《The stuff of dreams 话说梦的本质》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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The stuff of dreams

话说梦的本质

🎈stuff n. 基础材料,本质fundamental material 
伟大的本质the stuff of greatness
例句
Real life is the stuff of all good novels. 
好小说来源于生活。

 
It is fairly clear that the sleeping period must have some function, and because there is so much of it the function would seem to be important. 
很清楚,睡眠必然具有某种作用。睡眠占去那么多时间,所以其作用似乎还是很重要。
🎈很明显…it is fairly clear that …
it is as clear as daylight that …
it is obvious that …
it becomes apparent that …
🎈想必,估计would seem / appear,表示推测,而非虚拟语气。
例句
You wouldn’t know him.
你估计/想必不认识他。

 
Speculations about its nature have been going on for literally thousands of years, and one odd finding that makes the problem puzzling is that it looks very much as if sleeping is not simply a matter of giving the body a rest.
人们对睡眠作用的种种猜测,确实有数千年之久。一项使人对这个问题感到困惑的奇怪的发现是,睡眠在很大程度似乎并不仅仅是为了使身体得到休息。
🎈that makes the problem puzzling是定从修饰one odd finding。that it looks very much as if sleeping is not simply a matter of giving the body a rest是表语从句,其中as if…a rest又是look的表语从句。
🎈对于…的猜测已经持续长达数千年了。
Speculations about … have been going on for literally thousands of years.
例句
对于宇宙起源的猜测已经持续长达数千年了。
Speculations about the origins of the universe have been going on for literally thousands of years.
除夕放鞭炮的习俗已经持续长达数千年了。[句型同理]
The custom of letting off firecrackers on Lunar New Year’s Eve has been going on for literally thousands of years.
🎈finding n. 研究结果information that is discovered as the result of research 
🎈看上去很可能……It looks very much as if …
🎈不过是……的事儿/问题be simply a matter of doing 
例句
Success in business is simply a matter of knowing when to take a chance.
不仅仅是……的事儿/问题be not simply a matter of doing 
…的问题 (the) question of…
声望问题question of prestige
面子问题question of pride
时间问题question of time
…的事matter of …
时间/个人偏好/兴趣问题a matter of time / personal taste / preference / interest.
生死攸关的事a matter of life and death.

 
 ‘Rest’, in terms of muscle relaxation and so on, can be achieved by a brief period lying, or even sitting down.
“休息”,从使肌肉得到放松等方面来看,只要稍微躺一躺,甚至坐一坐就能达到。
🎈in terms of muscle relaxation and so on是插入语。lying, or even sitting down非谓语动词作伴随状语。a brief period和lying…之间也可以加of,此时动名词lying…作介词的宾语。

 
The body’s tissues are self-repairing and self-restoring to a degree, and function best when more or less continuously active.
人体组织在一定程度上有自我修补和自我恢复的能力,有张有弛地连续活动时,其功能最佳。
🎈self- (prefix):by yourself or by itself
自我驱动的交通工具a self-propelled vehicle
自动关闭的门self-closing doors
自我清洁的炉子a self-cleaning oven
自上发条的表a self-winding watch
🎈某种程度上to a (certain) degree / to some degree/to a (certain) extent / to some extent = partly
🎈function best写作function the best也可以。副词最高级限定动词时,the可加可不加。
例句
One of the things that fascinates us (the)most about cats is the popular belief that they have nine lives.
🎈几乎,差不多more or less = almost
🎈continuously ad.一刻不停地(强调无中断,无停顿)
continually ad.发生频率高地(可以中断)
例句
They’re continually arguing.
他们总是吵架。
睡觉的时候肯定不能吵,也就是有中断,所以用continually

 
In fact a basic amount of movement occurs during sleep which is specifically concerned with preventing muscle inactivity. 
事实上,睡眠状态下仍有着基本的活动量,以防止肌肉活动停止。
🎈specifically 
adv. 特定地,专门地relating to or intended for one particular type of person or thing only 
专门为儿童设计的液体维生素liquid vitamins specifically designed for children
专门针对职业妇女的杂志a magazine aimed specifically at working women
专门为…设计(be) specifically designed for … 
专门针对…(be) aimed specifically at … 
专门关于…(be) specifically concerned with …
关于concern …/be concerned with …
例句
The book concerns music./ The book is concerned with music.
担忧
某事令某人担忧 sth concern sb
某人担忧某事sb be concerned about sth
例句
What concerns me is our lack of preparation for the change.
The police said they were very concerned about the boy’s safety.
🎈inactivity 
n. [U] the state of not doing anything, not moving, or not working
例句
Don’t suddenly take up violent exercise after years of inactivity.
别好几年不运动之后突然进行剧烈运动。

 
If it is not a question of resting the body, then perhaps it is the brain that needs resting?
如果睡眠的功能不是在于使身体得到休息,那么也许是让大脑得以休息?
🎈If it is not a question of resting the body是条件状从。it is the brain that needs resting是强调句。
🎈rest v.让(身体的某一部分)休息 to not use a part of your body that is tired or injured so that it can get better
例句
Rest your eyes every half an hour.
每半个小时休息一下眼睛。
I need to sit down and rest my legs.
我得坐下来歇歇腿。
🎈需要…need / require / want + doing / to be done 
doing是主动表被动
例句
The watch needs / requires / wants mending / to be mended.这块表需要修一下。
例句
如果不是更换贸易伙伴的问题,那可能需要更换的就是贸易标准了。
If it is not a question of replacing trading partners, then perhaps it is trading standards that need replacing.

 
This might be a plausible hypothesis were it not for two factors. 
若不是下面两点,这种假使似乎是有道理的。
🎈这一句是典型的虚拟语气,相当于This might be a plausible hypothesis if it were not for two factors.
🎈与现在事实相反:If + S. + did / were, S. + would / should / could / might + do
与过去事实相反:If + S. + had done, S. + would / should / could / might + have done
与未来趋势相反:If + S.+ should do, S.+ would / should / could / might + do
If + S.+ did / were to do, S.+ would / should / could / might + do
*如果虚拟从句中出现了were,had,should,可以将其放在从句句首代替if,构成倒装。
例句
If I were you, I would go abroad at once. →Were I you, I would go abroad at once.

 
First the electroencephalograph (which is simply a device for recording the electrical activity of the brain by attaching electrodes to the scalp) shows that while there is a change in the pattern of activity during sleep, there is no evidence that the total amount of activity is any less.
第一点,脑电图记录仪(不过是一种把电极接到头皮上记录脑电活动的仪器)显示,人在睡眠时大脑活动的方式有变化,但没有迹象表明,其活动总量有任何减少。
🎈(which is simply a device for recording the electrical activity of the brain by attaching electrodes to the scalp)是插入语,其中by attaching electrodes to the scalp是方式状语。that the total amount of activity is any less是同位语从句[there be句型和evidence连用,后常跟同位语从句]。
🎈electroencephalograph脑电图记录仪
疯牛病bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
photograph 照片
telegraph 电报
autograph亲笔签名
geography 地理学
biography 传记
autobiography自传
demography 人口学,人口统计
bibliography 参考书目
calligraphy书法
🎈…的设备device for doing sth. / to do sth.
测量空气湿度的设备a devicefor measuring humidity in the air
探测一氧化碳的设备a device to detect carbon monoxide
🎈把A连/系/粘到B上  attach A to B
在感情上依恋…be sentimentally attached to …
🎈any adv. 一点儿,丝毫used before the comparative form of an adjective or adverb to mean ‘even a small amount’ 
例句
I can’t run any faster.
我一点儿也快不了了。
Are you feeling any better?
你有感觉好点吗?

 
The second factor is more interesting and more fundamental. Some years ago an American psychiatrist named William Dement published experiments dealing with the recording of eye-movements during sleep.
第二点更有意思,也更重要。前些年,美国—位精神病学者发表了—篇报告,报告中记录了眼球在睡眠时的活动情况。
🎈dealing with the recording of eye-movements during sleep非谓语动词作experiments的后置定语,其中during sleep是时间状语。
🎈关于deal with [if a book, speech etc. deals with a particular subject, it is about that subject ]
关于concern / be concerned with …/be about …
主要关于focus on

 
He showed that the average individual’s sleep cycle is punctuated with peculiar bursts of eye-movements, some drifting and slow, others jerky and rapid.
他指出,平常人的睡眠周期中不时伴有一阵阵奇怪的眼球活动,这些活动有的飘忽而缓慢,有的急剧而快速。
🎈some drifting and slow, others jerky and rapid是独立主格结构,也可写成some (being) drifting and slow, others  (being) jerky and rapid。
🎈burst n. 一阵a short period of a particular activity or strong emotion that often starts suddenly 
能量爆发/突然发脾气/突然一阵热情a sudden burst of energy / anger / enthusiasm
阵阵自发的掌声spontaneous bursts of applause
🎈drift v. 漫无目标地移动、改变等to move, change, or do sth. without any plan or purpose 
例句
The crowds drifted away from the stadium.
人群从体育场中散开了。
🎈jerky adj. 忽动忽停的,颠簸不稳的making sudden starts and stops and not moving smoothly 

 
People woken during these periods of eye-movements generally reported that they had been dreaming. When woken at other times they reported no dreams. 
在眼球活动期间被叫醒的人都说自己在做梦;在其他期间叫醒他们,则说没有做梦。
🎈woken during these periods of eye-movements是people的后置定语。that they had been dreaming是宾从。When (they were) woken at other times是状语从句的省略。

 
If one group of people were disturbed from their eye-movement sleep for several nights on end, and another group were disturbed for an equal period of time but when they were not exhibiting eye-movements, the first group began to show some personality disorders while the others seemed more or less unaffected.
如果有两组人,一组人连续几夜在眼活动时被叫醒;另一组人也是连续几夜被叫醒,但是 在眼球没活动时被叫醒的。结果,第一组人开始出现性格失常,而第二组人似乎没受什么影响。
🎈for several nights on end是时间状语。while the others seemed more or less unaffected中的while是并列连词,意为“而”。
🎈连续不停地on end = in a row = successively
🎈exhibit v. (fml.) 表现,显示,显出to show a particular feeling, quality, ability, or form of behavior 
例句
She’s beginning to exhibit symptoms of stress.
她逐渐表现出紧张的症状。
The patient exhibited signs of fatigue and memory loss.
病人表现出疲劳和记忆力衰退的症状。
🎈disorder n. 
1. 混乱,骚乱
2. 疾病,不适,障碍an illness of the mind or body 
严重的精神障碍severe mental disorder
胃病a stomach disorder
🎈unaffected adj. 未改变的,未受影响的not changed or influenced by sth[常与by连用unaffected (by …),表示“未受…改变/影响”] 

 
The implications of all this were that it was not the disturbance of sleep that mattered, but the disturbance of dreaming.
这一切暗示我们:睡眠受到干扰没关系,而做梦受到干忧是有问题的。
🎈本句包含it was…that…强调句结构,和not…but…(不是…而是…)句型。
🎈并不是A重要,而是B重要 it is not A that matters, but B/ the significant thing is not A but B
是…而不是… it is … that / who / which …, not …
本句可改写为:
1… it was not the disturbance of sleep that mattered, but the disturbance of dreaming.
2… it was the disturbance of dreaming that / which mattered, not the disturbance of sleep.
3… the significant thing was not the disturbance of sleep but the disturbance of dreaming.
 
🔥必背词汇
speculation     n. 推测;投机
n. 猜测,猜想conjecture/ guesswork / guess work
对于…的猜测 speculation about…
房地产开发的投资speculation in property development
speculate v.1猜测 2投机
猜测speculate on/about…
投机speculate in…
speculative adj. 猜测的;投机的
投机性投资speculative investments
 
literally     adv. 多达,长达,足足有;逐字地,字面地
literal adj.字面的,逐字的
字面意思literal meaning
直译literal translation
意译liberal translation
【词根】“liter” = letter
literary a.文学的 literature n.文学
literate a.有读写能力的 literacy n. 有读写能力的人
illiterate a. 没有读写能力的illiteracy n.文盲
 
plausible     adj. 合理的,可信的,可能正确的
近义词reasonable/ believable /credible / convincing/ persuasive/ cogent
合理的解释/借口a plausible explanation / excuse
plausibility n. [U] 合理,可信
implausible adj. 难以置信的,不太可能是真的 [近义词unbelievable/ incredible/ unconvincing//improbable/ inconceivable /unlikely/preposterous/shaky/lame]
 
hypothesis     n. 假说,假设
提出/证实假说 formulate / confirm a hypothesis
关于梦的功能的假设a hypothesis about the function of dreams
Sing.→pl.
hypothesis→  hypotheses (pl. [hai’pɔθisiːz]).
axis →à axes 
basis →à bases
oasis →à oases 
crisis →à crises
analysis →à analyses
synopsis →à synopses
diagnosis →à diagnoses
parenthesis→ à parentheses
 
psychiatrist     n. 精神病医生,精神病学家
psychiatry n. [U]精神病学,精神病治疗
psychiatric adj.精神病学的;治疗精神病的
一个精神病诊所a psychiatric clinic
精神病治疗psychiatric treatment
【词根】“psych(o)” = soul
psychiatry n.精神病学  psychiatric a. 精神病学 psychiatrist n. 精神病医生
psychology n. 心理学  psychological a.心理的,心理学的 psychologist n.心理学家
psychoanalysis n. 精神分析(学)psychoanalyze v. 给…进行精神分析
 
punctuate      v. 加标点;不时打断,穿插
不时穿插…,不时被…打断 be punctuated by / with sth.
例句
Her speech was punctuated by bursts of applause.
【词根】“punct” = to prick
punctuate v. 加标点  punctuation n. 标点符号
punctual a.准时的,守时的 punctuality n.守时,准时
puncture v. 扎破 
acupuncture n.针灸
 
🔥重点表达
对于…的猜测 speculation about…
房地产开发的投资speculation in property development
投机性投资speculative investments
字面意思literal meaning
直译literal translation
意译liberal translation
合理的解释/借口a plausible explanation / excuse
提出/证实假说 formulate / confirm a hypothesis
关于梦的功能的假设a hypothesis about the function of dreams
一个精神病诊所a psychiatric clinic
精神病治疗psychiatric treatment
不时穿插…,不时被…打断 be punctuated by / with sth.
伟大的本质the stuff of greatness
很明显…it is fairly clear that …
想必,估计would seem / appear
对于…的猜测已经持续长达数千年了。Speculations about … have been going on for literally thousands of years.
看上去很可能……It looks very much as if …
不过是……的事儿/问题be simply a matter of doing 
不仅仅是……的事儿/问题be not simply a matter of doing 
某种程度上to a (certain) degree / to some degree/to a (certain) extent / to some extent = partly
几乎,差不多more or less = almost
专门为…设计(be) specifically designed for … 
专门针对…(be) aimed specifically at … 
专门关于…(be) specifically concerned with …
需要…need / require / want + doing / to be done
…的设备device for doing sth. / to do sth.
把A连/系/粘到B上  attach A to B
在感情上依恋…be sentimentally attached to …
关于deal with
主要关于focus on
能量爆发/突然发脾气/突然一阵热情a sudden burst of energy / anger / enthusiasm
阵阵自发的掌声spontaneous bursts of applause
连续不停地on end = in a row = successively
严重的精神障碍severe mental disorder
胃病a stomach disorder
并不是A重要,而是B重要 it is not A that matters, but B/ the significant thing is not A but B
是…而不是… it is … that / who / which …, not …
 
🔥复盘测试
对于…的猜测
房地产开发的投资
投机性投资
字面意思
直译
意译
合理的解释/借口
提出/证实假说 
关于梦的功能的假设
一个精神病诊所
精神病治疗
不时穿插…,不时被…打断 
伟大的本质
很明显…
想必,估计
对于…的猜测已经持续长达数千年了。
看上去很可能……
不过是……的事儿/问题 
不仅仅是……的事儿/问题 
某种程度上
几乎,差不多
专门为…设计 
专门针对… 
专门关于…
需要…
…的设备
把A连/系/粘到B上  
在感情上依恋…
关于
主要关于
能量爆发/突然发脾气/突然一阵热情
阵阵自发的掌声
连续不停地
严重的精神障碍
胃病
并不是A重要,而是B重要 
是…而不是…

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