备这五个第一流的。
Peking University certainly meets the requirement in the five respects.
🎈「具备这五个第一流」即「满足这五方面的条件/要求」,现译作meets the requirement in the five respects。
 

因此,我们有充分的基础,可以来弘扬祖国的优秀文化,为我国四化建设培养德才兼备的人才,对外为祖国争光,对内为人民立功。
We of this University are, therefore, fully qualified for the job of carrying forward the splendid cultural heritage of our nation and training people of ability and virtue for our country’s modernization drive, thereby winning honor for our country and rendering meritorious service to our people.
Q:这句话太长了像流水账,怎么翻译?
🎈首先分析句子间的逻辑关系。根据韩刚老师的「三步走」:第一步给出理念、指导方针或原则。第二步具体阐述在这种方针下要做什么,也就是措施。第三步给出结果或要实现的目标。这句话可以用「三步走」拆分法。「弘扬文化,培养人才」是措施,「为国争光,为民立功」是结果。措施和结果之间用thereby/therefore +doing表示结果。这种句子就像数学公式,掌握以后灵活套用即可,常出现于政府工作报告中。
 

在这五个第一流中,第一流的图书馆更显得特别突出。北大图书馆是全国大学图书馆的翘楚。这是世人之公言,非我一个之私言。我们为此应该感到骄傲,感到幸福。
Our library, in particular, is playing an important role. We are proud and happy that it has been generally acknowledged as the best university library in the country.
🎈「是世人之公言,非我一个之私言」所说的「言」指「北大图书馆是全国大学图书馆的翘楚」。译文调整语序,先交代「情绪」,再交代「事实」,体现了英文先评论后事实的特点。
 

但是,我们全校师生员工却不能躺在这个骄傲、这个幸福上睡大觉。
Nevertheless, we teachers, students and all employees should not be satisfied with the success we have already won.
🎈we 与teachers, students and all employees互为同位语。
🎈「躺在这个骄傲、这个幸福上睡大觉」采取了意译法,按「我们全校师生不能满足于现状/不能对已取得的成绩沾沾自喜」之意译作be satisfied with the success we have already won。
 

我们必须努力学习,努力工作,像爱护自己的眼球一样,爱护北大,爱护北大的一草一木、一山一石,爱护我们的图书馆。
We should study and work hard and cherish, as we do our eyes, our university and everything in it, including its library.
🎈as we do our eyes作方式状语。
🎈赏析「爱护北大,爱护北大的一草一木、一山一石,爱护我们的图书馆」的译文。翻译时,我们很容易被原文牵着鼻子走,一板一眼地照原文翻译。但细想,「一草一木、一闪一石」不就是在说整个北大吗?北大图书馆自然也只是北大的一部分,故译文未处理成并列成分,而是用including一词进行连接。
 

我们图书馆的藏书盈架充栋,我们全体北大人必须十分珍惜爱护。这样,我们的图书馆才能有长久的生命,我们的骄傲与幸福才有坚实的基础。
We should treasure its rich collection and take good care of each and every copy of the books therein, so that it can long survive intact and forever remain as something for us to be proud of and happy about. 
🎈上句「爱护」译作cherish,此处「珍惜爱护」译作treasure and take good care of,体现了表达多样性。
🎈survive intact表示「完好无恙/毫发无损」
例句
I would argue that “The Warlock’s Hairy Heart” has survived intact through the centuries because it speaks to the dark depths in all of us.
我认为,《男巫的毛心脏》之所以历经几个世纪还完好如初,是因为它道出了我们每个人最阴暗的内心世界。

 
愿与全校同仁共勉之。
Let us encourage each other in our common endeavors.
🎈祈使句的作用是要求、请求或命令、劝告、叮嘱、建议别人做或不做一件事。祈使句的句末一般用感叹号,但是有些祈使句的语气较弱,可以用句号结尾。
 
🔥必背词汇
intact       adj.完整无缺的,未受损伤的
英义
Something that is intact is complete and has not been damaged or changed.
例句
Most of the cargo was left intact after the explosion.
大部分货物在爆炸发生后都完好无损。
 
livelihood       n.营生,生计
英义
Your livelihood is the job or other source of income that gives you the money to buy the things you need.
例句
As a result of this conflict he lost both his home and his means of livelihood.
这场冲突使他同时失去了住所和生计来源。
 
overwhelm      v.情感、事件等使不知所措,使难以承受
英义
If you are overwhelmed by a feeling or event, it affects you very strongly, and you do not know how to deal with it.
例句
He was overwhelmed by a longing for times past.
他一心渴望回到从前。
 
allot     v.分配,分派,划拨
英义
If something is allotted to someone, it is given to them as their share.
例句
The seats are allotted to the candidates who have won the most votes.
席位被分配给了赢得选票最多的候选人。
 
🔥重点表达
对A抱有B感情 cherish a B affection for A
没有意识到 without one’s knowledge 
毫不犹豫 without any hesitation 
事情非常多,有许多事要做 too many irons in the fire
我几乎抽不出时间 I could hardly have time to spare
……的根源由来已久  sth has an origin of long standing
既兴奋,又寂寞 mixed feeling of both elation and loneliness
安身立命 settle down to a tranquil life and get on with one’s work
扰攘十几年 spend more than a decade
奔波数万里 rush about from place to place
梦想…..却渺不可得 with the vain dream of
真正要害 what really mattered/counted
供随时查用 for easy reference
坐拥书城 sit among a roomful of books
与……有关 have a bearing on sth
与……无关 have no bearing on sth
国计民生 national economy and the people’s livelihood
不足为外人道也/无法描述 beyond description 
一有机会 at the first/earliest opportunity 或as soon as possible
如车辙中的鲋鱼 like a fish stranded in a dry rut
最高学府 the highest institute of learning
实事求是 seek truth from facts
满足条件/要求 meet the requirement 
弘扬祖国的优秀文化 carry forward the splendid cultural heritage of our nation 
现代化建设 modernization drive
 
🔥复盘测试
对A抱有B感情
没有意识到
毫不犹豫
事情非常多,有许多事要做
我几乎抽不出时间
……的根源由来已久
既兴奋,又寂寞
安身立命
扰攘十几年
奔波数万里
梦想…..却渺不可得
真正要害
供随时查用
坐拥书城
与……有关 
与……无关 
国计民生
不足为外人道也/无法描述 
一有机会
如车辙中的鲋鱼
最高学府
实事求是
满足条件/要求
弘扬祖国的优秀文化
现代化建设
 
🔥表达对比
「我认为」有几种表达?
但是,(我认为),一个第一流的大学,必须有第一流的设备、第一流的图书、第一流的教师、第一流的学者和第一流的管理。五个第一流,缺一不可。
However, in my opinion, a first-rate university should have facilities, library, teaching staff, scholars and administration of the best quality.
 
但是对广大的《红楼梦》的读者呢?(我看)是没有用处。
But, to my mind, it is of little use to readers of A Dream of Red Mansions at large. 
 
(我认为)今天日本不认罪也就是思想上还没放下屠刀,东条还在阴魂不散,谁敢担保在下个世纪他不会借尸还魂!
I think Japan’s refusal to admit its crimes is due to its failure to be mentally prepared to drop the butcher’s knife. So long as the ghost of Tojo lingers on, none can assure you that militarism will never revive in a new guise in the next century.
 
(在我看来),我认为世界上少了一个普普通通的没有工作热情的医生,实在是不值一提的小事。
In me, I think the world lost a mediocre doctor who’s heart would not be in healing – so it was no great loss.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 季羡林《我和北大图书馆》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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