Predawn Beijing –Ji Xianlin 🔥背景知识：季羡林，著名教育家、印度学家、梵文文学翻译家、散文家，自1948年起任北京大家东方语言文学系教授兼系主任。本文是他写于1985年2月11日的一篇小品文。文章叙述他喜爱黎明前的北京有诸多原因，其中主要的一条是在黎明以前他可免除种种会议的困扰，“安安静静”从事脑力劳动。作者现身说法，对建国以来长期流行的“文山会海”提出含蓄的批评。🎈「黎明前的北京」除译为Predawn Beijing外，也可译为Beijing before Dawn或Beijing before Daybreak。前后加起来，我在北京已经住了四十多年，算是一个老北京了。北京的名胜古迹，北京的妙处，我应该说是了解的；其他老北京当然也了解。I’ve been in Beijing altogether for over 40 years. So I can well call myself a long-timer of Beijing. Like all other long-timers of the city, I’m supposed to be very familiar with its scenic spots and historical sites, nay, its superb attractions.🎈前后加起来四十多年→一共有四十多年，现译为altogether for over 40 years。🎈「算是一个老北京了」除译为I can well call myself a long-timer of Beijing外，也可译为I‘m eligible for being called a long-timer of Beijing。又，long-timer也可用old-timer代替。🎈「北京的妙处」是上句「北京的名胜古迹」的补充，故译为nay, its superb attractions，其中nay是副词，作“不仅如此”解，是译文中添加的成分。 🎈「其他老北京当然也了解」处理成了以like引出的介词短语作状语。但是有一点，我相信绝大多数老北京并不了解，这就是黎明时分以前的北京。多少年来，我养成了一个习惯：每天早晨四点在黎明以前起床工作。But I believe there is one thing lying unknown to most of the long-time residents —the predawn hours of Beijing. For many years, I have been in the habit of getting up before daybreak to start work at four.🎈「有一点……老北京并不了解」译为there is one thing lying unknown to… long-time residents，其中lying和remaining同义。🎈多少年来，我养成了一个习惯→多年来我一直保留/有这个习惯，现译为have been in the habit of🎈「有一点……，这就是……」可用破折号表达。我不出去跑步或散步，而是一下床就干活儿。因此我对黎明前的北京的了解是在屋子里感觉到的。Instead of going out for a jog or walk, I’ll set about my work as soon as I’m out of bed. As a result, it is from inside my study that I’ve got the feel of predawn Beijing. 🎈「it is from inside my study that ……」是强调句。study指书房。我从前在什么报上读过一篇文章，讲黎明时分天安门广场上的清洁工人。那情景必然是非常动人的，可惜我从未能见到，只是心向往之而已。Years ago, I hit upon a newspaper article about street cleaners in Tian’anmen Square at daybreak. It must have been a very moving scene, but what a pity I haven’t seen it with my own eyes. I can only picture it in my mind longingly. 🎈「在什么报上读过一篇文章」译为I hit upon a newspaper article，其中to hit upon是成语，作「偶然发现」解，和to come across、to find by chance等同义。🎈must have done表示对过去的肯定推测，报纸上刊登的事迹必然是之前发生过的。🎈what a pity表示「遗憾、可惜」之意。四十年前，我住在城里在明朝曾经是特务机关的东厂里面。几座深深的大院子，在最里面三个院子里只住着我一个人。Forty years ago, I lived downtown in Dongchang, a compound which had housed the secret service of the Ming Dynasty. There were inside it several deep spacious courtyards one leading into another. I was the sole dweller of the three innermost courtyards.🎈one leading into another是增译成分，说明院子的布局方式。朋友们都说这地方阴森可怕，晚上很少有人敢来找我，我则怡然自得。My friends, calling this place too ghastly, seldom dared to come to see me in the evening whereas I myself found it quite agreeable.🎈「我则怡然自得」意即「我却觉得很惬意」，故译为whereas I myself find it quite agreeable。 每当夏夜，我起床以后，立刻就闻到院子里那些高大的马缨花树散发出来的阵阵幽香，这些香气破窗而入，我于此时神清气爽，乐不可支，连手中那一枝笨拙的笔也仿佛生了花。In summer, the moment I got out of bed before daybreak, I would smell the delicate fragrance of the giant silk trees coming from outside my window. Thereupon, I would feel refreshed and joyful, and the clumsy pen in my hand would seem to have become as agile as it could.🎈the moment/instant/minute/second…(that) 表示「一……就……」，that经常可以省略。moment等词前可以用very修饰。例句I started the very moment I got your letter.我一接到你的信就动身了。🎈 「have become as agile as it could 」as…as结构中，第二个as后面成分的省略情况，在不引起误解的前提下可以省略多余部分,否则不能省略。比较下列句子：He is clever as I (am). He tends me as well as my mother does.He tends me as well as (he tends) his family.几年以后，我搬到西郊来住，照例四点起床，坐在窗前工作。白天透过窗子能够看到北京展览馆那金光闪闪的高塔的尖顶，此时当然看不到了。Several years later when I moved to the western suburbs, I kept my habit of rising at four to begin work at the window. The glittering spire atop the tower of the Beijing Exhibition Center, which I could see in the daytime through my window, would no longer be visible now in the early morning haze.🎈西郊the western suburbs复习方位与地名《武峰十二天》West Africa 西非（人为划分的行政区域）Western Beijing 北京的西部（自然地里意义上的范围）The west of Beijing 北京的西边（不在北京范围之内）Q: near, by, beside, at都是表达“近处、旁边”，它们有什么不同？
near翻译为“在附近”，实际距离不一定近例句A new hospital is being built near our school.我们学校附近正在兴建一家医院。
beside和by翻译为“在……附近”，实际距离就比较近了，但是略有差别。beside尤指“在……旁边”、“在……身边”，一种触手可及的近。例句The boy was sitting beside his father.男孩坐在他父亲旁边。例句I planted a tree by the river.我在河边种了一棵树。
at则表达：有目的地 靠近一个精确的地点。例句I’m sitting at the desk reading books.我正坐在桌边读书。
🎈「此时当然看不到了」译为would no longer be visible now in the morning haze，其中 in the morning haze（在朦胧的清晨）是译文中的添加成分，原文虽无其词而有其意。但是，我知道，即使我看不见它，它仍然在那里挺然耸入天空，仿佛想带给人以希望，以上进的劲头。我仍然是乐不可支，心也仿佛飞上了高空。Nevertheless I knew that, though invisible, it remained there intact, towering to the skies to inspire people with hope and the urge for moving ahead. At this, I would be beside myself with joy and feel as if my heart were also flying high up into the skies.🎈即使我看不见它，仍然挺然耸入天空→虽人眼不可见，但（塔尖）仍以原貌存之，耸入天空。towering to the skies是伴随状语。🎈仿佛想带给人以希望，以上进的劲头→以希望、上进激励人们，现译为to inspire people with hope and the urge for moving ahead。🎈at this可表示「对此，听/看到这些」🎈非常；极度「beside oneself with+情绪」例句Cathy was beside herself with excitement.凯茜兴奋异常。注意不要混淆beside和besides过了十年，我又搬了家。这新居既没有马缨花，也看不到金色的塔顶。但是门前却有一片清碧的荷塘。刚搬来的几年，池塘里还有荷花。Ten years after, I moved again. In the new home of mine, I had no silk trees, nor could I get sight of the glittering spire from afar. There was, however, a lotus pond of limpid blue in front of my door. In the first few years after I moved there, lotus flowers continued to blossom on the surface of the pond.🎈看见 see/get or catch sight of…/…come into sight🎈从远处 from afar，作状语。🎈关于中文汉字「碧」的一些搭配①碧澄 blue and clear 「水、天空」碧蓝而明净；河水清湛碧澄。②碧海青天 a blue ocean under a blue sky 形容天水一色，无限辽远。③碧汉 the blue sky, the azure sky 碧天银汉的合称，即天空。如：起楼侵碧汉，初日照红妆。——江总《和衡阳殿下高楼看妓》④碧海 blue sea 碧蓝色的海⑤碧空 the azure sky; the blue sky 蔚蓝色的天空。如：孤帆远影碧空尽。——唐·李白《黄鹤楼送孟浩然之广陵》诗。⑥碧落 the sky 天空。如：上穷碧落下黄泉，两处茫茫皆不见。——唐·白居易《长恨歌》⑦碧霄 the blue sky 蓝天⑧碧血 blood shed in a just cause 为正义死难而流的血，烈士的血。⑨碧玉 jasper 一种不透明隐晶质石英夏天早晨四点已经算是黎明时分。在薄暗中透过窗子可以看到接天莲叶，而荷花的香气也幽然袭来，我顾而乐之，大有超出马缨花和金色塔顶之上的意味了。In the summertime, when day broke early at four, a vast stretch of lotus leaves looking skywards outside my window came dimly into sight while the quiet fragrance of the lotus flowers assailed my nose. All that delighted me even more than the silk trees and the glittering spire.🎈破晓，黎明 dawn arrives；the day is breaking…🎈一大片a vast stretch of🎈接天莲叶 lotus leaves looking skywards 是因为天空倒映在了池水中，此处接的「天」其实是天空的倒影。🎈「香气幽然袭来」意即「香气悄悄地扑鼻而来」。「香气幽然袭来」→副词「幽然地（袭来）」转换成了形容词「幽然的（香气）」，现译为the quiet fragrance of the lotus flowers assailed my nose（或nostrils）。难道我欣赏黎明前的北京仅仅由于上述的原因吗？不是的。三十几年以来，我成了一个“开会迷”。说老实话，积三十年之经验，我真有点怕开会了。Is it exclusively due to the above-mentioned that I’ve developed a liking for predawn Beijing? No. For 30 years, I’ve been bogged down in the mire of meetings. To tell you the truth, with the experience accumulated over the 30 years, I’m now scared of meetings.🎈一般疑问句的强调句型：Is/Was it+被强调部分（通常是主语、宾语或状语）+that/who+其他部分？🎈「开会迷」在文中并不指「对开会着迷」或「特别爱好开会」。它的真正意思却是「陷入繁多的的会议之中」或者「疲于应付各种会议」，因此可译为I’ve been bogged down in the more of meetings或I’ve been bogged down in meetings。其中，be bogged down in the mire of意为「陷入……沼泽/烂摊子…」🎈工作狂 workaholic 读书狂 bookworm在白天，一整天说不定什么时候就会接到开会的通知。说一句过火的话，我简直是提心吊胆，心里不得安宁。In the daytime, there is no telling when I may be served a notice for attending a meeting. To exaggerate it a bit, that keeps me in constant suspense and makes me fidgety. 🎈无法预料;谁也不清楚;谁也说不准 there’s no telling…例句There’s no telling how long the talks could drag on.谁也说不准谈判还会拖多久。Q: keep后面接的是什么词?🎈 ①keep+形容词②keep doing一直做某事③keep sb. doing让某人一直做某事④keep sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人做某事⑥keep in +表示状态的词。如此处的keeps me in constant suspense。即使不开会，这种惴惴不安的心情总摆脱不掉。只有在黎明以前，根据我的经验，没有哪里会来找你开会的。Even when no meeting is to take place, I feel restless all the same. However, my experience tells that it is only during the predawn hours that I can be truly havened from any involvement in meetings.🎈即使这样，仍然 all the same。 例句All the same, more could be done. 即使这样，也并非无可作为。🎈「只有在黎明以前……没有哪里会找你开会的」译为it is only during the predawn hours that I can be havened from any involvement in meetings，灵活处理，其中havened是由名词haven（避难所）转化为动词的。因此be havened from的意思是「免受……之忧」因此，我起床往桌子旁边一坐，仿佛有什么近似条件反射的东西立刻就起了作用，我心里安安静静，一下子进入角色，拿起笔来，“文思”（如果也算是文思的话）如泉水喷涌，记忆力也像刚磨过的刀子，锐不可当。 As soon as I sit at my desk before dawn, something similar to the conditioned reflex will begin to function within me: Instantly I’ll pick up my pen to play my proper part with perfect peace of mind. Then inspiration comes gushing to my mind and my memory becomes as quick as a newly-sharpened knife.🎈similar to the conditioned reflex 是something的后置定语。🎈尽一份力；尽好自己的职责；扮演好自己的角色play one’s part🎈「‘文思’如泉水喷涌」中的「文思」实际上指「灵感」，现将全句译为Then inspiration comes gushing to my mind。其中，come后接现在分词可以表示「来」的方式，或者是伴随「来」还有另一个动作同时在发生。可将「gushing to my mind」理解成伴随或者方式状语。当时，我真是乐不可支，如果给我机会的话，我简直想手舞足蹈了。因此，我爱北京，特别爱黎明前的北京。I’ll feel overjoyed, almost to the point of waving my arms and stamping my feet. In short, I love Beijing, especially predawn Beijing.🎈到……程度 to the point of…🎈「因此，我爱北京，特别爱黎明前的北京」是对全文的总结，根据写作的逻辑结构，常以in short类似表达收尾。🔥必背词汇dweller n.居民;居住者英义A city dweller or slum dweller, for example, is a person who lives in the kind of place or house indicated例句But in some respects cave dwellers were far cleverer than us.但是在某些方面穴居人要比我们聪明得多。nay adv. (用于对已叙述内容作更确切或强调的补充)不英义You use nay in front of a stronger word or phrase which you feel is more correct than the one you have just used and helps to emphasize the point you are making.例句He was grateful for and proud of his son’s remarkable, nay, unique performance.他为儿子出色的，不，应该是独一无二的表演心怀感激和骄傲。clumsy adj.笨拙的;不灵活的英义A clumsy person moves or handles things in a careless, awkward way, often so that things are knocked over or broken.例句Unfortunately, I was still very clumsy behind the wheel of the jeep.令人遗憾的是我开起吉普来还是笨手笨脚spacious adj.广阔的;宽敞的英义A spacious room or other place is large in size or area, so that you can move around freely in it.例句The house has a spacious kitchen and dining area.这座房子有一个宽敞的厨房和用餐区。fidgety adj.坐立不安的;烦躁的英义Someone who is fidgety keeps fidgeting, for example because they are nervous or bored.例句He felt fidgety and immersed his head in the cold water.他觉得很烦躁,把头伸进了冷水中。agreeable adj.令人愉快的；宜人的英义If something is agreeable, it is pleasant and you enjoy it.例句an agreeable warmth in the house房屋内宜人的温暖agile adj.敏捷的；灵敏的英义Someone who is agile can move quickly and easily.例句At 20 years old he was not as agile as he is now.20岁时他并不如现在这般矫健。assail v.声音或气味侵入，刺激英义If you say that a loud sound or a strong smell assails someone’s ears or nostrils, you are emphasizing that it is very intense and seems shocking or unpleasant.例句The scent of burning metal assailed his nostrils.燃烧的金属的味道刺激着他的嗅觉。atop prep.在…顶上，在…上面英义If something is atop something else, it is on top of it.例句Under the newspaper, atop a sheet of paper, lay an envelope.在报纸下面的一张纸上放着一个信封。🔥重点表达黎明前的北京Predawn Beijing/Beijing before Dawn/Beijing before Daybreak算是一个老北京了can well call myself a long-timer of Beijing名胜古迹scenic spots and historical sites有一点,绝大多数…并不了解there is one thing lying unknown to most of…在黎明以前起床getting up before daybreak出去跑步或散步going out for a jog or walk开始做，着手set about （doing）sth.在什么报上读过一篇文章，讲…hit upon a newspaper article about天安门广场in Tian’anmen Square遗憾、可惜what a pity只是心向往之而已can only picture it in my mind longingly特务机关the secret service几座深深的大院子several deep spacious courtyards连手中那一枝笨拙的笔也仿佛生了花the clumsy pen in my hand would seem to have become as agile as it could西郊the western suburbs金光闪闪的高塔的尖顶the glittering spire atop the tower 白天in the daytime在朦胧的清晨in the morning haze耸入天空towering to the skies乐不可支be beside myself with joy心也仿佛飞上了高空feel as if my heart were also flying high up into the skies看见 see/get or catch sight of…/…come into sight从远处 from afar一片清碧的荷塘a lotus pond of limpid blue破晓，黎明 dawn arrives；the day is breaking…一大片a vast stretch of接天莲叶lotus leaves looking skywards香气幽然袭来the quiet fragrance of the lotus flowers assailed my nose（或nostrils）欣赏…develop a liking for积三十年之经验with the experience accumulated over the 30 years陷入……沼泽/烂摊子…be bogged down in the mire of工作狂 workaholic 读书狂 bookworm接到开会的通知be served a notice for attending a meeting提心吊胆in constant suspense即使这样，仍然 all the same根据我的经验my experience tells that免受……之忧be havened from尽一份力；尽好自己的职责；扮演好自己的角色play one’s part简直想手舞足蹈了almost to the point of waving my arms and stamping my feet总之 in short🔥复盘测试黎明前的北京算是一个老北京了名胜古迹有一点,绝大多数…并不了解在黎明以前起床出去跑步或散步开始做，着手在什么报上读过一篇文章，讲…天安门广场遗憾、可惜只是心向往之而已特务机关几座深深的大院子连手中那一枝笨拙的笔也仿佛生了花西郊金光闪闪的高塔的尖顶白天在朦胧的清晨耸入天空乐不可支心也仿佛飞上了高空看见从远处一片清碧的荷塘破晓，黎明一大片接天莲叶香气幽然袭来欣赏…积三十年之经验陷入……沼泽/烂摊子…工作狂读书狂接到开会的通知提心吊胆即使这样，仍然根据我的经验免受……之忧尽一份力；尽好自己的职责；扮演好自己的角色简直想手舞足蹈了总之🔥表达对比如何表示「心情愉悦or乐不可支」？朋友们都说这地方阴森可怕，晚上很少有人敢来找我，我则「怡然自得」。My friends, calling this place too ghastly, seldom dared to come to see me in the evening whereas I myself found it quite agreeable.我于此时神清气爽，「乐不可支」，连手中那一枝笨拙的笔也仿佛生了花。Thereupon, I would feel refreshed and joyful, and the clumsy pen in my hand would seem to have become as agile as it could.我仍然是「乐不可支」，「心也仿佛飞上了高空」。At this, I would be beside myself with joy and feel as if my heart were also flying high up into the skies.我顾而「乐」之，大有超出马缨花和金色塔顶之上的意味了。All that delighted me even more than the silk trees and the glittering spire.当时，我真是「乐不可支」，如果给我机会的话，我简直想「手舞足蹈」了。I’ll feel overjoyed, almost to the point of waving my arms and stamping my feet.