The Shanghai Food Market季羡林Ji Xianlin🔥背景知识：《上海菜市场》是季羡林先生写于1963年9月的一篇随笔。作者60 年代从北京南下走访上海，当地丰富多彩的菜市场曾使他惊叹不已。所作描述淋漓酣畅，富于艺术想象。上海尽有看不够数不清的高楼大厦，跑不完走不尽的大街小巷，满目琳琅的玻璃橱窗，车水马龙的繁华闹市; Shanghai has countless eye-catching skyscrapers and innumerable streets and lanes, with beautiful shop windows and busy market quarters. 🎈「看不够数不清的高楼大厦」可按「无数引人注目的高楼大厦」译为countless eye-catching skyscrapers。也可译为 numerous spectacular high-rises。🎈「繁华闹市」译作busy market quarters。其中，quarter表示「区、地区」但是，我们的许多外国朋友却偏要去看一看早晨的菜市场。Nevertheless, many foreign friends of mine would rather pay a morning visit to the food markets there.🎈pay a visit to….是固定搭配「参观某地」，这里的morning放在中间比用介词短语作时间状语更加简洁，值得借鉴。这是完全可以理解的。我们刚到上海的时候不是也想到菜市上去看一看吗?That is understandable. Didn’t we ourselves choose to go and see a food market there on our first visit to the city?🎈we ourselves：ourselves强调「我们自己」那还是几年前的一个早晨，在太阳刚刚升起来的时候，踏着熹微的晨光，到一个离开旅馆不远的菜市场去。It was on an early morning of several years ago, when the sun was just coming up, that I went at the first light to see a food market near the hotel where I was staying.🎈整句的结构是强调句：It was 时间状语 that…。其中，when the sun was just coming up是定语从句，先行词是morning。 🎈「踏着熹微的晨光」可译为I went at the first light或I went at dawn （daybreak）到了邻近菜市场的地方，市场的气氛就逐渐浓了起来。The nearer I went, the more prevalent the atmosphere of the food market.🎈此句按「越到临近菜市场的地方，市场的气氛就越浓」理解，处理为the more…，the more…结构。熙熙攘攘的人群，摩肩擦背，来来往往。The surrounding streets were thronged with shoppers milling around.🎈be thronged with…挤满了。其中throng作动词，其本身也可作名词，表示「一大群人、人群」例句An official pushed through the throng.一名官员费力地挤过人群。🎈mill around/about (一群人)乱兜圈子，乱转例句The Royal Palace shut briefly but four days later it was business as usual, with Norwegians and tourists milling around the forecourt.皇宫建筑短暂关闭，但四天后就恢复营业，前院里尽是挪威人和游客在打转。许多老大娘的菜篮子里装满了蔬菜海味鸡鸭鱼肉。The shopping baskets carried by many elderly women were filled with vegetables, seafood, chickens, ducks, fish and meat.🎈carried by many elderly women作baskets的后置定语。有的篮子里活鱼在摇摆着尾巴，肥鸡在咯咯地叫着。Some fish were wagging their tails and some hens clucking.🎈摇尾巴 wag tails🎈and some hens clucking同and some hens were clucking，此处涉及并列句的省略现象。老大娘带着一脸笑意，满怀愉快，走回家去。The elderly women, with a happy smile spread across their faces, were on their way home.🎈「脸带笑意」也可用wear a smile表达。一走进菜市场，仿佛走进了另一个世界。Once inside the market, I felt like landing in a new world.🎈once作为主从连词，引入一个时间从句，相当于中文的「一…就…」🎈land in…步入…。此处也可用entering、being in等。这里面五光十色，令人眼花缭乱。The rich assortment of hues and colors were dazzling.🎈「五光十色」可译为 the rich assortment of hues and colors 或 the mixture of various colors。🎈乱花渐欲迷人眼A riot of blooms begin to dazzle the eyes但是，仔细一看，所有的东西却又都摆得整整齐齐，有条不紊。菜摊子、肉摊子、鱼虾摊子、水果摊子，还有其他的许许多多的摊子，分门别类，秩序井然，又各有特点，互相辉映。All goods were kept neat and tidy and arranged in perfect order be they at a vegetable stall, meat stall, seafood stall, fruit stall, etc. And each stall, being specialized, showed a characteristic of its own.Q：译文中be they怎么理解？🎈这是一种因省略而倒装的句式：省略了Whether 之后的让步状语从句。Whether让步状语从句的这种倒装，原则上是系表结构，无论原来何种时态，一旦省略形成倒装，系动词用原形be。还原完整为：whether they are at a vegetable stall…。意思是不管是菜摊子还是肉摊子，都摆得整整齐齐，有条不紊。你就看那蔬菜摊子吧。这里有各种不同的颜色：紫色的茄子、白色的萝卜、红色的西红柿、绿色的小白菜，纷然杂陈，交光互影。Take for example the vegetable stall with its display of colors: purple eggplants, white radishes, red tomatoes, greenish cabbages. 🎈Take for example…以…为例例句Take for example public colleges and universities.以公立学院和大学为例。🎈「纷然杂陈，交光互影」是对摊子上蔬菜摆放的描述，此处参考译文省略不译。这里又有各种不同的线条：大冬瓜又圆又粗，豆荚又细又长，白菜的叶子又扁又宽。It also displayed various shapes: round clumsy wax gourds, long narrow bean pods, flat wide cabbage leaves.🎈displayed various shapes和上句（有各种不同的颜色）display of colors对应。两个形容词修饰同一名词，不加and的情况非常常见。多个形容词修饰同一名词时，排序如下①限定词（a/an, the, this, his, one, first, etc.）②表示特征或性质等描述性形容词（good, pretty, etc.）③表示大小、长短、高低的形容词④表示形状的形容词（round, elliptical, square, etc.）⑤表示年龄、新旧的形容词（old, young, new, etc.）⑥表示颜色的形容词⑦表示国籍、地区、出处的形容词（American, southern, Italian, etc.）⑧表示物质材料的形容词（wooden, rocky, tin, etc.）⑨表示用途、类别的形容词（medical, writing, etc.）就这样，不同的颜色、不同的线条，紧密地摆在一起，于纷杂中见统一。Hence, different colors and lines merged into an organic whole showing diversity in unity.hence的用法①hence后面可以直接放上一个名词成分，形成一个没有谓语动词的特殊句型，表示「因为前面说过的缘故，所以有了…」例句Hence my surprise. 所以我感到惊讶。Hence my letter. 所以我就写这封信。Hence the fact that… 因此…②hence也可以作为一个普通的副词（因此、由此）放在正常的句子中起作用。例句These cars have become cheaper, and hence affordable to more people.这些汽车变得更为便宜，因而为更多的人所买得起。③ hence还有「从现在算起」的副词意义。例句The property must be vacated 12 days hence. 该不动产应该自现在起12天内腾出。🎈于纷杂中见统一showing diversity in unity求同存异seek common points while reserving difference我的眼一花，我觉得，眼前不是什么菜摊子，而是一幅出自名家手笔的彩色绚丽、线条鲜明的油画或水彩画。I looked here and there until my eyes became blurred, taking the vegetable stall for an oil painting or a watercolor with distinct colors and lines done by a famous painter.🎈 looked here and there是增译成分，在逻辑上和「眼花」有较好衔接。🎈taking the vegetable stall for an oil painting or a watercolor…可理解为伴随状语或结果状语。其中take…for…译为「把……（误）认为是…」例句Even the experts took the painting for a genuine Van Gogh.连行家都误以为这幅画是凡 · 高的真迹。不只菜摊子是这样，其他的摊子也莫不如此。The same was true of other stalls.🎈the same is true of sth.是固定搭配，表示「某物也是如此」卖鱼的摊子上，活鱼在水里游泳，十几斤重的大鲤鱼躺在案板上。At fish stalls, live fish were swimming in the water and big carps weighing more than five kilos each were lying on chopping boards.🎈「十几斤重的」译为more than five kilos。「斤」通常译为catty，现改 用kilo（公斤）表达，以便与国际重量单位接轨。卖鸡鸭的摊子上，鸡鸭在笼子里互相召唤。At poultry stalls, caged chickens and ducks were making a lot of noise to greet each other. 🎈「鸡鸭互相召唤」就是鸡叫就着鸭叫，声音不断，现译为making a lot of noise to greet each other，其中noise多指「吵闹、噪音」卖肉的摊子上，整片的猪肉、牛肉和羊肉挂在那里。At meat stalls, chunky pieces of pork, beef and mutton were hung up.🎈hung up表示「悬挂」例句Small blue placards featuring new addresses have been hung up on every building around the country.全国所有建筑物上都悬挂着标有新地图的蓝色小型图示。🎈猪肉、牛肉和羊肉（pork, beef and mutton）有专门对应的单词，不要笼统译成meat。还为穆斯林设了卖牛、羊肉的专柜。There were also special counters selling beef and mutton to Moslems.🎈专柜special counters专栏 special column🎈穆斯林：在中国有回、维吾尔、哈萨克、乌孜别克、柯尔克孜、塔吉克、塔塔尔、东乡、撒拉、保安等10个少数民族相当一部分群众信仰伊斯兰教。在我国，信仰伊斯兰教的人统称「中国穆斯林」🎈There be+名词/名词词组+doing something中的现在分词doing所表示的动作和前面的人或物存在主谓关系，doing是现在分词作后置定语，翻译为「某人/某物（正在）做某事」在其他的摊子上，鸡蛋和鸭蛋堆得像小山，一个个闪着耀眼的白光。咸肉和成排挂在架子上，肥得仿佛就要滴下油来。At some stalls, chicken and duck eggs of a glistening white were piled high up like small hills while rows of bacon and salted duck, seemingly dripping with fat, were hung out on racks.🎈「肥得仿佛就要滴下油来」译为seemingly dripping with fat,其中 seemingly作「仿佛」「貌似」等解。🎈piled （high） up表示高高堆起、堆成小山。郭沫若《墓》堆了一座沙丘 pile up a small sand-hill水果摊子更是琳琅满目。The fruit stalls were even more attractive. 🎈琳琅满目：表示美好的事物很多，多得满眼都是。此处按「更夺人眼、引人注意」之意译作were even more attractive。肥大的水蜜桃、大个儿西瓜、又黄又圆的香瓜、白嫩的鲜藕，摆在一起，竞妍斗艳。Arrayed side by side were juicy honey peaches, plump watermelons, yellow round muskmelons, fresh tender lotus roots, vying with each other to be the most beautiful.🎈「竞妍斗艳」译为 vying with each other to be the most beautiful。此语 也可译为 vying with each other for eminence （或 distinction 等），其中 eminence 和distinction作「出众」「卓越地位」等解。我眼前仿佛看到葳蕤的果子园、十里荷香的池塘、翠叶离离的瓜地。It seemed as if I saw unfolding before me luxuriant orchards, fragrant lotus ponds, leafy green melon patches. 🎈before me位置灵活，可放在如参考译文所示的位置，也可以放在句末。难道这不是一幅美妙无比的图画吗?Wasn’t it a painting of matchless beauty?🎈「美妙无比的」按「美+无比」之意译作of matchless beauty。说是图画，这只是一时的幻象。It was, however, more of a transient illusion than a painting.🎈more of A than B 与其说是B，倒不如说是A。说真的，任何图画也比不上这一些摊子。To tell the truth, no painting could ever compare with these stalls.🎈To tell the truth是独立不定式。所谓独立不定式短语，就是用以修饰句中整个主句，而不修饰句中的主语或动词。这种不定式短语使用时通常置于句首，之后加逗号，再接主句。现将常见的此类不定式短语汇总如下：to be honest——老实说to tell (you) the truth——（跟你）说实话to be frank (with you)=frankly speaking——坦白（跟你）说to make matters worse——更糟的是to begin with——首先to put it simply——简言之to put it differently=in other words——换言之to sum up——总而言之，总的来说Q:用compare with还是compare to？🎈Compare to可以广义地定义为「估计事物之间的相似性或者是差异」例句Individual schools compared their facilities with those of others in the area.私立学校将其设施与该地区其他学校的设施进行比较。It is difficult to compare our results to studies conducted in the United States.很难将我们的研究成果与在美国进行的研究成果相比较。在这种意义上，使用哪个介词都可以。然而，当compare被用来表示一件事物与另一件事相似，或者在两件不同事情之间进行类比时，必须使用to。图画里面的东西是死的、不能动的。这里的东西却随时在流动。Things in a painting were fixed and immovable while goods at a stall were always on the move.🎈「死的」即「固定的」，现译作fixed。🎈on the move（经常）变换地点、在行进中，在移动中例句The firm is on the move to larger offices.公司正在迁往更大的办公楼。原来摆在架子上的东西，一转眼已经到了老大娘的菜篮子里。Things on the display shelf would, before we knew it, soon find their way to the elderly women’s shopping baskets.🎈 find one’s way to 是一个十分地道的表达，表示「…..到哪儿去」，《新概念英语3》第15课有句话是：very few of the fifty pence pieces and pound coins I have gained him found their way there.原文的their指的是「存钱罐」，整句话的意思就是：我给了他不少50便士的硬币，但他很少存到存钱罐里。她们站在摊子前面，眯细了眼睛，左挑右拣，直到选中了自己想买的东西为止。Standing before a stall, the elderly women would narrow their eyes and pick and choose until they decided on what they wanted to buy.🎈Standing before a stall：现在分词短语作伴随状语。🎈「挑拣，精挑细选」pick and choose是固定搭配例句You have to take any job you can get — you can’t pick and choose.你只能有什么工作就干什么，没得挑三拣四了。至于价钱，她们是不发愁的，因为东西都不贵。They never worried about the purse because all food was selling at reasonable prices.🎈「至于价钱，她们是不发愁的，因为东西都不贵」中的「价钱」未译为prices，是为了避免句中词的重复，现改用the purse（钱包），作钱、钞 票解。又，reasonable prices是常用语，作售价公道、不贵解。结果是皆大欢喜，在一片闹闹嚷嚷的声中，大家都买到了中意的东西。她们原来的空篮子不久就满了起来。Shopping was done in the hubbub of the market to the satisfaction of all. Everybody got what they needed, their shopping baskets filled to the brim.🎈皆大欢喜（所有人都满意）to the satisfaction of all🎈hubbub表示「人群的喧嚷，吵闹声」，常用来形容闹市等。🎈their shopping baskets filled to the brim是独立主格结构。其中，filled to the brim表示「满满当当，快要溢出来」当她们转回家去的时候，她们手中的篮子也像是一幅美丽的图画了。While the elderly women were on their way home, the shopping baskets they carried in their hands also looked like beautiful paintings.🎈the shopping baskets they carried in their hands同the shopping baskets that they carried in their hands，是省略that的定语从句。我们的外国朋友是住在旅馆里的，什么东西都不缺少。Our foreign friends, putting up at hotels, were provided with everything they needed.🎈put up有多重含义，现进行拓展：① 举起，抬起，提高Put up your hands if you have any questions.如果有问题请举手。We put up an umbrella to keep the water off when it rains.下雨时我们撑开伞来遮挡雨水。They have put up the rent by ＄200 a month.他们把每月的租金提高了200美元。② 公布，张贴(布告、相片等) 同义词：displayPosters were put up around our school, calling upon us to join in the actions for a greener earth.校园中到处张贴着海报，号召我们加入到让地球更环保的行动中来。③ 建造(房屋等)，搭建They have put up a lot of high-rise buildings recently.最近他们盖起了很多高楼大厦。④ 留宿，住宿I was hoping Kenny could put me up for a few days我希望肯尼能让我留宿几天。⑤ put up with 忍受，容忍 同义词：tolerate bearI can’t put up with their smoking any longer. 我再也无法忍受他们抽烟了。🎈「什么东西都不缺少」译作were provided with everything they needed，采用了「正说反译」的翻译手法。但是他们看到这些美丽诱人的东西，一方面啧啧称赞，一方面又跃跃欲试，也都想买点什么。But, when they saw the captivating food market, they clicked their tongue in admiration and were eager to do a bit of shopping there by themselves.🎈「美丽诱人的」有多种表达，比如captivating、attractive、appealing、tempting等。🎈clicked their tongue表示咂嘴、啧啧等。例句He was unconsciously wagging his whiskered head in pity and clicking his tongue against his teeth when Scarlett caught his eye.他正无意识地摇头慨叹，啧啧不己时，忽然发现思嘉在盯着他。🎈wag one’s tougue喋喋不休I know that his tongue wags.我知道他一说话就喋喋不休。有人买了几个大香瓜，有人买了几斤西红柿，还有人买了一些豆腐干。Some of them bought a couple of big muskmelons, some bought several kilos of tomatoes, some bought some dried bean curds.🎈「几个大香瓜」译为a couple of muskmelons，其中短语a couple of作 几个、三两个解。🎈不用 and 的并列（包括非谓语动词的并列），属于不完整列举，还有想表达的内容被略去，意犹未尽，是典型的文学语言。这样就会使本来已经很丰富的餐桌更加丰富多彩。我们的外国朋友也皆大欢喜了。To the satisfaction of all, the new acquisitions added to the richness and variety of their already abundant table.🎈此外，将「这样（又买了些）」译为new acquisitions（新获得的事物），此用法在《虎》中也有体现，译者将「后来父亲房内多了一张虎皮椅垫」译为From then on, my father had a new acquisition in his room—namely, the tiger-skin chair cushion,中a new acquisition较something new确切，前者能更加确切地表达「新增添的东西」🎈add to…是固定表达，指「增加、增添…」🔥必背词汇eye-catching adj.抢眼的，引人注目的英义Something that is eye-catching is very noticeable.例句a series of eye-catching ads一系列抢眼的广告innumerable adj.无数的，数不清的英义Innumerable means very many, or too many to be counted.例句He has invented innumerable excuses, told endless lies.他编造了数不清的借口和谎话。mill v.(一群人)乱兜圈子，乱转英义When a crowd of people mill around or mill about, they move around within a particular place or area, so that the movement of the whole crowd looks very confused.例句Quite a few people were milling about, but nothing was happening.有不少人在附近转来转去，可是什么事情也没有发生。throng v.挤满，群集英义If people throng a place, they are present there in great numbers.例句They throng the beaches between late June and early August.6 月底到 8 月初，他们群聚在海滩上。wag v.摇动，摇摆(尾巴)英义When a dog wags its tail, it repeatedly waves its tail from side to side.例句The dog was biting, growling and wagging its tail.这条狗撕咬着，咆哮着，摇晃着尾巴。🔥重点表达大街小巷 streets and lanes琳琅满目的玻璃橱窗 beautiful shop windows车水马龙的繁华闹市 busy market quarters五光十色 The rich assortment of hues and colors 整整齐齐 keep neat and tidy有条不紊 arrange in perfect order彩色绚丽、线条鲜明 with distinct colors and lines卖鸡鸭的摊子上 At poultry stalls整片的猪肉 chunky pieces of pork堆得像小山 piled high up like small hills肥大的水蜜桃 juicy honey peaches大个儿西瓜 plump watermelons又黄又圆的香瓜 yellow round muskmelons白嫩的鲜藕 fresh tender lotus roots竞妍斗艳 vie with each other to be the most beautiful住旅馆 put up at hotels啧啧称赞 click their tongue in admiration豆腐干 dried bean curds🔥复盘测试大街小巷琳琅满目的玻璃橱窗车水马龙的繁华闹市五光十色整整齐齐有条不紊彩色绚丽、线条鲜明卖鸡鸭的摊子上整片的猪肉堆得像小山肥大的水蜜桃大个儿西瓜又黄又圆的香瓜白嫩的鲜藕竞妍斗艳住旅馆啧啧称赞豆腐干🔥表达对比「住在、居住」有几种表达？我们的外国朋友是（住在）旅馆里的，什么东西都不缺少。Our foreign friends, putting up at hotels, were provided with everything they needed.在人类居住在地球上之前，鲸鱼已经（居住）在海里了。Before humans lived on the earth, whales already lived in the sea.他们为这片森林及（居住）于其中的印第安人的命运而担心。They are concerned for the fate of the forest and the Indians who dwell in it…所有单身的全日制学生都必须（住）大学宿舍。All single full-time students must reside in university residence halls.山谷里（居住）着达尼部落。The valley is inhabited by the Dani tribe.