季羡林《容忍》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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容忍

Patience
季羡林
Ji Xianlin
 
🔥背景知识:《容忍》是季羡林先生写于1966年的一篇随笔。
 
人处在家庭和社会中,有时候恐怕需要讲点容忍。
In home and social life one probably needs to be a little bit patient now and then.
🎈patient的名词形式为patient
🎈有时,偶尔now and then
 

唐朝有一个姓张的大官,家庭和睦,美名远扬,一直传到了皇帝耳中。
During the Tang Dynasty, a high official surnamed Zhang was known far and wide for his harmonious home life.
🎈「唐朝有一个姓张的大官」译作a high official surnamed Zhang。这里用surnamed作后置定语修饰前面的名词,比用定语从句更加简洁。讲到人物介绍,在《二级笔译实务配套训练》中有一篇关于朱自清的介绍:朱自清,字佩弦,浙江绍兴人。译文是:Zhu Ziqing, courtesy name Peixian, is a native of Shaoxing county, Zhejiang province.
🎈surname=family name=last name 姓
🎈到处、各处、广泛地far and wide
例句
They searched far and wide for the missing child.
他们四处搜寻失踪的小孩。
 

皇帝赞美他治家有道,问他道在何处,他一气写了一百个“忍”字。
When the emperor gave him praise and asked him how he had been running the family to achieve harmony, he wrote down without a break one hundred characters meaning “patience”.
🎈「问他道在何处」可按「问他如何治家求和睦」译为and asked him how he had been running the family to achieve harmony。
🎈「他一气写了一百个’忍,字」译为he wrote down without a break one hundred characters meaning “patience”,其中「一气」(即一口气)可译为 without a break 或 in one breath等。
 

这说得非常清楚:家庭中要互相容忍,才能和睦。这个故事非常有名。
Evidently, the message he tried to bring home to the emperor was that family members must be accommodating to each other for the sake of harmony. That’s a famous story.
🎈「这说得非常清楚:家庭中要互相容忍,才能和睦」译为Evidently, the message he tried to bring home to the emperor was that family members must be accommodating to each other for the sake of harmony, 其中 to bring home to …是成语,作「使……深切体会」解。for the sake of 有「为了…..」的意思。
 

在旧社会,中国姓张的全以祖先的容忍为荣了。
Consequently, people surnamed Zhang in the old days all felt greatly honored that one of their ancestors had been known for exercising patience.
🎈从前、过去的时候、古时候in the old days
例句
In the old days princes were cold and bored. But Edward is different.
以前的王子都态度冷漠而厌烦。但爱德华不同。
🎈felt greatly honored that…因…感到光荣/以……为荣
例句
Some of my friends almost feel honored that people wanna to try and cheat to get into this school.
我的一些校友因为那些人宁可作弊也要上这所学校几乎感到光荣了。

 
但是容忍也并不容易。
However, it is easier said than done to be tolerant towards others.
🎈这里面套用了俗语It is easier said than done使译文更地道。
🎈exercise意为「运用、行使」,exercising patience就表示「遇事常容忍」

 
1935年,我乘西伯利亚铁路的火车经苏联赴德国,车过中苏边界上的满洲里,停车四小时,由苏联海关检查行李。
In 1935, I traveled to Germany via the Soviet Union over the Siberian railway. At the Sino-Soviet border in Manzhouli, the train stopped for a 4-hour-inspection by the Soviet customs.
🎈中苏边界the Sino-Soviet border
法德友谊Franco-German friendship。Franco-前缀](与表示国籍的形容词连用,构成形容词)表示「法国与…国的」。同理的还有, Sino-Japanese trade and investment(中日贸易和投资)、Sino-British Joint Declaration(中英联合宣言)
🎈苏联海关the Soviet customs
中国海关Chinese customs
 

这是无可厚非的,入国必须检查,这是世界公例。
That was all right because entry inspection was an international practice.
🎈「这是无可厚非的」意为「没有什么不对」,可译为That was all right 或 That was beyond reproach等。
🎈practice熟词僻义,此处作名词,指「惯例、常规」,如It is normal practice to…(…使惯常的做法)

 
但是,当时的苏联大概认为,我们这一帮人,从一个资本主义国家到另一个资本主义国家,恐怕没有好人,必须严查,以防万一。
But the then Soviet Union subjected me to a closer-than-usual customs inspection probably on the assumption that I, like all those traveling from one capitalist country to another, must be a dubious character.
🎈使经受,使遭受 be subject sb to sth
例句
The city was subjected to heavy bombing.
那座城市遭受猛烈轰炸。
🎈a closer-than-usual customs inspection表示「比寻常更为严格的海关检查」
🎈on the assumption that I, like all those traveling from one capitalist country to another, must be a dubious character可理解为「基于/因为……的猜想,所以……」

 
检查其他行李,我决无意见。但是,在哈尔滨买的一把最粗糙的铁皮壶,却成了被检查的首要对象。
I had no objection to the check-up of my belongings except when a crudely-made tinplate kettle that I had bought at Harbin became something very fishy to them.
🎈对……无异议,不反对…… I had no objection to…。此句可理解为「除了(except)铁皮壶(没什么好查的)我不反对检查行李」
🎈「一把最粗糙的铁皮壶」译为a crudely-made tinplate kettle,其中「铁皮」即「马口铁」,译为tinplate。
🎈「…却成了被查的首要对象」可译为…was looked upon with suspicion 或 became something very fishy to them等。
 

这里敲敲,那里敲敲,薄薄的一层铁皮决藏不下一颗炸弹的,然而他们却敲打不止。
The kettle was certainly too flimsy for holding a hidden bomb, but they barked up the wrong tree and kept clanking it repeatedly here and there.
🎈「薄薄的一层铁皮决藏不了一颗炸弹的,然而他们却敲打不止」译为 The kettle was certainly too flimsy for holding a hidden bomb, but they barked up the wrong tree, and kept clanking it repeatedly here and there, 其中 they barked up the wrong tree(成语,作捕风捉影解)是译文中的添加词,原文虽无其词而有其意。又,「敲打不止」译为and kept clanking it repeatedly here and there,其中clanking是拟声词,作「把…敲得叮当响」解。
🎈攻击错了目标bark up the wrong tree
例句
You’re barking up the wrong tree.
你们查错人了。
 

我真有点无法容忍,想要发火。我身旁有一位年老的老外,是与我们同车的,看到我的神态,在我耳旁悄悄地说了句:Patience is a great virtue(容忍是很大的美德)。
Driven beyond the limit of my patience, I was about to flare up when an elderly foreigner, who was my co-passenger, whispered to me, “Patience is a great virtue.” 
🎈「无法容忍」即「超出我的忍耐度」,现译为driven beyond the limit of my patience(越过了我忍耐的极限)
🎈我还没有那么大的本事it is far beyond my capacity to
不可能beyond the possible 
力不从心much as I want to, it is now beyond my power to
🎈(怒气、激烈情绪等)爆发flare up
例句
She flared up at the least thing.
她为了小事突然发怒。
🎈co前缀 (用于构成动词或名词)表示「和…一起」「共同」「联合」。co-passenger就表示「同车的人」
 

我对他微笑,表示致谢。我立即心平气和,天下太平。
That calmed me down, and I turned to him with a smile by way of expressing my thanks.
🎈「我对他微笑,表示致谢」译为I turned to him with a smile by way of expressing my thanks,其中 by way of 是成语,意同 for the purpose of。
 

看来容忍确是一件好事,甚至是一种美德。
Obviously, patience is a good thing or rather a great virtue.
🎈「看来容忍确是一件好事,甚至是一种美德」可按「看来容忍确是一件好事,或确切点说,是一种美德」,译为Obviously, patience is really a good thing, or rather a great virtue。其中,or rather表示「确切地说、说得更准确些」
 

但是,我认为,也必须有一个界限。
But I think there should be a demarcation line to be observed.
🎈「也必须有一个界限」可理解为「(凡事)都得把握/遵循好一个度」,现译为there should be a demarcation line to be observed。a demarcation line意为「分界线、分水岭」,to be observed是增译成分,原文虽无其词而有其意。
 

我们到了德国以后,就碰到这个问题。旧时欧洲流行决斗之风,谁污辱了谁,特别是谁的女情人,被污辱者一定要提出决斗,或用手枪,或用剑。
Fighting a duel was a common practice in old Germany. One who suffered an insult to himself or especially his girlfriend would challenge the offender to a fight in which they used pistols or swords.
🎈此句前半部分,「德国」和「旧时欧洲」合并翻译,译作 in old Germany。
🎈「谁污辱了谁,特别是谁的女情人,被污辱者一定要提出决斗……」读起来有些拗口,其实就是「谁被侮辱了,谁就会提出决斗」,现用one who…would…句型译出。
 

普希金就是在决斗中被枪打死的。
The great Russian poet A. S. Pushkin was one of those shot dead in a duel.
🎈「普希金就是在决斗中被枪打死的」译为The great Russian poet A. S. Pushkin was one of those shot dead in a duel,其中用了一些解释性的添加词,如:The great Russian poet 和 one of those。
🎈亚历山大·谢尔盖耶维奇·普希金(Александр Сергеевич Пушкин,1799年6月6日—1837年2月10日),俄国诗人、作家。代表作品有:《自由颂》《叶甫盖尼·奥涅金》《黑桃皇后》《假如生活欺骗了你》《上尉的女儿》等。其年轻时风流倜傥、才华横溢,与娜·尼·冈察洛娃相遇后一见钟情,坠入爱河。1831年2月18日,两人结婚。但后来,沙皇禁卫军军官、法国籍纨绔子弟丹特斯在一次舞会上偶然结识冈察洛娃,对她展开猛烈的追求。亚历山大·谢尔盖耶维奇·普希金对此十分气愤,与丹特斯决斗,也因此负伤而死。

 
我们到了的时候,此风已息,但仍发生。
At the time when I arrived in Germany together with some other Chinese students, the practice of dueling was still lingering on there though less prevalent.
🎈「此风已息,但仍发生」即「这派作风不再盛行,但也未消失」,译作was still lingering there though less prevalent。说明:there/here等词前不加介词,故将参考译文中的on删去。

 
我们几个中国留学生相约:如果外国人污辱了我们自身,我们要揣度形势,主要要容忍,以东方的恕道克制自己。但是,如果他们污辱我们的国家,则无论要同他们玩儿命,决不容忍。
We pledged that in case of ourselves being insulted we should weigh the pros and cons and give precedence to patience in line with the Oriental doctrine of magnanimity, but that in case of a humiliating insult directed against our dear country, we should wage a life-and-death struggle against the offender without showing any patience.
🎈「揣度形势」意即「权衡利弊」「见机行事」等,可译为we should weigh the pros and cons 或 we should follow our sober judgement等。又,the pros and cons指「事物的利与弊,支持与反对」
🎈如果、假使in case of sth 
例句
In case of fire, ring the alarm bell.
如遇火警,即按警铃。
🎈优先考虑 give precedence to sth
🎈in line with the Oriental doctrine of magnanimity修饰patience。又,与……一致、符合be in line with
例句
This was in line with Marxist teachings. But it was also politically helpful.
这同马克思主义的教义相符,但也在政治上有利。
 

这就是我们容忍的界限。
That is what I mean by drawing a demarcation line. 
🎈这就是我所说的……That is what I mean by….。译文中,what I mean by为增译成分,强调‘我’(在上文)提到的界限。
 

幸亏这样的事情没有发生,否则我就活不到今天在这里舞笔弄墨了。
Fortunately, nothing of the kind happened; otherwise, I might not have survived to write this article today.
🎈nothing of the kind表示没有这样的事情,something of the kind则相反。
🎈may/might have done表示「可能已经做过某事」,其否定形式may/might not have done表示「过去可能还没有做某事」
 

现在我们中国人的容忍水平,看了真让人气短。
It is disheartening nowadays to see so little patience shown by our compatriots.
🎈「真让人气短」理解成「真让人伤心/沮丧…」即可,译为disheartening。

 
在公共汽车上,挤挤碰碰是常见的现象。如果碰了或者踩了别人,连忙说一声:“对不起!”就能够化干戈为玉帛。
On a crowded bus, for instance, when you happen to bump into a co-passenger or step on his feet, an immediate word of apology from you will serve to prevent a dispute.
🎈「在公共汽车上,挤挤碰碰是常见的现象」概括处理为On a crowded bus,较为合理。假如选择全部译出,那么会产生歧义:在公交上一定会挤挤碰碰吗?显然不是,只有车上挤满乘客时才会这样,况且crowded(拥挤)一词本身就含有「挤碰推搡」的含义。
🎈「化干戈为玉帛」若直译,反而容易让人一头雾水,此处不如直接译出其指代的含义即「避免争执」
🎈serve to prevent a dispute:涉及《武峰十二天》中的「谓语动词过渡」:在汉语中,若出现强势动词,翻译为英语时不能直接找强势动词,而要找弱势动词对强势动词进行过渡。比如「我买了一辆车」译为I made a purchase of a car而不是I bought a car. 谓语动词过渡可当做一种处理方法,但过度使用则会与另一派翻译观点简明翻译相冲撞,造成译文累赘不堪。翻保证信息正确的前提下,翻译方法没有对错可言,但会对读者的阅读感受造成很大影响。大家要具体情况具体对待。
 

然而有不少人连“对不起”都不会说了,于是就相吵相骂,甚至于扭打,甚至打得头破血流。
But many even grudge saying, “Sorry!” Thereupon a quarrel or a fist-fight will follow until both parties are beaten black and blue.
🎈不情愿…、勉强…grudge (doing) sth
例句
I grudge having to pay so much tax.
得付这么多的税我很不情愿。
He grudges the time he spends travelling to work.
他不情愿上班花这么多时间在路上。
🎈「打得头破血流」就是我们常说的「身上/脸上挂彩」,译作are beaten black and blue。(beat sb) black and blue指「把某人打得)青一块紫一块,伤痕斑斑」
🎈fist-fight指「互殴、格斗」
 

我们这个伟大的民族怎么竟成了这个样子!我在自己心中暗暗祝愿:容忍兮,归来!
Oh, what has brought our great nation to such a pass? May PATIENCE come back to stay!
🎈 such a pass指「如此之境地」
🎈「我在自己心中暗暗」省译,突出主体信息「愿:容忍兮,归来!」即可,且这样处理更有气势。
 
🔥必背词汇
emperor        n.皇帝,君主
英义
An emperor is a man who rules an empire or is the head of state in an empire.
例句
the Emperor Napoleon
拿破仑皇帝
 
accommodate        v.迎合,迁就
英义
If you do something to accommodate someone, you do it with the main purpose of pleasing or satisfying them. 
例句
He has never put an arm around his wife to accommodate photographers.
他从未为了迎合摄影师而搂住妻子。
 
subject       v.使经受,使遭受
英义
If you subject someone to something unpleasant, you make them experience it.
例句
Innocent civilians are being arrested and subjected to inhumane treatment.
无辜的平民正被逮捕并遭受非人的虐待。
 
🔥重点表达
有时,偶尔now and then
某人美名远扬 sb is known far and wide
治家有道 run the family to achieve harmony
一气,一口气without a break 
使某人明白 bring home to
为了 for the sake of
这是无可厚非的 That is all right
世界公例,国际惯例 international practice
海关检查 customs inspection 
绝无意见  have no objection to
在A与B之间划界限  draw a demarcation line between A and B
揣度形式、权衡利弊weigh the pros and cons
优先考虑 give precedence to
恕道 doctrine of magnanimity
发动战争 wage a war against
与某人碰撞 bump into sb.
踩某人的脚 step on one’s feet
头破血流,青一块紫一块 black and blue
 
🔥复盘测试
有时,偶尔
某人美名远扬
治家有道
一气,一口气
使某人明白
为了
这是无可厚非的
世界公例,国际惯例
海关检查
绝无意见
在A与B之间划界限
揣度形式、权衡利弊
优先考虑
恕道
发动战争
与某人碰撞
踩某人的脚
头破血流,青一块紫一块
 
🔥表达对比
「惯例」有几种表达?
这是无可厚非的,入国必须检查,这是世界(公例)。 
That was all right because entry inspection was an international practice.
由欧洲人出任IMF总裁的(惯例)(它已成为颇具象征意义的一个传统),现在有了更重要的意义。 
The convention of putting a European in the job, which had become a largely symbolic tradition, has now assumed much greater importance.
按照(惯例),一吃完晚饭就马上到城里去,除了留在宿舍里执勤的人。 
It was the custom after dinner to go immediately to town, unless one was on duty in the dormitories.
大臣守在外面,这已经成为(惯例)了,他将第一时间证明并且承认这个作为冈多继承人的婴儿诞生。 
It was a tradition that the Chancellor would be up waiting so that he could witness and accept the child as heir for the people of Gondor.
这也许可以正式地看做是一次约会,或者你(日常惯例生活)的拓展。 
This might be officially seen as a date, or possibly an extension of your normal routine.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 季羡林《容忍》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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