《再寄小读者》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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再寄小读者

Another Letter to Young Readers
1958年4月12日夜意大利,威尼斯
—Written on the evening of April 12,1958, in Venice, Italy
冰心
Bing Xin
 
🔥背景知识:冰心(1900年10月5日-1999年2月28日),女,原名谢婉莹,福建省长乐市(今福州市长乐区)人 ,中国民主促进会(民进)成员。中国诗人,现代作家、翻译家、儿童文学作家、社会活动家、散文家。笔名冰心取自「一片冰心在玉壶」。冰心这篇通讯记述她在雨中游访威尼斯的情况。她在走访这座著名水上城市时,身在异邦,情系故乡,不忘给祖国和祖国的儿童寄来一份温馨的报导。
 
亲爱的小朋友:
4月12日,我们在微雨中到达意大利东海岸的威尼斯。
Dear Little Friends,
On April 12, we arrive, amidst a gentle rain, in Venice, a city on the eastern coast of Italy.
🎈对于「小朋友」中的「小」,英文中有类似的概念表亲切、可爱例如little James(小詹姆斯),little girl(小女孩)等,所以直接译为Little Friends。
🎈「微雨」译作gentle rain, gentle意指「轻微的、柔柔的」
🎈「我们在微雨中到达意大利东海岸的威尼斯」这句的主干是「我们到达了」,译文就先提取了We arrive作为主谓成分,而其它如环境(amidst a gentle rain)、地理位置(in Venice, a city on the eastern coast of Italy)全部处理成副词性的附加描述成分,层次脉络很清晰。 
 

威尼斯是世界闻名的水上城市,常有人把它比作中国的苏州。
Venice is a world-famous aquatic city, often compared to China’s Suzhou.
🎈「世界闻名的」译作world-famous,复合词。
🎈「水上城市」并不是water city,而译作aquatic city。Aquatic是「水的,水生的」,例如aquatic resources水资源,aquatic animals水生动物,aquatic plants水生植物等。
🎈「常有人把它比作中国的苏州」中的「把…比作」,这里可理解为「(常)被拿来与…相比较」,译作be compared to…。两事物进行比较,英文常用while加强这种对比,如英译中说到苏州是陆上城市,而威尼斯是由小岛做成,为了突出这种对比译文用了while来加强。写景时,中文常常用一系列的短句排比来描述,英文则处理成「主干+with+非主干性描述附加或伴随的内容」,Suzhou is primarily a land-based city with…就是这样的用法。
Q:用compare with还是compare to?
🎈Compare to可以广义地定义为「估计事物之间的相似性或者是差异」
例句
Individual schools compared their facilities with those of others in the area.
私立学校将其设施与该地区其他学校的设施进行比较。
It is difficult to compare our results to studies conducted in the United States.
很难将我们的研究成果与在美国进行的研究成果相比较。
在这种意义上,使用哪个介词都可以。然而,当compare被用来表示一件事物与另一件事相似,或者在两件不同事情之间进行类比时,必须使用to。
 

但是苏州基本上是陆地上的城市,不过城里有许多河道和桥梁。威尼斯却是由一百多个小岛组成的,一条较宽的曲折的水道,就算是大街,其余许许多多纵横交织的小水道,就算是小巷。
But, while Suzhou is primarily a land-based city with many rivers and bridges, Venice is a port composed of more than 100 small islands cut by a broad winding waterway serving as its avenue and numerous small crisscross water courses serving as its alleys.
🎈while含对比意味。
🎈a land-based city :-based与表示地点的名词连用表示「以…为生活或工作中心的,以…为基地/基础的,总部设在…的」。
land-based missiles
陆基导弹
🎈cut by这里应理解为「贯穿着…」,指有不同的水道贯穿其中而造成了分割。
🎈「就算是…,就算是…」译作serving as(构成其…,成为了其…),在面对较长一系列排比短句的翻译时,应该学会善用这种连接词,具体需要对原句充分理解得出。又,两个serving as…分别做waterway和courses的后置定语。
 

三四百座大大小小的桥,将这些小岛上的一簇一簇的楼屋,穿连了起来。
And clusters of buildings on the small islands are linked by some 400 bridges of various sizes.
🎈「桥将楼屋穿连起来」中文的「穿连」英译时应转换为被动语态be linked by,注意中英表达习惯的差异。
🎈「大大小小的…」,译作…of various sizes
 

这里没有车马,只有往来如织的大小汽艇,代替了公共汽车和小卧车;
There are no motor vehicles. In place of buses and motor cars, motorboats of various descriptions speed to and fro on the congested waterways.
🎈「车马」这里应理解为「陆路上的交通工具」,根据上下文译为motor vehicles。
🎈各式各样的、各种类型的of various descriptions。其中,description表示「类型」,常用搭配为of some/all/every/various, etc. descriptions 
何为《最后一圈》
芸芸众生 human beings of all descriptions
🎈往来如织(来来去去象穿梭一样。形容来去频繁)译作speed to and fro,其中to and fro表示「往返地,来回地」,speed作动词,表示「快速前行(尤指车辆)」
 

此外还有黑色的、两端翘起、轻巧可爱的小游船,叫做Gondola,译作“共渡乐”,也还可以谐音会意。
Also on the waterways are lovely black small pleasure boats with curved ends, known as gondola, a term that has been translated into the Chinese homonym gondule meaning “Share the joy of river-crossing”.
🎈「两端翘起」译作with curved ends,ends这里指「端部,尾部」,这样的细节描写值得学习。
🎈「共渡乐」除了译作gondule,还应解释出内涵Share the joy of river-crossing,这种做法应借鉴。
 

这座小城,是极有趣的!你们想象看:家家户户,面临着水街小巷,一开起门来,就看见荡漾的海水和飞翔的海鸥。
The small town of Venice is very interesting. Imagine how every building stands directly facing a waterway instead of a street or lane, and the residents, as soon as they open the door, come face to face with nothing but undulating sea waves and seagulls circling in the air.
🎈「家家户户」根据后接的动词sands directly…和open the door,拆分译为every building及the residents,说明了翻译是一门再创作的艺术应在充分且准确理解原文基础上再次加工。
🎈Instead of a street or lane是增译,更突出于普通认知的对比及威尼斯的独特。
🎈With nothing but这个固定短语使得行为更地道流畅。
 

门口石阶旁边,长满了厚厚的青苔,从石阶上跳上公共汽艇,就上街去了。
Walk down a flight of mossy stone steps at their door, and they will be able to get on a public waterboat bound for town.
🎈「上街」这里应理解为「到镇上去」,译作bound for town,千万别望文生义译作go to the street。
🎈此句前半部分写景,后半部分叙事,译文将其处理为and连接的并列句。其中,they指代上句提到的the residents。
 

这座城里,当然也有教堂,有宫殿,和其他的公共建筑,座座都紧靠着水边。
The city also has its own churches, palaces and other public buildings, all situated on the water front.
🎈在描述威尼斯各类建筑时,「紧靠着」用了situated一词指「坐落在…,位于…」
🎈另,请注意「这座城里,当然也有教堂,有宫殿,和其他的公共建筑,座座都紧靠着水边」英译时整句句式的变化,..has….(…有…)是主干部分,而各类建筑坐落位置的描述则处理成了次要的分词短语形式situated on(即…which are all situated on…),层次突出、主次明了,这种句式转换方式值得借鉴学习。
 

夜间一行行一串串的灯火,倒影在颤摇的水光里,真是静美极了!
What a wonderful sight it is when strings of their lights are reflected in the quivering water at nights!
🎈「真是静美极了!」也并未像原文那样放在文末独立成句,而是处理成了What a wonderful sight it is when…这样的从句形式,把这样的感叹与环境描述联系在了一起,这样的句式转换使得逻辑更严谨不松散。
 

威尼斯是意大利东海岸对东方贸易的三大港口之一,其余的两个是它南边的巴利和北边的特利斯提。
Venice is one of the three big ports on Italy’s eastern coast doing trade with Eastern countries, the other two being Bari to its south and Trieste to its north. 
🎈东海岸eastern coast
🎈doing trade with Eastern countries作ports的后置定语。
🎈the other two being Bari to its south and Trieste to its north.是独立主格结构。又,to its south表示「在它(威尼斯)的南边」
 

在它的繁盛的时代,就是公元后十三世纪,那时是中国的元朝,有个商人名叫马可波罗曾到过中国,在扬州作过官。
In its heyday, that is, during China’s Yuan dynasty in the 13th century AD, an Italian merchant named Marco Polo visited China and became an official in Yangzhou.
🎈请注意「就是公元后十三世纪,那时是中国的元朝」这句话的英译语序during China’s Yuan dynasty in the 13th century AD,根据译入语的习惯进行了转换。
🎈马可波罗元朝时到访的历史在中国很有名,而外国读者倒不一定熟悉,所以增译了Italian(意大利人)对他身份的说明。 
🎈「作过官」即「曾经当过政府的官员」,译作became an official in…。
 

他在中国住了二十多年,回到威尼斯之后,写了一本游记,极称中国文物之盛。
After 20 years in China, he returned to Venice and wrote Travels of Marco Polo in which he speaks highly of China’s rich cultural relics.
🎈「游记」这里根据实际情况,译为更具体的书名Travels of Marco Polo。
🎈「极称」即「极高地赞扬」,译作speaks highly,highly是「极为(赞许)或(评价)高的」,除此还可以说think highly of something/someone(对…评价很高,对…极为推崇)。

 
在他的游记里,曾仔细地描写过芦沟桥,因此直到现在,欧洲人还把芦沟桥称作马可波罗桥。
He makes a detailed description of Lugouqiao in his travel notes. That is why Europeans today still refer to Lugouqiao as Marco Polo Bridge.
🎈「卢沟桥」亦称芦沟桥。
🎈「仔细地描述…」译为makes a detailed description of…。
🎈对于不是非常有名的地名一类如「卢沟桥」,除直接翻译外还应适当添加注释。
🎈将A称作B refer to A as B
例句
It’s referred to as the “lungs of the earth”.
它被称为“地球之肺”。
 

国际间的贸品,常常是文化交流的开端,精美的商品的互换,促进了两国人民相互的爱慕与了解。
International cultural exchange usually begins with international trade. The exchange of top-quality commodities promotes mutual love and understanding between nations.
🎈「贸品」这里应理解为「国家间的贸易往来活动」,译作international trade。
🎈「国际间的贸品,常常是文化交流的开端」:将「开端」译作名词形式beginning或动词形式begins (with)均可,只要选择与其相搭配的句式即可。
🎈「相互的爱慕与了解」译作mutual love and understanding,「有无相通」译作mutual supply of what the other party needs,mutual指「相互的,互相之间的」外交及国际间事务常用到的一个表达,这里的needs传达了积极友好及互助的意味,千万别望文生义译为have。
 

和平劳动的人民,是欢迎这种“有无相通”的。
Peace-loving working people welcome “mutual supply of what the other party needs”.
🎈Peace-loving是「名词+现在/过去分词」形式的合成形容词,例如epoch-making划时代的、state-owned国有的。
🎈party除了最常见的「聚会」之意,还可指「(给定范围中的)一方」
 

近几年来,中意两国间的贸易,由于人为的障碍,大大地减少了。
In recent years, due to man-made barriers, Sino-Italian trade has dropped sharply.
🎈「近几年来,中意两国间的贸易,由于人为的障碍,大大地减少了。」主干是「贸易大大减少」,所以译为…has dropped sharply,其它处理成附加成分。
 

这几个港口的冷落,使得意大利的工商业者,渴望和中国重建邦交,畅通贸易,这种热切的呼声,是我们到处可以听到的。
In the face of the declining business of the above-mentioned ports, Italian industrial and business circles long for re-establishment of relations and smooth development of business with China. The same urgent voice is heard throughout the country.
🎈「这几个港口的冷落,使得意大利的工商业者,渴望和中国重建邦交,畅通贸易」主旨是「…渴望…」,所以译为…long for…,其它内容处理成次要枝干。这种提炼原文主旨的能力在翻译实践中很重要,需反复练习。
🎈「冷落」在这里应理解为「生意的下滑,贸易量的减少」,译为declining business。
🎈建交establish diplomatic relations
例句
Chile was the first South American country to establish diplomatic ties with China.
智利是第一个与中国建交的南美国家。
This year marks the 40th anniversary of China-US diplomatic relations.
今年是中美建交40周年。
Next year marks the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.
明年将迎来两国建交50周年。
 

这几天欧洲的气候,真是反常!
These few days, the weather in Europe has been unusually bad indeed.
🎈「真是反常」译作unusually bad indeed,这里不能用abnormal(异常、反常的)多用于生理或精神状态方面。
 

昨天在帕都瓦城,遇见大雪,那里本已是桃红似锦,柳碧如茵,而天空中的雪片,却是搓棉扯絮一般,纷纷下落。
Yesterday, snow fell in large flakes on Padova when the city was at the height of its beauty with pink peach blossoms and green willows. 
🎈「昨天在帕都瓦城,遇见大雪,那里本已是桃红似锦,柳碧如茵,而天空中的雪片,却是搓棉扯絮一般,纷纷下落。」这句原文较长且层次并不明显,译文用…when…(当…的时候,下起了大雪)整理出了逻辑层次,符合英文「重形」的特点。
🎈「桃红似锦,柳碧如茵」译作at the height of its beauty with pink peach blossoms and green willows,请注意此类文学意味比较浓的景物描写,值得借鉴。
 

在雪光之中,看到融融的春景,在我还是第一次!
It was the first time for me to see a warm snow-covered spring scene.
🎈「融融」表示「暖和」,故译作warm。
🎈原文中的状语「在雪光之中」灵活处理为「春景」的前置定语,译作a …snow-covered spring scene。
 

昨晚起雪化成雨,凉意逼人,现在我的窗外呼啸着呜呜的海风,风声中夹杂着悠扬的钟声;
There has been a chill in the air since last night, snow having turned into rain. The sound of howling sea wind outside my window is mingled with the melodious sound of bells.
🎈「昨晚起雪化成雨,凉意逼人」根据英译的语法习惯调整了语序,先说a chill in the air(凉意逼人),再说snow having turned into rain(雪化成雨),不必拘泥于原文。
🎈和…混合 mingle with
例句
If we mingle with the crowd, we should not be noticed.
如果我们混在人群中, 就不会被注意到。
 

回忆起二十几年前的初春,我也是在阴雨中游了威尼斯,它的明媚的一面,我至今还没有看到!
I remember that in an early spring of 20 years ago, it also rained when I first visited Venice. Therefore, I haven’t as yet seen the city in bright sunshine.
🎈初/早春an early spring 
🎈therefore是增译成分,原文虽无其词而有其意。
🎈「明媚」译作bright sunshine,可多积累及借鉴此类抽象景物描写的英译方式。(还记得上一篇中(阳光)灿烂用的也是bright一词吗?)
 

今天又是星期六,在寂静的时间中,我极其亲切地想起了你们。
Today is Saturday again, and I’m thinking of you warmheartedly.
🎈「亲切地」这里应理解为冰心对小读者们的关爱及想念之情,译作warmheartedly。
🎈think单独使用时表示「思考」,接that宾语从句时意为「认为、觉得」。think of意为「考虑到、想到」,后常接代词、名词或动词-ing形式。
 

住学校的小朋友们,现在都该回到家里了吧?
Little friends, those of you who are boarders must now be back at home for the weekend. 
🎈「住校的」译者根据表达的需要转换成了名词boarders(内宿生或寄宿生),For the weekend是根据上文「今天又是星期六」而作出的增译使得译文更流畅符合逻辑。
 

灯光之下,不知你们和家里人谈了些什么?是你们学习的情况,还是国家建设?
I wonder what you are talking about with your folks at home in the lamplight. Is it about your studies or about your national construction?
🎈folks是复数名词,此时专指「亲人,家人,(尤指)双亲」
🎈studies也为复数名词,指「学业、课业、功课」
to continue your studies继续学业
 

又有几天没有看到祖国的报纸,消息都非常隔膜了。
Having had no access to up-to-date newspapers from China for several days, I’m ill-informed about things at home.
🎈「没有看到(报纸)」这里指无法接触到或者获取,译作No access to。Access to something指查阅(或使用)的权力(或机会),例如no access to those secret files 无法查阅那些机密文件(亦指没有权限这么做)。
🎈Up-to-date是根据上下文作出的增译,指最新的、新近发生的新闻或资讯。
🎈「隔膜」这里应理解为「消息闭塞」,译作ill-informed about…
 

出国真不能走得太久,思想跟不上就使人落后!小朋友一定会笑我又“想家”了吧?
It’s probably inadvisable for one to stay abroad for too long, for he may otherwise lag behind ideologically. Little friends, you must be laughing at me for being “homesick” again.
🎈It’s probably inadvisable for one是增译成分,指明「……是不明智的」。又,for也是增译成分,补充出因果逻辑关系,使译文更顺畅。
🎈「思想跟不上就使人落后」即「思想上落后」,译作lag behind ideologically。
🎈因…嘲笑某人laugh at sb for …
 

——同行的人都冒雨出去参观,明天又要赶路, 
Now my fellow travelers are all gone out visiting places in spite of the rain, for tomorrow they will have to push on with the journey. 
🎈「冒雨」即「不顾下雨而做某事」,译作in spite of the rain。
🎈Push on指继续做某项事情,「赶路」根据上下文译为push on with the journey。
 

我独自留下,抽空再写几行,免得你们盼望,遥祝你们好好地度一个快乐的星期天!
I’m the only one left alone, so I manage to find time to write you a few lines so as to keep you from worrying about me. I wish you from afar a happy Sunday!
🎈「抽空」直接译成find time即可。
🎈「免得你们盼望(keep you from worrying about me)」「遥祝(I wish you from afar)」,这一类书信常用语请注意积累。
补充
有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?
It is such a delight to have friends coming from afar.
 
你的朋友 冰心
Your friend,
Bing Xin
 
🔥必背词汇
amidst        prep.在……之中
英义
Amidst means the same as amid .
例句
He did his best to retrieve the situation, amidst some laughter.
他在哄笑中尽力挽回尴尬的局面。
 
alley       cn.小巷,巷道,胡同
英义
An alley is a narrow passage or street with buildings or walls on both sides.
例句
I followed him through a maze of narrow alleys.
我紧随他穿过一条条迂迴曲折的窄巷。
 
coast        cn.海岸,海滨
英义
The coast is an area of land that is next to the sea. [oft adj N]
例句
Camp sites are usually situated along the coast, close to beaches.
野营地一般都位于海滨,靠近沙滩。
 
aquatic        adj.与水相关的,水上的,水中的
英义
Aquatic means relating to water.
例句
our aquatic resources
我们的水资源
 
crisscross        adj. (图案或设计)纵横交错的,十字交叉的
英义
A criss-cross pattern or design consists of lines crossing each other.
例句
Slash the tops of the loaves with a sharp serrated knife in a criss-cross pattern.
把烤面包顶部用锋利的锯齿刀交错切开。
 
🔥重点表达
微雨gentle rain
世界闻名的world-famous
水上城市aquatic city
曲折的(水道)winding
纵横交织的crisscross 
大大小小的… …of various sizes
来往如织speed to and fro
上街bound for town
紧靠着水边situated on the water front 
倒影在… be reflected in…
在它的繁盛的时代In its heyday
作过官became an official 
极称speaks highly
仔细地描述… makes a detailed description of…
游记travel notes
相互的爱慕与了解mutual love and understanding
有无相通mutual supply of what the other party needs
人为的障碍man-made barriers
大大地减少dropped sharply
渴望… long for…
重建邦交reestablishment of relations
桃红似锦,柳碧如茵At the height of its beauty with pink peach blossoms and green willows
悠扬的钟声 melodious sound of bells
凉意逼人a chill in the air
雪化成雨snow having turned into rain
明媚bright sunshine
亲切地 warmheartedly
隔膜 ill-informed about…
思想上落后lag behind ideologically
赶路 push on with the journey
免得你们盼望keep you from worrying about me
遥祝I wish you from afar
 
🔥复盘测试
微雨   
世界闻名的    
水上城市         
曲折的(水道)  
纵横交织的       
大大小小的…    
来往如织          
上街    
紧靠着水边     
倒影在…   
在它的繁盛的时代   
作过官              
极称         
仔细地描述…   
游记           
相互的爱慕与了解     
有无相通                 
人为的障碍
大大地减少
渴望…   
重建邦交    
桃红似锦,柳碧如茵            
悠扬的钟声    
凉意逼人       
雪化成雨       
明媚        
亲切地
隔膜       
思想上落后     
赶路             
免得你们盼望     
遥祝             
 
🔥表达对比
「组成、构成」有几种表达?
 
威尼斯却是由一百多个小岛(组成)的,一条较宽的曲折的水道,就算是大街,其余许许多多纵横交织的小水道,就算是小巷。
Venice is a port composed of more than 100 small islands cut by a broad winding waterway serving as its avenue and numerous small crisscross water courses serving as its alleys.
客户端JSP文件(组成)了Web应用程序客户端部分的前端。
The client JSP files make up the front end for the client part of the Web application.
你的对任何人的反应(组成)了仅有的、决定你和他的关系的因素。
Your reactions to any person constitute the only factor that determines your relationship with him.
岸上的救援者跳进河水较浅的地方,相互挽着手臂(组成)了一条“人链”。 
The rescuers on the bank waded into a shallow part of the river and gripped each other’s arms to form a human chain.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《再寄小读者》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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