​​《论语·第十一章》先进篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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子曰:“先进于礼乐,野人也;后进于礼乐,君子也。如用之,则吾从先进。”

The villagers, said the Master, performed ritual and music before townsfolk. So I would employ the villagers in practising ritual and music.

🎈「先进于礼乐,野人也」译文与原文语序颠倒,采用了倒译法,即「野人先进于礼乐」

子曰:“从我于陈、蔡者,皆不及门也。”

Those who followed me in the states of Chen and Cai when I was in difficulty, said the Master, are not with me now.

🎈译文增译when I was in difficulty,说明「我于陈、蔡」时的处境。

德行:颜渊,闵子骞,冉伯牛,仲弓。言语:宰我,子贡。政事:冉有,季路。文学:子游,子夏。

Among them Yan Yuan, Min Zi Qian, Ran Bo Niu and Zhong Yong were distinguished in virtue; Zai Wo and Zi Gong in eloquence; Ran You and Zi Lu in talent; Zi You and. Zi Xia in letters.

🎈译文中,Zai Wo and Zi Gong (were distinguished) in eloquence; Ran You and Zi Lu (were distinguished) in talent; Zi You and. Zi Xia (were distinguished) in letters. 注意这几个分句都省略了were distinguished,避免与前文重复。

子曰:“回也非助我者也,于吾言无所不说。”

Yan Yuan, said the Master, was of little help to me. He was delighted in whatever I said.

🎈于吾言无所不说。He was delighted in whatever I said,这里符合中文先事实(于吾言)后评价(无所不说),英文先评价(was delighted)后事实(whatever I said)的特点。

子曰:“孝哉闵子骞!人不间于其父母昆弟之言。”

Min Zi Qian was a good son, said the Master. None could disagree with his parents and brothers about their praise of him.

🎈「人不间于……」即:人们对于……没有异议。我们可能会处理为People will not disagree with…about… 而许译则将「否定前移」,即:没有人会对……有异议。None could disagree…

南容三复白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之。

Nan Rong recited the following verse again and again: A flaw in white jade found, Away it may be ground, A flaw in what you say, Its influence will stay. Confucius married his niece to Nan Rong.

🎈白圭,这里指其中的诗句,「白圭之玷,尚可磨也;斯言之玷,不可为也」。这句诗的译文中,found与ground押韵,say与stay押韵,体现音韵美。

季康子问:“弟子孰为好学?”孔子对曰:“有颜回者好学,不幸短命死矣,今也则亡。”

Ji Kang Zi asked,“Which of your disciples are eager to acquire knowledge?” Confucius answered,“There was Yan Yuan who was eager to learn, but it was a pity that he died early. Now there is none like him.”

🎈好学,be eager to acquire knowledge,联系我们在前几章积累到的,be fond of learning,be eager to learn等一起记忆。大家在日常鉴赏译文时可以多关注同义表达,这样在做汉译英或者写作时可以有更丰富多样的语料库储备。

颜渊死,颜路请子之车以为之椁。子曰:“才不才,亦各言其子也。鲤也死,有棺而无椁,吾不徒行以为之椁。以吾从大夫之后,不可徒行也。”

When Yan Yuan died, his father begged Confucius to sell his carriage in order to buy an outer coffin for Yan Yuan. The Master said, “Our sons may be gifted or ungifted. When my son died, he had a coffin without the outer one. I could not sell my carriage to buy an outer coffin for your son, because I could not go on foot to follow other officials who ride in their carriages.”

🎈颜渊死,颜路请子之车以为之椁。这里两个分句,许译将「颜渊死」通过when引出。中文中很多时候都不会直接说「当……时」,而在翻译为英文时,我们则需要甄别原文是否有表达这层含义,即是否适合用when引出。

🎈以吾从大夫之后,不可徒行也。这句话译文结尾在other officials后增译了who ride in their carriages,与「不可徒行」(could not go on foot)形成呼应。

颜渊死,子曰:“噫!天丧予!天丧予!”

At Yan Yuan’s death, the Master said, “Alas! Heaven has bereaved me, Heaven has bereaved me.”

🎈颜渊死,主谓结构(颜渊死)通过介词短语(at Yan Yuan’s death)译出,需要将动词“死”转换为名词形式death。

颜渊死,子哭之恸,从者曰:“子恸矣!”曰:“有恸乎?非夫人之为恸而谁为?”

Deeply grieved at Yan Yuan’s death, the Master wept bitterly. His follower said, “Master, you are too deeply grieved.” The Master said, “Am I so deeply grieved? For whom should I be grieved if not for him?”

🎈颜渊死,子哭之恸。许译在句首增译了deeply grieved,与「哭之恸」呼应,且使上下衔接自然。

颜渊死,门人欲厚葬之,子曰:“不可。”门人厚葬之,子曰:“回也视予犹父也,予不得视犹子也。非我也,夫二三子也!”

After Yan Yuan’s death his fellow disciples would bury him reverently. The Master said that would not do. But the disciples still buried him reverently. The Master said, “O Yan Yuan who looked on me as his father! But I could not look on him as my son. It is not my fault. It is yours, my disciples.”

🎈厚葬,用隆重的仪式埋葬,译文选词reverently,更多地是从情感层面考虑。

🎈门人厚葬之。But the disciples still buried him reverently. 注意这里but和still的用法,这两个词在这里其实是起到衔接作用,使衔接更自然。

季路问事鬼神,子曰:“未能事人,焉能事鬼?”,曰:“敢问死。”曰:“未知生,焉知死?”

When Zi Lu asked how to serve the spirits and the divinities, the Master said, “If you do not know how to serve the living, could you know how to serve the dead?” Then Zi Lu asked about death, the Master said, “How can you know about death if you do not know about life?”

🎈季路问事鬼神,实际上是指季路问服侍鬼神的方法。在翻译做什么的方法时,我们常常会直接想到the method/way/approach等,这里我们也可以借鉴许译,通过how to do something来译出做某事的途径/方法这一层含义。

闵子侍侧,訚訚如也;子路,行行如也;冉有、子贡,侃侃如也。子乐。“若由也,不得其死然。”

Standing by the side of the Master, Min Zi Qian looked respectful, Zi Lu seemed energetic, Ran You and Zi Gong were mild and cheerful. The Master was pleased, but he said, “A man like Zi Lu could never die in his bed.”

🎈「闵子侍侧,訚訚如也」「侍侧」处理为非谓语作伴随状语(standing by the side of the Master)

鲁人为长府,闵子骞曰:“仍旧贯如之何?何必改作?”子曰:“夫人不言,言必有中。”

The minister of Lu was to rebuild the Long Treasury. Min Zi Qian said, “Why not repair it? I see no need to replace the old by the new.” The Master said, “Min Zi Qian seldom speaks, but when he does, he hits the point.”

🎈仍旧贯如之何?即:照老样子不好吗?言外之意是:不必推翻重建,只要稍加修缮,照老样子来即可。因此许译为Why not repair it?

🎈何必改作?I see no need to replace the old by the new. 原文反问句,许译直接处理为陈述句。

子曰:“由之瑟,奚为于丘之门?”门人不敬子路,子曰:“由也升堂矣,未入于室也。”

The Master did not like Zi Lu playing on lute at his door, so the disciples did not respect Zi Lu. The Master said, “Zi Lu has entered my hall but not my inner room.”

🎈由也升堂矣,未入于室也。实际上是指由的学问已经不错了,只是还不够精深罢了,许则采取直译,即Zi Lu has entered my hall but not my inner room

子贡问:“师与商也孰贤?”子曰:“师也过,商也不及。”曰:“然则师愈与?”子曰:“过犹不及。”

Zi Gong asked about Zi Zhang and Zi Xia,“Which of them is better?” The Master said, “Zi Zhang has overdone and Zi Xia underdone.” Zi Gong asked, “Is Zi Zhang better?” The Master said, “To overdo is no better than to underdo.”

🎈译文中,Zi Zhang has overdone and Zi Xia (has) underdone. 后半句省略了has

🎈no better than=as bad as,表示一样不好。

子曰:“回也其庶乎,屡空。赐不受命而货殖焉,亿则屡中。”

YanHui, said the Master, is nearest to an ideal man, but he is often in want. Zi Gong does not obey the order, but he has enriched himself and often hit the mark in his calculation.

🎈庶,庶几,差不多。一般用在称赞的场合。

🎈in want,可以理解为in need

子张问善人之道,子曰:“不践迹,亦不入于室。”

Zi Zhang asked how to learn from a good man. The Master said, “If you do not follow his trace, you cannot enter his room.

🎈善人之道,我们可能译为the method of learning from a good man,许译则处理为how to learn from a good man,下次当我们遇到「……的途径」时,不一定要直接译出way/method等,也可以用how to do something来表示。

子曰:“论笃是与,君子者乎,色庄者乎?”

One’s solemnity, said the Master, may be taken for granted. But is he a cultured man or does he simply appear to be solemn as a cultured one?

🎈色庄,appear to be solemn。色,表容貌上,通过动词appear译出。

🎈结尾增译了as a cultured one,指色庄以扮君子,贴合文意。

子路问:“闻斯行诸?”子曰:“有父兄在,如之何其闻斯行之?”冉有问:“闻斯行诸?”子曰:“闻斯行之。”公西华曰:“由也问:“闻斯行诸?”子曰:‘有父兄在’;求也问:‘闻斯行诸’。子曰‘闻斯行之’。赤也惑,敢问。”子曰:“求也退,故进之;由也兼人,故退之。”

When Zi Lu asked whether he should put into practice the principle he had heard, the Master said, “You should first consult your father and your elder brother.” When Ran You asked the same question, the Master said, “You may put it into practice.” When Gongxi Hua heard this, he said, “I do not understand why you gave different answers to the same question.” The Master said, “Ran You is timid, so I encourage him; Zi Lu is rash, so I discourage him.”

🎈“由也问:‘闻斯行诸?’子曰:‘有父兄在’;求也问:‘闻斯行诸’。子曰‘闻斯行之’。赤也惑,敢问。”这句话有太多引号,而且实际上是引述前面的对话内容,因此在翻译时如果采取直译,会显得太啰嗦复杂,因此许译处理为I do not understand why you gave different answers to the same question。通过the same question和different answers指代前文的对话,既精简又明晰。

子畏于匡,颜渊后。子曰:“吾以女为死矣!”曰:“子在,回何敢死!”

The Master was detained at Kuang and Yan Yuan did not come till the Master was released. The Master said, “I thought you were dead.” Yan Yuan said, “How dare I die when you are alive?”

🎈子畏于匡。畏,围困。这句话虽无“被”字,但表被动语态,因此许译处理为was detained。很多时候中文原文没有含“被”字,但实际上表被动语态,则在汉英翻译时需要译出被动语态。在古汉语中,表示被动式的有:

1.见,表示被动,相当于“被”。如:诚恐见欺;

2.于,表“被”。如:不拘于时;苦于多疾;

3.吃,用法同“被”。

如:吃惊受怕;吃板子。

这些不含“被”字的隐藏被动式在汉英翻译时需要译出被动义。

🎈何敢……?How dare I…?

季子然问:“仲由、冉求可谓大臣与?”子曰:“吾以子为异之问,曾由与求之问。所谓大臣者,以道事君,不可则止。今由与求也,可谓具臣矣。”曰:“然则从之者与?”子曰:“弑父与君,亦不从也。”

Ji Zi Ran asked whether Zi Lu and Ran Qiu could be called ministers. The Master said, “I thought you were talking about other officials than Zi Lu and Ran Qiu. What is a minister but one who serves his prince according to the principle and will resign if it is not followed? If so, they may be called qualified ministers.” Ji Zi Ran said, “Will they always follow orders?” The Master said, “Not when they are told to murder their prince or father.”

🎈吾以子为异之问,曾由与求之问。这句话在翻译时许通过than(而不是)来连接「异」(other offcials)和「由与求」(Zi Lu and Ran Qiu)

子路使子羔为费宰,子曰:“贼夫人之子。”子路曰:“有民人焉,有社稷焉,何必读书然后为学。”子曰:“是故恶夫佞者。”

Zi Lu got Zi Gao appointed governor of Fei. The Master said,“That would do wrong to the people.”Zi Lu said, “He might learn from the peasants and the altar. Why should he acquire knowledge only from books?” The Master said, “It is on this account that I do not like glib talkers.”

🎈是故……:It is on this account that…;It is…that…为强调句句型。

🎈重点表达

德行好be distinguished in virtue

非助我be of little help to me

开心be delighted in something

好学be eager to acquire knowledge

恸,十分悲痛be deeply grieved at something

未知生,焉知死?How can you know about death if you don’t know about life?

过犹不及To overdo is no better than to underdo

贫困in want

子畏于匡Confucius is detained at Kuang

何敢……?How dare I…?

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » ​​《论语·第十一章》先进篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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