《丁香花下 ——黄秋耘》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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丁香花下

——黄秋耘

Under a Lilac Bush 
——Huang Qiuyun
 
🔥背景知识:黄秋耘(1918-2001),原名黄超显,祖籍广东顺德,生于香港,著名散文家、文学评论家。1935-1937年在北平清华大学中文系学习期间, 热情参加了一二•九抗日救国运动,并加入中国共产党。1943年毕业于广州中山大学。1949年后历任《文艺报》编辑部副主任、广东省出版局副局长、中国作家协会理事、中国作协广东分会副主席等职。主要作品有:散文集《浮沉》、《丁香花下》、《往事并不如烟》;文学评论集《苔花集》;回忆录《风雨年华》等。所著《丁香花下》一文以讲故事的形式叙述了作者青年时候的一段难忘的经历,是一篇脍炙人口的抒情叙事散文,选自作者的散文集《丁香花下》。
 
今年的暮春和初夏,我是在北京度过的。
This year I was in Beijing from late spring to early summer.
🎈今年的暮春和初夏,我是在北京度过的可译为This year I was in Beijing from late spring to early summer,或This year I spent late spring and early summer in Beijing,或I was in Beijing during the late spring and early summer of this year。
 

除了刮风天和阴雨天,我吃过晚饭后就溜达到中山公园去,去紫丁香花丛中消磨掉整个黄昏。
Except on windy or rainy days, I would daily walk to Zhongshan Park after supper to idle away the evening hours amidst the purple lilacs.
🎈daily是增译成分,原文虽无其词而有其意。
🎈消磨(时光) idle away
例句
Residents were mowing their lawns, washing their cars and otherwise idling away a pleasant, sunny day.
居民们有的在刈草,有的在洗车,还有的在悠闲地享受阳光灿烂的怡人时光。
 

一个人安静地坐在公园的长椅子上,让那浓郁的花香弥漫在包围着我的气氛里,沉思着四十多年来像云烟一般的前尘往事。
Sitting quietly by myself on a park bench, with the sweet fragrance of lilacs permeating the air around me, I was absorbed in reviewing the transient events of the past 40 years or so.
🎈现在分词短语Sitting quietly by myself on a park bench和with复合结构with the sweet fragrance of lilacs permeating the air around me均表伴随。
🎈专心…、全神贯注于…be absorbed in
🎈「四十多年来像云烟一般的前尘往事」意即「四十多年来如过眼云烟的往事」或「四十多年来转瞬即逝的往事」,故译为transient (fleeting) events of the past 40 years or so。其中,or so表示「大约、左右」
 

对于一个性情孤僻而心境寂寞的老年人来说,这恐怕是最难得的享受了。
To a lonely and introvert old man like me, the moment of contemplation seemed a rare treat indeed.
🎈「性情孤僻」可译为introvert或unsociable。
🎈「最难得的享受」译作rare treat。rare表示「稀有、不常有、出现频率低」等。
 

一个熟悉而亲切的面孔突然出现在我的面前,他的年纪和我差不多,是一家有名的出版社的老编辑:
Suddenly, a familiar and amiable face appeared before me. He was about my age, and a senior editor with a well-known publishing house.
🎈amiable形容人和蔼、亲切等。
🎈大约是某人的年纪、和某人年纪差不多大be about one’s age
🎈有名的famous/renowned/well-known
 

“怎么,老王,又是在这儿碰到你,你好像对紫丁香花有点特殊的感情似的。”
“Hey, Lao Wang,” he addressed me. “Fancy meeting you here again! You seem to have a special liking for purple lilacs.”
🎈address不仅可以作名词表示「地址」,作动词表示「发表讲话」,还可以指「向…说话」,常见搭配为address sb或address one’s remark to sb.
🎈「又是在这儿碰到你」意即「真想不到又在这儿碰到你」,故译为Fancy meeting you here again!,其中Fancy作「想不到」解。
🎈对…有点特殊的感情have a special liking for
非常喜欢 have a great liking for……
liking和living、thinking在一些情况下是名词
 

“唔,也许,紫丁香花这种淡雅而又有点忧郁的情调适合我的气质。”
“Well, maybe. Their quiet elegance plus a slight touch of melancholy suits my disposition.”
🎈「淡雅」译作quiet elegance,其中quiet表示「素净的、朴素大方的」。「有点忧郁」译作a slight touch of melancholy,其中a slight touch of指「轻微的、些许的、略带」
 

“这恐怕不见得是惟一的原因吧!”他狡黠地眨着眼睛:
“That perhaps isn’t the only reason!” he added, giving a sly wink. 
🎈giving a sly wink作伴随状语。
 

“在你的一生中,说不定有一件不寻常的事情和紫丁香花有点什么关系。比方说,在年轻时候,你是不是认识过一个像紫丁香花一般忧郁的姑娘?”
“Something unusual in your past life may have to do with lilacs. For example, when you were young, didn’t you meet a girl as melancholy as a purple lilac?”
🎈与…有关have to do with
例句
Why? What does this have to do with Peter?
怎么了,这和彼得的死有关吗?
🎈as melancholy as a purple lilac作girl的后置定语。
 

像我这么一大把年纪,距离“灰飞烟灭”的日子已经不很远,似乎再也没有什么事情需要“保密”了。
Being an old man already with one foot in the grave, I felt I no longer had anything to hold back at all.
🎈「像我这么一大把年纪,距离‘灰飞烟灭’的日子已经不很远」不宜逐字直译,可按「我年老,行将就木」之意译为Being an old man already with one foot in the grave,其中with one foot in the grave或to have one foot in the grave是习语,作「离死不远」解。
🎈「似乎再也没有什么事情需要‘保密’了」译为I felt l no longer had anything to hold back at all,其中to hold back 是习语,作「隐瞒」解。此句也可译为 I felt I no longer had anything to keep secret at all。
 

而且,像这样美好而纯洁的回忆,多让一个朋友知道也未尝不是好事。
Besides, it might be a good idea to let in one more friend on my sweet and pure memories.
🎈「而且,像这样美好而纯洁的回忆,多让一个朋友知道也未尝不是好事」译为Besides, it might be a good idea to let in one more friend on my sweet and pure memories,其中one more指「再多一个」,短语动词to let in … on …作「让某人成为某事的知情人」解。
 

我们并肩坐在长椅子上。我稍微沉默了一会儿,就开了腔,那位老先生居然全神贯注地在倾听着。
So, as we sat side by side on the park bench, I started talking after a moment of silence. The old man listened attentively.
🎈 as we sat side by side on the park bench:as引导时间状语从句。
🎈并肩、并排 side by side
一个接一个地;陆续地;络绎不绝地one after another
一个接一个one by one
一步一步地step by step
一年一年地/每年/年复一年year by year
一天天/逐日day by day
携手go hand in hand with
肩并肩、齐心协力shoulder to shoulder
 

“说起来,这是四十四年前的事了。和我同时代的人也许还会记得,1936年3月31日,北平的大、中学生在沙滩北大三院开过一个追悼在狱中受刑病死的战友郭清的大会,
“It was 44 years ago. As people of about my age may still remember, on March 31, 1936, university and high school students in Peiping held a memorial meeting to mourn their comrade-in-arms Guo Qing, who had died of torture in prison.
🎈 It was 44 years ago :
it可表达以下概念:指代前文提到的事物,前文中的this, that;替代前文中的内容;指代一位性别不明的小孩或未知的人;指代未指明但谈话双方都知道的那件事;指代时间、天气、气候、距离等自然现象。
🎈As people of about my age…:of about my age是people的后置定语。
🎈举行追悼会(以纪念…)hold a memorial meeting (to mourn…)
🎈comrade-in-arms专指「共患难的同志,战友」
例句
Mr. Meridor’s father was a comrade-in-arms of the party’s founder.
梅里多先生的父亲是该党创始人的战友。
🎈看中文「在狱中受刑病死的战友郭清」:在狱中受刑病死的、战友均为郭清的前置定语,在翻译时,考虑到句式平衡,我们将“在狱中受刑病死的”处理为定语从句是一种可取的做法。
 

会后举行抬棺游行。
They then staged a protest march holding aloft the coffined martyr.
🎈「游行」译作a protest march,其中protest是增译成分,原文虽无其词而有其意。stage作动词时,可表示组织上演(戏剧、演出等)、组织(活动或仪式,如罢工)。
🎈holding aloft the coffined martyr作伴随状语。其中aloft是副词,表示「高处」修饰hold。
 

我和六七百个同学参加了这次游行。
I too joined about 700 fellow students in the march.
🎈和某人一起…join sb in (doing) sth
🎈too 在句中可以有多种位置:
1. 放在句末:
Many of them work over the weekends, too. 
他们中有很多人也在周末上班。
2. 放在主语后和动词前:
He, too, had a lot of paperwork to get through. 
他也有很多文书工作要处理。
3. 放在动词后和宾语前:
I noticed, too, the length of her fingers. 
我也注意到她的手指很长。
4. 放在主语前面:此时主语前面通常还有其他词。
Physically, too, the peoples of the world are incredibly mixed. 
再从体质上看,世界各地的人都是混血的。这一点令人难以置信。
 

我们的队伍从北池子走到南池子,就跟上千名反动军警碰上了,
On our way from Bei-chi-zi to Nan-chi-zi, we ran into thousands of reactionary soldiers and cops.
🎈run into sb遇上/撞上某人;run into sth陷入(困境)、遇上(难题)
🎈「军警」分「军」+「警」,故译为soldiers and cops。
 

他们挥舞着警棍、皮鞭和大刀片向游行队伍冲击;
They fell on us brandishing truncheons, leather-thonged whips and swords.
🎈fall on/upon sb/sth指「袭击;向 … 进攻;扑向;抓住」
例句
They fell on him with sticks.
他们用棍棒袭击他。
此外,fall on还可以表示(责任)落在 … 身上,由 … 负担
例句
The full cost of the wedding fell on us.
整个婚礼费用由我们负担了。
🎈leather-thonged是合成形容词,构词法为:名词+名词+ed,如honey-mouthed嘴甜的、甜言蜜语的。
 

而我们却赤手空拳,只能用几根竹竿招架着。
We fought barehanded, trying to ward off attacks with only a few bamboo poles.
🎈积累词汇:barehanded(赤手空拳、手无寸铁)
🎈ward off表示避开,躲开,防止(危险、疾病等)
 

经过一场剧烈的搏斗,我们终于被冲散了。
We were scattered after a violent struggle and more than 50 students were arrested on the spot. 
🎈「被冲散」译作scatter,用词非常准确。
🎈当场on the spot
例句
He answered the question on the spot.
他当场就回答了那个问题。
 

当场逮捕了五十多个同学之后,反动军警还穷追着我们,几乎是两三个撵一个。
In the hot chase that followed, there were two or three cops for each fleeing student.
🎈积累词汇搭配:上句的「剧烈的搏斗a violent struggle」、此处的穷追the hot chase
🎈「几乎是两三个撵一个」译作there were two or three cops for each fleeing student,for一词用得相当妙,比chasing要生动很多。
 

我在前面跑,两个警察在后面追,我后脑勺挨了一下警棍,鲜血渗出了便帽,滴在天蓝色的大褂儿上,前后都有斑斑点点的血迹。
As I ran like crazy with two cops chasing after me, my head was hit by a cop’s baton in the back, causing blood to ooze from my cap and drip all over my sky-blue gown.
🎈 run like crazy也可用短语on the run替代,意思是「奔跑中的」
🎈causing blood to ooze from…作结果状语。其中ooze常用于表示「流血」
🎈「流」的不同表达
手腕上的伤口还在<渗血>。
From the cut on his wrist the blood was still oozing.
小溪和沟渠<流水潺潺>。
The streams and ditches bubbled and chattered with rushing water.
地上<横流>着一大滩秽水。
The floor was wet with a pool of dirty water.
 

幸亏我在大学里是个运动员,终归跑得比他们快些,一眨眼就把他们落下了一百多米。
Fortunately, as a university athlete, I was able to outrun the pursuers and leave them behind in a twinkling by more than 100 meters.
🎈outrun:前缀out-常表示」超常、超过』等。如:使相形见绌,表现胜过…outshine、outperform等。
🎈瞬间、眨眼间in a twinkling
 

我蹿过几条七枝八叉的胡同,跑进北池子南口的一条小巷里,眼看着有一户人家虚掩着门,我推开门一闪身躲了进去,反手就关上了门。
After passing through a number of zigzagging lanes, I came to the southern end of Bei-chi-zi where I found a house with its gate left ajar, so, pushing it open, I slipped in sideways and pulled it to behind me.
🎈「我推开门一闪身躲了进去,反手就关上了门」译为so, pushing it open, I slipped in sideways and pulled it to behind me,其中slipped in sideways作「侧身溜进」解,又,pulled it to中的to是副词,作「关上」解。
 

当时我浑身都是污泥和血迹,脸上也是红一块花一块的,不像个人样。
I was then smeared all over with dirt and bloodstains and my face looked ghastly with lots of smudges.
🎈all over意即「全身」或「浑身」,作状语短语用。
 

院子里收拾得挺干净,静悄悄的,没有一个人影。过了半晌,门帘子一掀开,走出来一个很文静的姑娘,
The courtyard was clean and quiet without a single soul. It was quite a while before the door curtain was lifted and a gentle girl came out.
🎈几个关于soul的表达:
没有一个人影without a single soul
不见一个人影without a soul in sight
勉强维持生活to make both ends meet/to keep my own body and soul together
全心全意地 heart and soul
孤独的人a lonely soul 
乐天派 a jolly soul 
灵魂深处from the depth of my soul
 

小个子,大眼睛,年纪看来还比我小一两岁,大概是个高中学生吧。
She was of small stature and had big eyes. She looked my junior by one or two years and was most probably a senior middle school student.
🎈 of +great+抽象名词=very +adj
🎈looked my junior by one or two years也可写作looked junior to me by one or two years。

她看到我这个模样,吓了一跳,但还是很镇定地问我:‘您怎么啦?哪儿受的伤?’
She was taken aback by my wretched condition and asked me calmly, ‘What’s the matter? Why, is there anything wrong?’
🎈 吃惊 be taken aback
例句
But leaders here in South Korea were taken aback.
但是最近韩国领导人感到震惊.
 

“‘我是个学生,刚才去参加游行,被警察打伤了。他们要抓我。借您这儿躲一躲,行不行?假如您不同意。我马上就出去。’
“I’m a student. I was with a student demonstration just now, and got beaten up by cops. They’re hunting about for me. May I hide myself here? If you don’t agree, I go out right away.’
🎈was with a student demonstration指「参加学生游行(示威活动)」
🎈「他们要抓我」译作They’re hunting about for me。时态处理很到位,描写了「警察正在四处搜寻学生」的情景。
 

“‘您不能出去。这个样子出去,岂不是自投罗网!来!让我先给 您包扎一下。’
“‘No, you can’t. That would mean throwing yourself into a trap. Now, let me dress your wound first.’
🎈自投罗网throw oneself into a trap
🎈包扎伤口 dress wound
绷带,伤口敷料,创伤敷料wound dressing
 

接着,她把我领进屋里,拿出绷带和药棉,上了药,迅速地用熟练而轻快的手指给我包扎好伤口,用酒精擦干净我的脸孔。关切地问道:‘弄痛了您没有?不难受吗?’
Then she led me into the room. She took out sterilized cotton and ointment, and quickly bandaged my wound with her nimble fingers. Then she cleaned my face with alcohol and said with concern, ‘Does it hurt? Are you all right?’
🎈「拿出绷带和药棉」译作took out sterilized cotton and ointment。其中,「绷带」在这里并未译出,而是把意思融在了后面译文出现的动词bandaged里,这个单词本身便指「用绷带包扎」。至于ointment,应该是译者还原真实场景或根据卫生知识增译的成分。
 

“我整理整理衣服,站起来;‘不怎么痛啦!我可以走了。’
“I rose and tidied up my clothes, and said, ‘It doesn’t hurt any more. I should be going now.’
🎈「整理整理」译作tie up(系牢),符合「因包扎伤口导致衣服有些松散,需要整理一下」的情形。
 

“她拦住我:‘不行,您身上有血迹,警察会认出来的,得换上衣服,戴上呢帽!’
“She stopped me, saying, ‘No, you can’t. The police will recognize you. You have to change clothes and put on a felt hat!’
🎈recognize也可替换为spot。
🎈felt表示「毛毡,毡制品」
茅盾《白杨礼赞》
黄绿错综的一条大毡子 
a huge yellow-and-green felt blanket
 

她从衣柜里拿出一件蓝布大褂儿和一顶旧呢帽:‘是我大哥的,您穿戴上大概还合适,他个子和您差不多。’
She then took out from the wardrobe a blue long gown and an old felt hat and said, ‘They belong to my eldest brother and will fit you nicely because he’s about the same height as you?’
🎈adapt: 指人或物在原有情况下作某些改变以适应新的环境或不同的条件,强调改变的目的和重要性。
adjust: 与adapt含义很接近,但adjust所改变的幅度要小一些,侧重过程,主要用于调整角度、高度、光点等。
conform: 多指与某模式或规则相符,也引申指改变习惯等以适应新的环境。
accommodate: 书面用词,指以外部条件标准改变自己或某事以求得适应,着重改变或调节的有利。 
suit: 指适合要求,从而使人满意愉快。
fit: 含义广,指人或物适合或适应某一目的或用途。
 

“我一再推辞,她有点生气了:‘唉,您这个人呀,真是个书呆子!生死关头,逃命要紧嘛,还顾得上那么多礼数?’
“As I declined the offer repeatedly, she became a little put out and said, ‘Oh, what a bookworm you are! The important thing at this critical moment is to flee for your life, not to stand on ceremony like that.’
🎈「我一再推辞,她有点生气了」译为As I declined the offer repeatedly, she became a little put out,其中to be put out 是习语,作「生气」解。
🎈读书狂/书呆子 bookworm
工作狂 workaholic
🎈紧要关头at this critical moment
「生死关头」可译作at a life-and/or-death moment
🎈此处stand on指「坚持」
 

“我走出这户人家,回头望一眼门牌号码。
“On stepping out of the house, I turned my head to take a look at the house number.
🎈On stepping out of the house:作时间状语。
老舍《养花》
送牛奶的同志,<进门>就夸“好香”!这使我们全家都感到骄傲。
It filled the whole family with pride whenever the milkman exclaims on entering our gate, What a sweet smell!中介词短语on entering our gate也是作时间状语。
 

靠着蓝布大褂和呢帽的掩护,谁也看不出我是个被打伤的‘逃犯’,
Now, under cover of the blue long gown and the felt hat, nobody could recognize me as the injured ‘criminal’ at large.
🎈在 … 的掩护(或保护)下under (the) cover of sth
例句
Later, under cover of darkness, they crept into the house.
后来他们在夜幕的掩护下溜进了房子。
🎈at large有两层含义,一是「整个,全部,总地,一般地」,如the opinion of the public at large普通大众的意见;二是「未被捕获的,自由的,在逃的」,如A Puma at large逃遁的美洲狮。(新概念3第一篇)
 

拐了个弯,到了骑河楼清华同学会,坐上直开清华园的校车,
After turning a corner, I arrived at Tsinghua University Alumni Association on Qihelou Street where a school bus took me straight back to the University campus.
🎈Alumni是校友的统称。alumni association指校友会。
Harvard Alumni Association哈佛大学校友会。
🎈本篇参考译文在连接句子时用where引导从句还是挺常见的,注意积累。
 

我就这样安然无恙地脱险了。
So I was at last safe and sound.
🎈 safe and sound 安然无恙,平平安安。
例句
Here we are, safe and sound!
我平安地回来了!
 

“我养好伤以后,总想着要把蓝布大褂和呢帽还给人家。
“Then, after I recovered from my wound, I pondered over returning the blue long gown and the felt hat to the young girl.
🎈沉思、深思、考虑ponder over
例句
The more I pondered over this harpooneer, the more I abominated the thought of sleeping with him.
我越想到这个标枪手, 越厌恨要跟他一起睡的念头。
🎈return…to…把……归还给……。如见到「退耕还林」,实在想不出最官方的表达,译成return farmland to forest也能凑活顶一阵。
 

直接送到她家里去吗?万一出来应门的不是她而是别人,那我该怎么说才好呢?
Should I call on her again? What if it was somebody else than herself that answered the door?
🎈应门 answer the door
🎈「不是她而是别人」译作somebody else than herself,其中else than表示「除……之外」
 

我只好写了一封短信,请她在下一个星期六的傍晚亲自到中山公园来今雨轩旁边的紫丁香花丛附近,取回我借去的大褂和呢帽。
So I decided to write her a letter telling her to meet me next Saturday evening under a lilac bush next to Jin-yu-zhai Teahouse in Zhongshan Park so that she could take back the things that I had borrowed from her.
🎈结构划分:So I decided to write her a letter //telling her to meet me next Saturday evening under a lilac bush (next to Jin-yu-zhai Teahouse in Zhongshan Park) /so that she could take back the things (that I had borrowed from her).其中,telling her to…可以理解成伴随状语,也可以理解成letter的后置定语。
 

收信人的姓名只写着“大小姐”收,落款我没有写,因为那天在匆忙中我们谁都没有请教过彼此的尊姓大名。
I addressed her as ‘Dear Lady’ in the letter without adding my signature because we had failed to ask each other’s name on the previous day owing to the hurry of the moment.
🎈be addressed as 被称作。address有「给…冠以某种称呼」之意,常用搭配为address sb. as …
🎈fail to表否定意义。之前见过很多次了。
🎈表「因为」的短语很多,可以把because of放在一边,换换口味。此处的owing to就是选择之一。
 

“我们终于在紫丁香花下见面了。她很大方地走到我面前,稍微点点头示意。
“We at last met under the lilac bush. She came up to me with ease and greeted me with a slight nod.
🎈come up走近,走到跟前。came up to me则表示「走到我跟前」
 

“当时我还是一个十分腼腆的小伙子,我总觉得,随便询问一个不认识的姑娘的姓名或者介绍自己的姓名都是不太庄重的、太唐突的。
“I was then a very bashful young chap. I thought it improper to conduct self-introduction between myself and a young girl that was a stranger to me.
🎈then作副词不止可以表示「然后」,还可以「当时」
I spent years on the dole trying to get bands together and I never worried about money then.
我多年靠救济金过活,一直在努力组建乐队,<那时>,我从不为钱发愁。
🎈thought it improper to conduct self-introduction…:It做形式宾语:当it做形式宾语时,常替代动词不定式短语或宾语从句,其结构为:主语+谓语动词+it+ adj /n+ to do sth/that……,It偶尔也替代动名词。常用于此结构的及物动词有believe /feel /find /make /consider /think /suppose /regard等。例如:He thinks it important that we try to do some housework after school.他们认为放学后试着做一些家务是重要的。
 

我只是激动地对她说:‘非常感谢您的帮忙,那一天,要不是换了衣服,我一出门就会被捕的。胡同口有两只穿黑制服的狗在守着呢!’
I said in an agitated tone, ‘Thank you very much for your help. I would have been arrested right outside your gate had it not been for the long gown and hat. I discovered two dark-uniformed bastards keeping watch at your gate.’
🎈 I would have been arrested right outside your gate had it not been for the long gown and hat.中, had it not been for 为虚拟条件从句 if it had not been for的倒装(省略if),也可改用but for表达。原文从句也可译为without my deep-seated affection for the University library。
🎈「两只穿黑制服的狗在守着」译作discovered two dark-uniformed bastards keeping watch。「狗」蕴含着作者对于「警察」的憎恶,故翻译时也要译出相应的情感色彩,现译作bastard,语气和情感上都较为符合。
 

“‘别客气!这些都是我应该做的。其实这些旧东西您大可不必还给我。’
“‘Don’t mention it! I’ve only done my bit. You really need not return the junk to me.’
🎈「这些都是我应该做的」译为I’ve only done my bit,其中to do one’s bit是习语,作「尽本分」或「做自己应当做的一份工作」解。此句也可译为I’ve only done what I can to help。
🎈 need not return写作don’t need return…
 

“‘我怕您不好向您的大哥交代!’
“‘But they belong to your eldest brother.’
🎈此处译出「核心意」即可,不用字对字。
 

“‘不要紧。他不是经常穿戴的。再说,他和您一样,也是个大学生。他是爱国的,不过,没有您那么勇敢。’
“‘Never mind. He seldom wears them. Besides, he, like you, is a patriot, but not as courageous as you.’
🎈never mind:
①(用于安慰)没关系
②(表示并不重要)没关系,无所谓
③更不用说(意同let alone)。
例句
I never thought she’d win once, never mind twice!
我还以为她一次都赢不了,更别说两次了!
 

“她将手上的纸包送给我:‘给,这是您那天换下来的布大褂和便帽,上面的血迹我给洗掉了。多可惜,这是志士的鲜血啊!’她半开玩笑半认真地说。
“She then handed me a paper-wrapped parcel and said half jokingly, ‘Take this — your cotton gown and cap. I’ve washed off all the bloodstains. What a pity I’ve destroyed the evidence of a hero’s blood!’
🎈hand作动词讲,
hand sb sth/hand sth to sb把某物递给某人
hand sth. sp. 把某物放在某处
🎈从语法角度讲,建议What a pity ……改为What a pity that…,that引导同位语从句,不能省略。
 

“‘其实,您也大可不必还给我。这件血衣,留下来作纪念不是很好吗?’
“‘In fact you don’t have to return them to me. Isn’t it a good idea for you to have my bloodstained garment as a keepsake?’
🎈idea for you是增译成分,原文虽无其词而有其意。
🎈have my bloodstained garment as a keepsake: have…as…让…成为…、把…当作…
 

“她稚气地笑着说:‘您叫我搁在哪儿呢?假如家里的人问起来,我又该怎么说才好呢?
“She went on with a naive smile, ‘Where could I keep them? What could I say in case my folks should ask?
🎈之前不止一次提过要积累「说」的表达,根据不同情况和不同情绪,可选用不同的表达,如此处的went on。

 
这件事,除了咱俩,现在还没有第三个人知道!我爹是个好人,在中学里教书,他胆子小得要命!假如让他知道了……’
Now, this is something between you and me! My dad is an honest guy. He teaches at a middle school. He’s timid and overcautious. Suppose he should know of it …’
🎈「除了咱俩,现在还没有第三个人知道」译作this is something between you and me。其中between you and me表示「你我之间的事」,值得积累。又,「只是你我之间的事」和「没有第三个人知道」意思重复,译一次即可。
🎈 Suppose he should know of it:suppose/supposing有时可用作连词,引导条件状语从句,其意为「假若」「如果」等。这里的should可以省略。
 

“她默默地望了我一眼,好像要记住我的容貌似的。
“She gave me a silent stare like she wanted to bear in mind my facial features.
🎈本文的「默默地望了我一眼」和「朝我眨了下眼」分别译为gave me a silent stare、gave me a wink,均涉及词性转换,处理方式相同。
🎈将…记在心中、记住、考虑到bear/keep…in mind或bear/keep in mind that..
 

但很快就说:‘假如没有什么事,我该走了!’
Then she said, ‘If that’s all, I must say goodbye now.’
🎈「假如没有什么事」译作If that’s all,采用了反话正说的策略。
 

临别时我们轻轻地握了握手,手指尖仅仅接触到对方的手指尖。
We parted by touching each other’s fingertips casually instead of with a handshake.
🎈此处part熟词僻义,作动词,表示「分别」
 

她走到离开我约莫十多步的地方,迅速地回过头来望了我一眼,好像有点依依惜别的样子。
When she was a few steps away, she abruptly turned round to give me a look like she was reluctant to leave me.
🎈「依依惜别」译作was reluctant to leave…。其中,be reluctant to do表示不情愿、勉强做某事。
 

她那轻盈而苗条的身影,很快就消失在苍茫的暮色和茂密的紫丁香花丛里面了。
Soon her slender and graceful figure was lost in the deepening dusk and among the flourishing lilacs.
🎈「轻盈」形容文中女子的体态美好,现译为graceful。

 
我猛地想跑上前去跟她多说几句话,至少问清楚她的姓名,
I suddenly felt like rushing ahead to have a few more words with her, at least to find out her name.
🎈 feel like 感觉,想要,欲
例句
I sometimes feel like screaming with frustration.
我有时苦恼得真想要大喊大叫。
🎈at least to find out her name是补充语,对「多说几句话」进一步补充说明。
 

但我终于痛苦地克制住自己,我不愿意株连她,因为我还随时有被捕的危险。
But I restrained myself painfully because I didn’t want to get her involved. I was still in danger of being arrested at any moment.
🎈「株连她」即「让她也卷入到这件事情中来」,现译为get her involved。
🎈随时at any moment
 

“这就是全部事情的经过,要说是‘爱情’吧,恐怕算不上;要说是友谊呢,又和普通的、寻常的友谊不太一样,好像多了一点什么东西——
“That’s all there’s to it. Strictly, it wasn’t love, nor was it ordinary friendship. There was a bit more to it.
🎈That’s all (that)there is to it是固定用法,不宜逐字翻译。句中all是先行词,that是关系代词,引导定语从句there is to it修饰all,在定语从句中that作表语,即为there is (that) to it.这个短语表示「就这样、就是这些、这就是全部/一切、情况就是这样」等。
例句
That’s all there is to it—it’s the only way. 
那是生命的全部,是唯一的方式。
 

革命的情谊,一种患难与共、信守不渝的革命情谊,这是人世间最值得珍贵的东西。
It was revolutionary friendship, or a bond of comradeship forged by common suffering and unswerving faith. In short, it was something of the greatest value in the world.
🎈坚持……不动摇follow…unswervingly
🎈 something of the greatest value:of+抽象名词=形容词,即of+ value =valuable
 

不知怎的,虽然事情已经过去四十多年了,每当我一看到紫丁香花,一闻到紫丁香花的香味,我就情不自禁地想起了这么一件事,这么一个人,
Now, after more than 40 years, the sight of sweet-smelling lilacs still always reminds me of the said event and person.
🎈the said表示「上述的」,said是形容词。
 

仿佛又看到她那消逝在紫丁香花丛中的身影,仿佛又听到她离去时轻轻的脚步声。”
And I will feel as if I saw her figure disappearing among the lilac bushes and hear the light footsteps she made at the moment when she was leaving me.”
🎈as if从句的两种用法:
一、 as if 从句用陈述语气(相对于虚拟语气而言),即你所表达的句子是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实时。设想语境:比方说你现在屋里看不到外面的情况,却听到了雨滴声,表达如下:It sounds as if it is raining. 听起来像是在下雨。二、as if 从句用虚拟语气,当说话人认为句子所述的是不真实的或极少有可能发生或存在的情况时。从句虚拟语气动词时态的形式如下:
(1)如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时。
(2)从句表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用“had+过去分词”。
(3)从句表示与将来事实相反,谓语动词用“would/could/might+动词原形。
 

听完了我的故事,那位老先生无限感慨地说:“在我们一生中,生活有时会像河流一样,和另一条河流遇合了,又分开了,带来了某一种情绪的波流,永远萦绕着我们的心灵……淡淡的,却难忘!
After hearing out my story, the old gentleman said with strong feeling, “Our life, like a river, sometimes joins another river only to separate again, thus leaving certain emotional ripples lingering in our mind … faint and unforgettable!
🎈听…把话说完hear out
例句
Perhaps, when you’ve heard me out, you’ll appreciate the reason for secrecy.
也许当你听我把话讲完后,你就会明白为什么要保密了。
🎈 only to do sth.是一个比较特殊的不定式结构,常用于表示一种意想不到的结果。He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet. 他搬起石头砸了自己的脚。(表结果)。参考译文中「遇合而又分开」同理。
 

唉!怪不得你那样喜欢紫丁香花。
Oh, no wonder you’ve a special liking for purplish lilacs.
🎈无怪乎、也难怪…… it’s no wonder that……或no wonder
巴金《木匠老陈》
过惯了这种单调的生活以后,<无怪乎>我特别喜欢老陈了。
Because of this monotonous life, it was no wonder that I developed a particular liking for Carpenter Lao Chen.
 

不过,你真是个古怪的老头儿,在斑白的头发底下还保持着一个二十岁小伙子般强烈的感情,
But you’re really an eccentric old man. You still keep under your graying hair an emotion as intense as that of a 20-year-old young chap.
🎈keep under your graying hair an emotion as intense as that of a 20-year-old young chap或keep an emotion as intense as that of a 20-year-old young chap under your graying hair中的结构:keep +宾语+宾语补足语。as intense as that of a 20-year-old young chap是宾补。
 

这样的人是不会幸福的。”
Such a man as you can never be happy.”
🎈「这样的人」译作Such a man as you。such a/an…的表达积累下。as you是增译成分。此处为两位老人之间的对话,也是听者对讲话人经历的感慨,补充出as you更为合理。
 
🔥必背词汇
eccentric       adj.古怪的,怪异的
英义
If you say that someone is eccentric, you mean that they behave in a strange way, and have habits or opinions that are different from those of most people.
例句
He is an eccentric character who likes wearing a beret and dark glasses.
他人很怪,喜欢戴贝雷帽和墨镜。
 
lilacs       n.丁香
英义
a bush or small tree with purple or white flowers with a sweet smell that grow closely together in the shape of a cone 
例句
Pretty soon the lilacs would be in bloom.
紫丁香不久就要开花。
 
amidst      prep.同amid,在……过程中;在……中
英义
Amidst means the same as amid .
例句
He finished his speech amid tremendous applause.
他在雷鸣般的掌声中结束了演讲。
 
transient       adj.短暂的,倏忽的,无常的
英义
Transient is used to describe a situation that lasts only a short time or is constantly changing.
例句
In most cases, pain is transient.
大多数情况下,疼痛是短暂的。
 
permeate      v.渗透,弥漫,扩散
英义
If something permeates a place, it spreads throughout it.
例句
The smell of roast beef permeated the air.
空气中弥漫着烤牛肉的香味。
 
🔥重点表达
暮春late spring
初夏early summer
消磨掉整个黄昏idle away the evening hours
专心…、全神贯注于…be absorbed in
大约是某人的年纪、和某人年纪差不多大be about one’s age
对紫丁香花有点特殊的感情似的have a special liking for purple lilacs
适合我的气质suit my disposition
轻微的、些许的、略带a slight touch of
与…有关have to do with
离死不远with one foot in the grave或to have one foot in the grave
隐瞒to hold back
让某人成为某事的知情人to let in … on ..
并肩、并排 side by side
举行追悼会(以纪念…)hold a memorial meeting (to mourn…)
赤手空拳barehanded
几乎是两三个撵一个there were two or three cops for each fleeing student
瞬间、眨眼间in a twinkling
侧身溜进slipped in sideways
没有一个人影without a single soul
吃惊 be taken aback
自投罗网throw oneself into a trap
包扎伤口 dress wound
紧要关头at this critical moment
读书狂/书呆子 bookworm
在 … 的掩护(或保护)下under (the) cover of sth
安然无恙,平平安安safe and sound 
沉思、深思、考虑ponder over
应门 answer the door
走到我跟前came up to me
将…记在心中、记住、考虑到bear/keep…in mind或bear/keep in mind that..
一种患难与共、信守不渝的革命情谊a bond of comradeship forged by common suffering and unswerving faith
上述的the said
听…把话说完hear out
无怪乎、也难怪…… it’s no wonder that……或no wonder
 
🔥复盘测试
暮春
初夏r
消磨掉整个黄昏
专心…、全神贯注于…
大约是某人的年纪、和某人年纪差不多大
对紫丁香花有点特殊的感情似的
适合我的气质
轻微的、些许的、略带
与…有关
离死不远
隐瞒
让某人成为某事的知情人
并肩、并排
举行追悼会(以纪念…)
赤手空拳
几乎是两三个撵一个
瞬间、眨眼间
侧身溜进
没有一个人影
吃惊
自投罗网
包扎伤口
紧要关头
读书狂/书呆子 
在 … 的掩护(或保护)下
安然无恙,平平安安
沉思、深思、考虑
应门
走到我跟前
将…记在心中、记住、考虑到
一种患难与共、信守不渝的革命情谊
上述的
听…把话说完
无怪乎、也难怪……
 
🔥表达对比
「瞬间」有几种表达?
幸亏我在大学里是个运动员,终归跑得比他们快些,(一眨眼)就把他们落下了一百多米。 
Fortunately, as a university athlete, I was able to outrun the pursuers and leave them behind in a twinkling by more than 100 meters.
(一瞬间),他们的餐厅就轰动全国,得到了各地的关注。 
In an instant, their restaurant became a sensation, drawing in attention from across the country.
在这(一瞬间)我坠入了爱河。 
I had fallen in love in a second.
最后,它们在(一瞬间)融合在了一起。 
Finally, they merge in a flash — literally.
他(一眨眼)就从房间那头奔了过来。 
In one swift moment, he had crossed the room.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《丁香花下 ——黄秋耘》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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