Winter Sun·Childhood · Caravan ——Lin Haiyin🔥背景知识：本文作者林海音（1918-2001），女，台湾苗栗人，生于日本大阪，1923年随父母回国，在北京度过了童年与青年时期，大学毕业后任北京《世界日报》记者。1948年到台湾，1955年主编《联合报》副刊，1967年创办和主编《纯文学》月刊。回顾北京城南的历历往事所写的《城南旧事》，是她最受读者喜爱的一本书，后已改编成电影，她的作品洋溢着浓郁的乡愁，具有典雅柔美的风格。骆驼队来了，停在我家门前。The caravan of camels arrived and stopped in front of our home.🎈before和in front of的区别：before作介词时，与介词短语in front of表示位置关系时，都用来表示在某物之前，意思基本是一致的，可以相互替换。但是，两者中in front of意义单纯，before意义较为多样，除表示位置关系外，还可表示时间和逻辑次序上的先后关系。它们排列成一长串，沉默的站着，等候人们的安排。Standing in a long string, they silently awaited their master’s bidding.🎈Standing in a long string作伴随状语。🎈「等候人们的安排」意即「等候主人的命令（吩咐）」，未按字面直译为awaited people’s arrangements，现译awaited their master’s bidding或waited to do the bidding of their master。又，await和wait的区别是一个vt，一个vi。天气又干又冷。拉骆驼的摘下了他的毡帽，秃瓢儿上冒着热气，是一股白色的烟，融入干冷的大气中。It was dry and cold. The camel driver took off his felt cap, his sweaty bald pate giving off puffs of whitish steam to blend into the dry and cold air.🎈It was dry and cold：it可表达以下概念:指代前文提到的事物，前文中的this, that；替代前文中的内容；指代一位性别不明的小孩或未知的人；指代未指明但谈话双方都知道的那件事；指代时间、天气、气候、距离等自然现象。🎈「拉骆驼的」译作The camel driver，用driver一词便完美表达出了含义，比处理成定语从句更为贴切。🎈 his sweaty bald pate giving off…是独立主格结构。爸爸在和他讲价钱。Father was haggling over prices with him.🎈讲价haggle over prices with sb或bargain with sb双峰的驼背上，每匹都驮着两麻袋煤。The camels had each two sacks of coal on their two-humped backs.🎈two-humped是合成形容词，构词法为「数词+名词+ed」，如ten-storeyed十层的。我在想，麻袋里面是“南山高末”呢？还是“乌金墨玉”？我常常看见顺城街煤栈的白墙上，写着这样几个大黑字。I was curious about the sacks of “top-grade coal dust from Southern Mountain” or “black gold and inky jade”, as I often saw in ads splashed in large black Chinese characters over the white wall of the coal storehouse near the city wall.🎈「我常常看见顺城街煤栈的白墙上，写着这样几个大黑字」译为as l often saw in ads splashed in large black Chinese characters over the white wall of the coal storehouse close to the city wall，其中把「顺城街煤栈」译为the coal storehouse close to the city wall，未译the coal storehouse on Shun Cheng Street；又ads（广告）是译文中的添加词，原文虽无其词而有其意，又「写着」未译为written on，改译splashed over（显眼地展示），更为达意，又「大黑字」译为large black Chinese characters，比large black words精确。但是拉骆驼的说，他们从门头沟来，他们和骆驼，是一步一步走来的。But the camel driver said he had trekked with the camels all the way from Mentougou, step by step.🎈「走」这里并没有简单译为walk，而是根据上下文选择了更精准的trek(艰苦跋涉)🎈Mentougou—A coal-mining area to the west of erstwhile Beijing.另外一个拉骆驼的，在招呼骆驼们吃草料。它们把前脚一屈，屁股一撅，就跪了下来。The camels knelt down by bending their front legs and sticking up their bottoms while another camel driver was giving out fodder to them.🎈「把前脚一屈，屁股一撅，就跪了下来」处理为knelt down+ by引导的方式状语是可以的，按照动作先后顺序译出来也是可以的。爸爸已经和他们讲好价钱了。人在卸煤，骆驼在吃草。After father had finished bargaining, the camel drivers began unloading the coal while the camels were eating.🎈while是一个超级好用的词，注意运用。🎈unload（卸载）和upload（上传）是一组反义词。我站在骆驼的面前，看它们吃草料咀嚼的样子：那样丑的脸，那样长的牙，那样安静的态度。I stood in front of the camels, lost in watching the way they were chewing the fodder as well as their ugly faces, long teeth and composure.🎈「看它们吃草料咀嚼的样子」译为lost in watching the way they were chewing the fodder，其中lost in作「专注于」解，此句也可译为absorbed in watching how they were chewing the fodder。又，此部分是补充语（有人亦称作主语补足语），也可理解为形容词（组）伴随状语，对主语的状态进行补充说明。它们咀嚼的时候，上牙和下牙交错的磨来磨去，大鼻孔里冒着热气，白沫子沾满在胡须上。They were busy grinding their upper and lower teeth together with steam let out of their nostrils and foam forming all over their beards.🎈忙于做某事be busy doing sth例句He’s been busy doing his graduate work.他一直在忙毕业设计。🎈with steam let out of their nostrils and foam forming all over their beards是with复合结构。我看得呆了，自己的牙齿也动起来。I looked blankly and involuntarily started grinding my teeth, too.🎈blankly刘白羽《白蝴蝶之恋》我痴痴望着它。I stared at it blankly, … 此句意同「我呆呆地看着它」「我茫然凝视着它」等，可译为 I stared at it blankly (或vacantly)🎈「自己的牙齿也动起来」可按「也不由自主地磨起牙齿」译为and involuntarily started grinding my teeth, too。老师教给我，要学骆驼，沉得住气的动物。As my teacher told me, I should learn from the camel — an animal so calm and steady and so patient.🎈As my teacher told me：as引导方式状语从句。同样的例句还有：You must do the work as I have told you.🎈an animal so calm and steady and so patient：在英语中，如果定语是由一个单词表示时，通常要前置。而由一个词组或一个句子表示时，通常则后置。看它从不肯急，慢慢的走，慢慢的嚼；总会走到的，总会吃饱的。It moves slowly, but never fails to reach the destination of its journey; it chews its food slowly, but never fails to get its fill.🎈注意译文对于语序的调整：慢慢的走，慢慢的嚼；总会走到的，总会吃饱的→慢慢的走，总会走到的；慢慢的嚼，总会吃饱的。也许它天生是该慢慢的，偶然躲避车子跑两步，姿势很难看。Maybe it is slow by nature. Occasionally it will take a few quickened steps to dodge a car, but in a very awkward manner though.🎈生性、天生地by nature例句I’m very lazy by nature.我生性很懒惰。🎈「偶然躲避车子跑两步」译为Occasionally it will take a few quickened steps to dodge a car或Occasionally it will move a bit more quickly to make way for a car。骆驼队伍过来时，你会知道，打头儿的那一匹，长脖子底下总会系着一个铃铛，走起来，“铛、铛、铛”的响。When a caravan was approaching, people would hear the ding-dong of a bell tied under the long neck of the leading animal.🎈「过来时」按「逐渐靠近、向这边走来时」之意译作was approaching🎈打头儿的那一匹the leading animal扮演领导者的角色/发挥带头作用play a leading role in…带头做…take the lead in doing sth“为什么要一个铃铛?”我不懂的事就要问一问。“What’s the use of the bell?” I asked out of childish curiosity.🎈为什么要一个铃铛?→铃铛有什么用？，现译作What’s the use of the bell?🎈out of childish curiosity：此处，out of意为「出于」「由于」，后面的名词由具体事物转为某种心态或条件。例句out of fear出于害怕 out of habit按照习惯 out of pity出于怜悯心爸爸告诉我，骆驼很怕狼，因为狼会咬它们，所以人类给他们带上了铃铛，狼听见铃铛的声音，知道那是有人类在保护着，就不敢侵犯了。Father explained that since camels were in danger of being attacked by wolves, a bell was hung on them to clang a warning to the latter that the former were under human protection.🎈Father explained that：又出现了，之前不止一次提过要积累「说」的表达，根据不同情况和不同情绪，可选用不同的表达，如此处的explain。🎈积累词汇：latter（后者）、former（前者）🎈「骆驼很怕狼」并未按原意处理，而是译作了were in danger of being attacked by wolves，更符合实际情况。我的幼稚心灵中却充满了和大人不同的想法，However, as a naive little child, I had a lot of ideas of my own, all different from those of grown-ups. 🎈However是增译成分，使上下文衔接更紧密。🎈all different from those of grown-ups若为独立主格结构，则因为逻辑主语是代词，being是不可以省略的，也就是要写作all being different from those of grown-ups。故此处把all理解成副词，修饰different。我对爸爸说：“不是的，爸！它们软软的脚掌走在软软的沙漠上，没有一点点声音，你不是说，它们走上三天三夜都不喝一口水，只是不声不响的咀嚼着从胃里倒出来的食物吗？I said, “No, dad! Camels walk noiselessly with the soft soles of their feet on soft sand. Didn’t you tell me that they can keep walking three days and three nights without drinking a single drop of water, and all they do is chew their cud quietly?🎈「没有一点点声音」译作noiselessly，修饰walk，简洁干脆。🎈「都不喝一口水」译作without drinking a single drop of water。其中，a single连用表示强调。再比如，「没有任何一个国家能……」可以译作not a single country can…🎈all they do is chew…：主系表结构中，前有do，后省to。一定是拉骆驼的人类，耐不住那长途寂寞的旅程，所以才给骆驼带上了铃铛，增加一些行路的情趣。”Camel drivers must be bored with the dull job. So they hang bells on their animals to make the journey more cheerful.”🎈对……感到厌倦be bored with /be tired of🎈「情趣」就是「更有乐趣」，别那么乏味/死气沉沉，现译作cheerful。爸爸想了想，笑笑说：“也许，你的想法更美些。”Father pondered for a moment and said smilingly, “Your explanation sounds more picturesque.”🎈此处pondered换做thought也是可以的。🎈「你的想法更美些」按「你的想法听起来更美些」译作Your explanation sounds more picturesque。冬天快过完了，春天就要来，太阳特别的暖和，暖得让人想把棉袄脱下来。As winter was drawing to an end and spring coming nearer, the sun became so warm that people felt like taking off their cotton-padded jackets.🎈接近尾声draw to a close/ draw to an end🎈feel like 感觉，想要，欲例句I sometimes feel like screaming with frustration.我有时苦恼得真想要大喊大叫。可不是么？骆驼也脱掉它的旧驼绒袍子啦！The camels, too, started to cast off their old hairy robes!🎈 too位置灵活🎈丢弃，摆脱 cast off例句There was an extraordinary feeling of hope and relief, as if a great burden had been cast off.有种充满希望和解脱的奇妙感觉，好似卸下了一副千斤重担。它的毛皮一大块一大块的从身上掉下来，垂在肚皮底下。我真想拿把剪刀替它们剪一剪，因为太不整齐了。Their hair was coming off in tufts and left dangling scruffily from under their bellies. How I wanted to shear it off!🎈was left dangling scruffily from under their bellies中dangling scruffily from under their bellies是主语补足语。🎈How I wanted to shear it off!是how引导的感叹句。how引导的感叹句类型：①How＋形容词＋主语＋谓语!②How＋副词＋主语＋谓语!③How＋主语＋动词!④How+ many/much/few/little+名词+主语＋谓语!拉骆驼的人也一样，他们身上那件反穿大羊皮，也都脱下来了，搭在骆驼背的小峰上，The camel drivers, too, took off the sheepskin over coats they had been wearing inside out and had them draped over the camels’ backs.🎈「那件反穿大羊皮」译为 the sheepskin overcoats they had been wearing inside out，其中「大羊皮」指「羊皮大衣」，故译sheepskin overcoat；又inside out作「里面朝外」解，是惯用语。🎈 had them draped over the camels’ backs是have…done的结构。麻袋空了，“乌金墨玉”都卖了，铃铛在轻松的步伐里响得更清脆。Now that the sacks had been emptied and the “black gold and inky jade” sold out, the caravan resumed its journey with brisk steps, the clanking bell sounding even more crisp and pleasing.🎈这句话有潜在的逻辑关系：（因为）麻袋空了，负重轻了，所以步伐更轻松，铃铛听起来也似乎更清脆，故增译now that。夏天来了，再不见骆驼的影子，我又问妈：“夏天它们到哪里去?”“谁?”“骆驼呀！”Summer came, but the camels were nowhere to be found. I again asked mother, “Where are they gone in summer?” “Who?” “The camels.”🎈the camels were nowhere to be found：the camels是主语，were是系动词， nowhere to be found是表语，其中nowhere可以看作状语修饰to be found。原句也可以是the camels were to be found nowhere.妈妈回答不上来了，她说：“总是问，总是问，你这孩子!”Mother was at a loss for words, then said, “You’re always asking questions…, my child!”🎈「总是问，总是问」语带嗔怪口气，故用always加动词进行式表达：You’re always asking questions …夏天过去，秋天过去，冬天又来了，骆驼队又来了，但是童年却一去不还。Summer went, autumn went, and winter came again with the caravan. But my childhood was gone never to return.🎈一去不复返 was gone never to return胡适《不要抛弃学问》少年是一去不复返的。Youth will soon be gone never to return. 朱自清《匆匆》但是，聪明的，你告诉我，我们的日子为什么一去不复返呢？But, tell me, you the wise, why should our days go by never to return?冬阳底下学骆驼咀嚼的傻事，我也不会再做了。And never again would I commit the folly of mimicking the way a camel would chew under the winter sun.🎈And never again would I…：否定词及含有否定意义的词在句首，句子要部分倒装（只将助动词置于主语前，谓语其余部分置于主语后）。这些词包括：never, no, not, not only, hardly, scarcely, rarely, little, seldom, nowhere, no sooner…than, hardly/barely/scarcely… when, not until…, at no time, by no means, on no account, in no way, in no case, on no condition, in/under no circumstances等。🎈would chew under the winter sun ：would + 动词原形可以表过去经常做的事情。可是，我是多么想念童年住在北京城南的那些景色和人物啊，I always cherish memories of the scenery and persons I saw in my childhood when I lived in the South End of Peking.🎈I saw in my childhood when I lived in the South End of Peking同that I saw…我对自己说，把它们写下来吧，让实际的童年过去，心灵的童年永存下来。“Why not write about them so that the childhood of my heart will last forever when the childhood of my life is gone?” said I to myself.🎈「让实际的童年过去，心灵的童年永存下来」译为so that the childhood of my heart will last forever when the childhood of my life is gone，其中「实际的童年」与「心灵的童年」不宜按字面分别直译为my actual childhood与my mental childhood。就这样，我写了一本《城南旧事》。Hence my book Old Stories from the South End.hence的用法：①hence后面可以直接放上一个名词成分，形成一个没有谓语动词的特殊句型，表示「因为前面说过的缘故，所以有了…」例句Hence my surprise. 所以我感到惊讶。Hence my letter. 所以我就写这封信。Hence the fact that… 因此…②hence也可以作为一个普通的副词（因此、由此）放在正常的句子中起作用。例句These cars have become cheaper, and hence affordable to more people.这些汽车变得更为便宜，因而为更多的人所买得起。③ hence还有「从现在算起」的副词意义。例句The property must be vacated 12 days hence. 该不动产应该自现在起12天内腾出。🎈《城南旧事》译为Old Stories from the South End，其中End作「地区」解，常用来指大城市的边沿地区。我默默的想，慢慢的写。看见冬阳下的骆驼队走过来，听见缓慢悦耳的铃声，童年重临于我的心头。As I wrote contemplatively and slowly, I visualized the caravan approaching in the winter sun and heard the pleasant ding-dong of the camel bell. My childhood days returned to my mind.🎈「想象」译作visualize要比saw贴切，更强调眼前仿佛看见的一幕幕真实画面，saw则有点确确实实看见的意味。🔥必背词汇contemplative adj.沉思的，冥思的英义Someone who is contemplative thinks deeply, or is thinking in a serious and calm way.例句Martin is a quiet, contemplative sort of chap.马丁是个不爱讲话、喜欢沉思默想的小伙子。sack n.麻布袋，粗布袋，厚纸袋，大口袋英义A sack is a large bag made of rough woven material. Sacks are used to carry or store things such as vegetables or coal. 例句a sack of potatoes一袋土豆trek v. (通常指徒步)艰难旅行，跋涉，远足英义If you trek somewhere, you go on a journey across difficult country, usually on foot.例句trekking through the jungles.徒步穿过丛林storehouse n.(通常指储存食物的)仓库，栈房英义A storehouse is a building in which things, usually food, are stored.例句Some of the cottages were still lived in by old folk; others had been turned into barns and storehouses.有些村舍里仍住着老人;有些已经改作粮仓和仓库。haggle v.尤指就价格争论，讨价还价英义If you haggle, you argue about something before reaching an agreement, especially about the cost of something that you are buying.例句Ella taught her how to haggle with used furniture dealers.埃拉教她如何和旧家具经销商砍价。🔥重点表达排列成一长串Standing in a long string等候人们的安排awaited their master’s bidding融入干冷的大气中blend into the dry and cold air讲价haggle over prices with sb或bargain with sb双峰的驼背two-humped backs上牙和下牙交错的磨来磨去grinding their upper and lower teeth together看得呆了looked blankly生性、天生地by nature打头儿的那一匹the leading animal大人grown-ups不喝一口水without drinking a single drop of water对……感到厌倦be bored with /be tired of接近尾声draw to a close/ draw to an end丢弃;摆脱cast off一大块一大块的从身上掉下来was coming off in tufts一去不复返 was gone never to return《城南旧事》Old Stories from the South End🔥复盘测试排列成一长串等候人们的安排融入干冷的大气中讲价双峰的驼背上牙和下牙交错的磨来磨去看得呆了生性、天生地打头儿的那一匹大人不喝一口水对……感到厌倦接近尾声丢弃;摆脱一大块一大块的从身上掉下来一去不复返《城南旧事》🔥表达对比「对……感到厌倦」有几种表达？ 一定是拉骆驼的人类，（耐不住）那长途寂寞的旅程……Camel drivers must be bored with the dull job.你是否对一成不变的破旧大峡谷（感到厌倦）？ Are you tired of the same old Grand Canyon?（“对… 厌倦”）是英语惯用语。 To be ‘fed up with’ is an English idiom.完全不会（厌倦）。 I wasn’t even sick of it.