Father –Lu Yan🔥背景知识：《父亲》是我国近代优秀作家鲁彦（1901-1944）写的一篇散文。文章追叙父亲为儿子劳碌一生，是对父爱的赞颂。原文风格朴素，英译时文字也应力求通俗。 “父亲已经上了六十岁了，还想作一点事业，积一点钱，给我造起屋子来。”一个朋友从北方来，告诉了我这样的话。他的话使我想起了我的父亲。我的父亲正是和他的父亲完全一样的。“Father is now over sixty, but he still wants to work to save up for a house to be built for me,” a friend of mine from North China told me. That put me in mind of my father. My father was very much like his.🎈「积一点钱，给我造起屋子来」译为to save up for a house to be built for me，其中to save up for是成语，作「为……而把钱存起来」解。🎈「他的话使我想起了我的父亲」译为That put me in mind of my father等于That reminded me of my father。To put one in mind of是成语。🎈方位与地名《武峰十二天》West Africa 西非（人为划分的行政区域）Western Beijing 北京的西部（自然地里意义上的范围）The west of Beijing 北京的西边（不在北京范围之内）我的父亲曾经为我苦了一生，把我养大，送我进学校，为我造了屋子，买了几亩田地。Father went through untold hardships for me all his life. He brought me up, sent me to school, had a house built for me and bought me a few mu of land.🎈穷尽一生 all his life。在句中，名词词组作时间状语。🎈had a house built是have sth. done结构。六十岁那一年，还到汉口去做生意，怕人家嫌他年老，只说自己五十几岁。He went to Hankou to engage in trade the year when he was already sixty. And he tried to make out that he was still in his fifties lest people should consider him too old to be of much use.🎈「只说五十几岁」译为tried to make out that he was still in his fifties，其中to make out是成语，作「声称」或「假装」等解；在某人五十多岁的时候in one’s fifties。🎈lest, in case, for fear that「以防，万一，唯恐」引导目的状语从句常用虚拟语气，谓语动词用「should+动词原形」。lest, for fear that从句中的should可以省去；in case从句中的should通常不省略，但是in case引导的从句也可用陈述语气。例句He took the raincoat with him lest it should rain.他带上了雨衣，以防下雨。I obeyed her for fear that she should be angry.我得顺着她，免得她生气。In case he comes, let me know. 万一他来了，告诉我一声。🎈怕人家嫌他年老→怕人家嫌他年纪太大（而干不了活/没用），故译为consider him too old to be of much use大家都劝他不要再出门，他偏背着包裹走了。“让我再帮儿子几年！”他只是这样说。 We had all tried to dissuade him from going out to Hankou, but he simply wouldn’t listen and left home carrying the luggage on his back. “Let me toil a few more years for my son’s sake!” That was what he said.🎈all通常放在实义动词之前，系动词和情态动词后。🎈「让我再帮儿子几年！」译为：Let me toil a few more years for my son’s sake！如把原文中的“帮”字直译为help，则欠达意。 后来屋子被火烧掉了，他还想再做生意，把屋子重造起来。我安慰他说，三年以后我自己就可积起钱造屋了，还是等一等吧。It happened afterwards that the house was burned down. And he wanted to go back to his business in order to have the house rebuilt. I tried to console him, saying that there was no need for him to do it because in three years’ time I myself would have laid by enough money for a new house. 🎈It happened afterwards that…中，it是形式主语。🎈in+一段时间可以表示在一段时间之内也可以表示在一段时间之后，可以与现在时，过去时和将来时连用。例句①现在时。The plane takes off in 10 minutes.飞机在十分钟内起飞。表示在10分钟之内，飞机就会起飞，用现在时态。②过去时。He learned to drive in three weeks.他用了三个星期学会了开车。学会开车这件事发生在过去的时间段，所以本句中用了过去时。③将来时。He will arrive in Beijing in 3 days.他将在3天后到北京。到达北京这件事还没有发生，所以就用了将来时。🎈「就可积起钱造屋了」译为would have laid by enough money for a new house，其中laid by是成语，作「积蓄」解。他答应了。他给我留下了许多造屋的材料，告诉我这样可以做什么那样可以做什么。他死的以前不久，还对我说： “早一点造起来吧，我可以给你监工。” He agreed. Then he gave me a lot of building materials and told me what to do with them. Shortly before his death, he urged me, “You’d better get started right away so that I can watch to see that everything is done properly.” 🎈「早一点造起来吧，我可以给你监工」如逐字硬译为Let the construction of the house get started as soon as possible so that I can oversee the work for you则欠口语化。现用意译法灵活处理为You’d better get started right away so that I can watch to see that everything is done properly。其中，watch to see是常用搭配。例句He did not enjoy watching TV, but he likes to watch to see the computer and always late. 他不喜欢看电视，但他很喜欢看电脑并且总是看到很晚。但是他终于没有看见屋子重造起来就死了。他弥留的时候对我说，一切都满足了。但是我知道他倘能再活几年，我把屋子造起来，是他所最心愿的。Unfortunately he didn’t live long enough to see the new house. He told me on his deathbed that he had nothing to feel sorry about. But I knew he would be much happier if he could live a few more years just to see the new house put up.🎈看见屋子重造起来→看见（造起来的）新屋子，译为see the new house即可。🎈deathbed是可数名词，意临终之病榻。弥留之际；垂危；临终on one’s deathbed🎈he would be much happier if he could……涉及知识点-if非真实条件句中的虚拟语气。我听他弥留时的呻吟和叹息。我相信那不是病的痛苦的呻吟和叹息。我知道他还想再活几年，帮我造起屋子来。When I heard his dying groans and sighs, I believed they were caused not by physical pain, but by regret for not being able to live a few more years to help me with the new house. 🎈not … but …是习语。例如：It is not black, but white.但该注意这习语很容易用错，如说 It is not black, but it is white. 便大错了。（这不是黑色的，但是这是白色的。逻辑错误，并不是转折关系。）（摘自葛传槼英语惯用法词典）现在我自己已是几个孩子的父亲了。我爱孩子，但我没有前一辈父亲的想法，帮孩子一直帮到老，帮到死还不足。Now I myself am a father of several children. Though I love my kids, I do not share the idea of father and people of his time that one can never do too much in his lifetime to help his children.🎈「没有前一辈父亲的想法」用share一词译出，相当精妙。且，此处「前一辈父亲」意为「前一辈的父亲(们)」，而非单指「我」的父亲，故译为father and people of his time。我赞美前一辈父亲的美德，而自己却不能跟着他们的步伐走去。我觉得我的孩子累我，使我受到极大的束缚。我没有对他们永久的计划，甚至连最短促的也没有。Much as I admire father and people of his time for their moral excellence, I can never follow in their footsteps. I think of my children as an encumbrance to me. I haven’t worked out a long-term plan for them, nay, not even a short-term one. 🎈as引导让步状语从句时，句子要倒装，通常是把从句中的表语、状语或谓语动词放在句首。例句Much as I like English, I’m going to choose civil engineering as my major.虽然我很喜欢英语，但我还是打算选土木工程作为自己的专业。🎈think of…as…意为「把……当做……」，是固定搭配。复习think单独使用时表示「思考」，接that宾语从句时意为「认为、觉得」。think of意为「考虑到、想到」，后常接代词、名词或动词-ing形式。🎈nay 是副词，作「不仅如此」解，是译文中添加的成分。即（我没有对他们永久的计划）不仅如此，也没有短促的计划。“倘使有人要，我愿意把他们送给人家！”我常常这样说，当我厌烦孩子的时候。唉，和前一辈做父亲的一比，我觉得我们这一辈生命力薄弱得可怜，“I’d like to give away my kids to anyone who’s willing to take them!” That’s what I say whenever I am fed up with them. Alas, compared with father and people of his time, the present generation, I think, have pitifully low vitality.🎈厌倦；厌恶… be fed up with例句I am fed up with his laziness and carelessness．我受够了他的懒惰和粗心Q:用compare with还是compare to？🎈Compare to可以广义地定义为「估计事物之间的相似性或者是差异」例句Individual schools compared their facilities with those of others in the area.私立学校将其设施与该地区其他学校的设施进行比较。It is difficult to compare our results to studies conducted in the United States.很难将我们的研究成果与在美国进行的研究成果相比较。在这种意义上，使用哪个介词都可以。然而，当compare被用来表示一件事物与另一件事相似，或者在两件不同事情之间进行类比时，必须使用to。我们二三十岁的人比不上六七十岁的前辈，他们虽然老的老死的死了，但是他们才是真正活着到现在到将来。而我们呢，虽然活着，却是早已死了。We in our twenties or thirties cannot compare with our elders in their sixties or seventies. Today they may be advanced in years or even no more, but they will, nevertheless, live forever and ever. As for us, though still alive, we have long been dead. 🎈「be advanced in years or even no more」：be advanced in years表示年老、上了年纪；even no more说的是不再活着了，也就是死了。Q：but和nevertheless可以连用吗？🎈可以。but为并列连词，表示转折关系，译为「但是」。nevertheless则是副词，意为「尽管如此」。but和nevertheless合用，更加强调转折意义。例句①Our defeat was expected but it is disappointing nevertheless. ②The old system had its flaws, but nevertheless it was preferable to the new one.我们可以用in spite of that替换nevertheless，例如The old system had its flaws, but in spite of that it was preferable to the new one.🎈早已；盼望很久了；一直 have long been。例句Bats have long been known to harbor disease.一直以来人类就知晓，蝙蝠可以免疫于疾病。分析其中long是副词，意为「长久地、长期地」，其位置在助动词、情态动词后，行为动词或主要动词之前。此结构中，been虽然是be动词，但前面有助动词have，那么been就算主要动词了。🔥必背词汇engage v.参与，从事英义If you engage in an activity, you do it or are actively involved with it.例句I have never engaged in the drug trade.我从未参与过毒品交易。toil v.苦干;辛勤劳动英义When people toil, they work very hard doing unpleasant or tiring tasks.例句Workers toiled long hours.工人们长时间辛苦劳动。console v.安慰，慰藉，安抚英义If you console someone who is unhappy about something, you try to make them feel more cheerful.例句“Never mind, Ned.” he consoled me.“没关系，内德。”他安慰我说。deathbed cn.临终之病榻英义If someone is on their deathbed, they are in a bed and about to die.例句He promised his mother on her deathbed that he would never marry.他向垂危的母亲保证他绝不结婚。groan n.呻吟，叹息英义a long deep sound made when somebody/something groans例句the groans of those injured in a railway accident火车事故中受伤人的呻吟encumbrance cn.拖累，障碍，累赘英义An encumbrance is something or someone that encumbers you.例句Magdalena considered the past an irrelevant encumbrance.玛格达莱娜把过去看作毫不相干的累赘。moral adj.道德上的，道义上的英义Moral means relating to beliefs about what is right or wrong.例句She describes her own moral dilemma in making the film.她讲述了拍摄这部电影过程中她在道义上所面临的两难选择。vitality un.活力，生命力，热情英义If you say that someone or something has vitality, you mean that they have great energy and liveliness.例句Mr Li said China’s reforms had brought vitality to its economy.李先生说中国的改革给其经济注入了活力。🔥重点表达为……而把钱存起来to save up for一个朋友从北方来a friend of mine from North China使某人想起To put one in mind of穷尽一生 all his life做生意engage in trade嫌他年老（而没用）consider him too old to be of much use在某人五十多岁的时候in one’s fifties声称；假装to make out让我再帮儿子几年Let me toil a few more years for my son’s sake！后来It happened afterwards that…被火烧掉was burned down积蓄laid by+钱造屋的材料building materials他死的以前不久Shortly before his death弥留之际；垂危；临终on one’s deathbed造新屋子 build/put up the new house一切都满足了had nothing to feel sorry about弥留时的呻吟和叹息dying groans and sighs没有前一辈父亲的想法do not share the idea of father and people of his time帮孩子一直帮到老，帮到死还不足can never do too much in his lifetime to help his children美德moral excellence跟着他们的步伐走去follow in their footsteps使我受到极大的束缚think of … as an encumbrance to me把孩子送给人家give away my kids to anyone厌倦；厌恶… be fed up with我们这一辈生命力薄弱得可怜the present generation have pitifully low vitality老的老死的死了be advanced in years or even no more活着到现在到将来will live forever and ever早已死了have long been dead🔥复盘测试为……而把钱存起来一个朋友从北方来使某人想起穷尽一生做生意嫌他年老（而没用）在某人五十多岁的时候声称；假装让我再帮儿子几年后来被火烧掉积蓄造屋的材料他死的以前不久弥留之际；垂危；临终造新屋子一切都满足了弥留时的呻吟和叹息没有前一辈父亲的想法帮孩子一直帮到老，帮到死还不足美德跟着他们的步伐走去使我受到极大的束缚把孩子送给人家厌倦；厌恶… 我们这一辈生命力薄弱得可怜老的老死的死了活着到现在到将来早已死了🔥表达对比「老年，年老」有几种表达方式？他们虽然「老的老死的死了」，但是他们才是真正活着到现在到将来。Today they may be advanced in years or even no more, but they will, nevertheless, live forever and ever.「老来」打过几年太极拳，目前则以散步活动筋骨而已。When I was approaching old age, I did tai ji quan shadow boxing for several years. Now I only do some walking exercises.学无止境，一生的时间都嫌太短，所以古人「皓首」穷经，「头发白了」还是在继续研究。Art is long, life is short. That is why some of our ancients continued to study even when they were hoaryheaded.靠我们很近的是一位「上了年纪的」日本妇女，舞台的灯光隐隐约约地照出了她侧面的剪影。“Very close to us is an elderly Japanese woman, whose profile is partially lit from the stage, ” I said.随着进入「迟暮之年」，我们也许会老态龙钟，脾气暴躁，但我们能够使自己比年轻时更快乐。We may get creaky and cranky as we get older, but we can be happier than we were when we were young.