归有光《项脊轩志》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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项脊轩志

Xiangjixuan
归有光
Gui Youguang
 
🔥提示:本文以项脊轩的前后变化为线索,写出一系列家庭琐事,表现了作者对家道衰落的惋惜心情和对死去的祖母、母亲、妻子的深切怀念,也表现了作者年青时刻苦读书、怡然自得的乐趣。文章所记的一切,都紧扣项脊轩来写,而以“悲”“喜”作为贯串全文的意脉。
 
项脊轩,旧南阁子也。
My study Xiangjixuan used to be called South Chamber.
🎈白话文:项脊轩,是过去的南阁楼。
🎈chamber特指(用作某种用途)的房间。如 “婚房”译作wedding chamber。又如柔石的《为奴隶的母亲》中“<洞房>花烛夜,金榜挂名时。…to spend the first night in <the nuptial chamber> or to pass a civil service examination.”

 
室仅方丈,可容一人居。
It was only ten feet by ten, large enough for one person to live in.
🎈白话文:屋里只有一丈见方,可以容纳一个人居住。
🎈(being)large enough for one person to live in对“室”的特征进一步描写。

 
百年老屋,尘泥渗漉,雨泽下注,每移案,顾视无可置者。
As it was nearly one hundred years old, dust and flakes of plaster fell and the roof let in rain. When I moved my desk, I could find no place to keep it off the rain.
🎈白话文:百年老屋,(屋顶墙上的)泥土从上边漏下来,积聚的流水一直往下流淌;我每次动书桌,环视四周没有可以安置桌案的地方。
🎈let in和let out(《田水哗啦》中刚见过)是一组反义词。
 

又北向,不能得日,日过午已昏。
It faced the north and the sun could not get inside. Soon after noon it turned dusky.
🎈白话文:屋子又朝北,不能照到阳光,太阳过了中午就已经昏暗。
🎈稍后、不久之后soon after
 

余稍为修葺,使不上漏;前辟四窗,垣墙周庭,以当南日;日影反照,室始洞然。
I did some repairs to the roof to stop it leaking, opened four windows in front and built a wall around. When the sun was reflected from the wall, the room brightened up.
🎈白话文:我稍稍修理了一下,使它不从上面漏土漏雨。在前面开了四扇窗子,在院子四周砌上围墙,用来挡住南面射来的日光,日光反射照耀,室内才明亮起来。
🎈stop it leaking:使…停止… stop n V-ing
🎈 brighten up可指(某物)变得明亮起来,也有“眉飞色舞、高兴”之意。
 

又杂植兰桂竹木于庭,旧时栏楣,亦遂增胜。
I planted orchids, laurels, bamboos and trees about and, therefore, the old railings looked brighter with colors.
🎈白话文:我在庭院里随意地种上兰花、桂树、竹子等,往日的栏杆,也增加了新的光彩。
🎈laurel这个词有没有让大家想起一个非常熟悉的名词:桂冠诗人(Poet Laureate)——据希腊神话所述,当阿波罗快要追上达佛涅时,她变成了一棵月桂树。阿波罗随即把月桂作为他的标志,并决定把月桂枝条或桂冠作为给诗人及优胜者的荣誉奖赏(见奥维德《变形记》第一卷)
🎈plant… trees about:把plant和about连在一起看,about作副词修饰plant,表示“四下、到处”。

借书满架,偃仰啸歌,冥然兀坐,万籁有声。
The bookshelf was filled with books on loan. I read and chanted aloud, beating time by swaying back and forth. Sitting in it I could hear various sounds emanating from outside.
🎈白话文:借来的书摆满了书架,我安居室内,吟诵诗文,有时又静静地独自端坐,听到自然界各种各样的声音
🎈on loan(借来的、借贷)作books的后置定语。
🎈数节奏、打拍子beat time,类似于学生时代背书时的摇头晃脑,可以看作增译成分。
 

而庭阶寂寂,小鸟时来啄食,人至不去。
It was so quiet round the steps that small birds often came looking for food there, not scared of men’s presence.
🎈白话文:庭院、台阶前静悄悄的,小鸟不时飞下来啄食,人走到它跟前也不离开。
🎈round the steps:round和around通常可以互换。而这之间有细微差别:1、在表示”圆形运转,回到原处”, “环绕”,”周围”时,美语常用around,而英语常用round;2、round可以用作形容词、副词、介词、动词、名词;而around只能用作副词或介词。
 

三五之夜,明月半墙,桂影斑驳,风移影动,珊珊可爱。
On the fifteenth night of the lunar month the bright moon flooded half of the wall. When a gentle breeze arose, laurel leaves shimmered flecks of moonlight on the wall and it was pleasing to see the shadows dancing and hear the leaves rustling in the wind.
🎈白话文:十五的夜晚,明月高悬,照亮半截墙壁,桂树的影子交杂错落,微风吹过影子摇动,可爱极了。
🎈“三五”之积为十五,“三五之夜”指阴历每月十五的月圆之夜。
农历the lunar month
阳历the solar/western calendar
🎈“明月半墙”指月光洒满半截墙壁,译作了flooded half of the wall。flood一词运用巧妙,不仅体现出月亮的光芒,还描写出了动态美。和朱自清《背影》中的一句类似:“月光是隔了树照过来的,高处丛生的灌木,落下参差的斑驳的黑影,峭愣愣如鬼一般。The moonlight is streaming down through the foliage, casting bushy shadows on the ground from high above, jagged and checkered, as grotesque as a party of spectres.”中, “隔了树”实则指“透过树木,斑驳地洒下来”译作streaming down(“自上而下流淌”),更具动态感和层次感。

 
然余居于此,多可喜,亦多可悲。
I lived in this room, happy in some ways and sad in others.
🎈白话文:然而我住在这里,有许多值得高兴的事,也有许多值得悲伤的事。
🎈“有许多值得高兴的事,也有许多值得悲伤的事”的译文值得学习,大家可以积累表达adj in some way and adj in others。

 
先是庭中通南北为一;迨诸父异爨,内外多置小门墙,往往而是。
Previously the courtyard was all the way through from south to north. When my uncles began to live separately, they put up low walls here and there with small doors in them.
🎈白话文:在这以前,庭院南北相通成为一体。等到伯父叔父们分了家,在室内外设置了许多小门,墙壁到处都是。

 
东犬西吠,客逾庖而宴,鸡栖于厅。
Dogs in the east barked toward the west. Guests had to go through the kitchen to wine and dine. Sometimes chickens roosted in the hall.
🎈白话文:分家后,狗把原住同一庭院的人当作陌生人,客人得越过厨房去吃饭,鸡在厅堂里栖息。
🎈(大)吃(大)喝wine and dine(意同enjoy good food and drink)。另,wind and dine sb指“用好酒好菜款待某人”
例句
The firm spent thousands wining and dining potential clients.
这家公司成千上万地花费在大摆酒宴款待潜在的客户上。
 

庭中始为篱,已为墙,凡再变矣。
The courtyard was first partitioned by fences and later by walls. Such changes had taken place several times.
🎈白话文:庭院中开始是篱笆隔开,然后又砌成了墙,一共变了两次。
🎈partition虽以-tion结尾,词性除去名词外,还可以是个不折不扣的动词,指“隔断、隔开”,近义词有divide、part、separate。

 
家有老妪,尝居于此。
We had an old maid who once lived in this room.
🎈白话文:家中有个老婆婆,曾经在这里居住过。
🎈翻译学习是一个阶段性的过程。拿这句为例,最开始我们可能会将其译成两个分句,第二句直接以She开头;但一段时间过后,我们的第一反应就会是使用从句。
 

妪,先大母婢也,乳二世,先妣抚之甚厚。
She was the maid of my late grandma. She had nursed two generations of my family. My late mother had been very kind to her.
🎈白话文:这个老婆婆,是我死去的祖母的婢女,给两代人喂过奶,先母对她很好。
🎈 late grandma、late mother:late指“已故的”。
 

室西连于中闺,先妣尝一至。
The room was connected with my mother’s bedroom on the west and she once came over.
🎈白话文:房子的西边和内室相连,先母曾经经常来。
🎈关于connect with和connect to:
connect A with B指把A与B联系起来或连接在一起,A、B之间不分主次。
例句
They fit closely together and connect with each other.
它们紧密地卡合在一起,联结成一个整体。
connect A to B指把A连接在B上,说话者以B为主,为A为辅。
例句
Will you connect this wire to the television?
请你把这根电线和电视机连上好吗?
有时可用连词 and 代替介词 with, to。
例句
A railway connects Beijing and (=with / to) Shanghai.
北京和上海之间有铁路相连。
🎈the west前的介词用in、on、to都可以,看具体情况。在其中用in,接壤用on,不相连用to。此处已经交代是“连于中闺”,也就是接壤,故选用介词on。
 

妪每谓余曰:“某所,而母立于兹。” 
“That’s where your mum stood when she came,” she would tell me.
🎈白话文:老婆婆常常对我说:“这个地方,你母亲曾经站在这儿。”
🎈where (尤用于动词和形容词后引导从句,表示某物所在或某事发生的地点)那里,那儿;此外,where还可以作关系代词。
🎈“would+动词原形”指过去经常做的动作。
 

妪又曰:“汝姊在吾怀, 呱呱而泣;娘以指扣门扉曰:’儿寒乎?欲食乎?’吾从板外相为应答……”
句子解析
“I was holding your elder sister in my arms when she cried. Your mum tapped on the door with her fingers, asking: ‘Is the child cold or is she hungry?’ I answered her from this side…”
🎈白话文:”老婆婆又说:“你姐姐在我怀中,呱呱地哭泣;你母亲用手指敲着房门说:‘孩子是冷呢?还是想吃东西呢?’我隔着门一一回答……”
🎈姐姐elder sister;妹妹younger sister
 

语未毕,余泣,妪亦泣。
Before she was finished I wept and so did she.
🎈白话文:话还没有说完,我就哭起来,老婆婆也流下了眼泪。
🎈只要记住:so did she “她也是”、so she did “她的确是这样”。
 

余自束发,读书轩中。
Since I was fifteen I had been reading in this study.
🎈白话文:我从十五岁起就在轩内读书。
🎈古代年龄称谓:
垂髫:3、4岁至8、9的儿童
束发:指15岁
弱冠:指20岁
而立:指30岁
不惑:指40岁
知命(半百):指50岁
花甲(耳顺):指60岁
古稀:指70岁
耄耋:指80-90岁
期颐:百岁。

 
一日,大母过余曰:“吾儿,久不见若影,何竟日默默 在此,大类女郎也? ” 
One day Grandma came and said: “I haven’t seen you for ages, my child. Why do you shut yourself up in here like a girl?”
🎈白话文:有一天,祖母来看我,说:“我的孩子,好久没有见到你的身影了,为什么整天默默地呆在这里,真像个女孩子呀?”
🎈an age或ages都指“很长一段时间”。
 

比去,以手阖门,自语曰:“吾家读书久不效,儿之成,则可待乎!” 
When she left she closed the door behind her, mumbling to herself: “Since long none of my family have got anywhere with their studies. Hopefully, this child will be of some promise.
🎈白话文:等到离开时,用手关上门,自言自语地说:“我们家读书人很久没有得到功名了,(我)孩子的成功,就指日可待了啊!”
🎈很久以来since long
🎈有点成就got anywhere
🎈be of some promise意同promising(有前途)。
 

顷之,持一象笏至,曰:“此吾祖太常公宣德间执此以朝,他日汝当用之! ” 
In a few moments she returned with an ivory tablet in her hand, saying: “This is the tablet with which my grandfather Duke Taichang attended court sessions during the years of Xuande. You may have use for it some day.”
🎈白话文:不一会,拿着一个象笏过来,说:“这是我祖父太常公宣德年间拿着去朝见皇帝用的,以后你一定会用到它!”
🎈象笏(xiàng hù)是古代臣下上殿面君时的工具。古时候文武大臣朝见君王时,双手执笏以记录君命或旨意,亦可以将要对君王上奏的话记在笏板上,以防止遗忘。
🎈用(不)到某物have(no) use for sth

瞻顾遗迹,如在昨日,令人长号不自禁。
Looking at it today I felt as if it had occurred just the day before. I couldn’t help bursting into tears.
🎈白话文:回忆起旧日这些事情,就好像发生在昨天一样,真让人忍不住放声大哭。
🎈前天the day before
 

轩东,故尝为厨;人往,从轩前过。
On the east of my study there used to be the kitchen. To get to the kitchen one had to pass my study.
🎈白话文:项脊轩的东边曾经是厨房,人们到那里去,必须从轩前经过。
🎈one是泛指。
 

余扃牖而居,久之,能以足音辨人。
Though I lived in it with the windows closed, gradually I learned to tell by the tread who was passing by.
🎈白话文:我关着窗子住在里面,时间长了,能够根据脚步声辨别是谁。
🎈tread是单数名词,指脚步声。
 

轩凡四遭火,得不焚,殆有神护者。
The room had caught fire four times but it had not been burnt down. Probably it had been protected by gods.
🎈白话文:项脊轩一共遭过四次火灾,能够不被焚毁,大概是有神灵在保护着吧。
🎈着火catch fire
🎈焚毁;使烧成平地burn down
 

项脊生曰:“蜀清守丹穴,利甲天下,其后秦皇帝筑女怀清台。
The occupant of Xiangjixuan comments: Widow Qing of Sichuan made so much profits from her mining of cinnabar that she topped the whole country and the Emperor of the Qin Dynasty built a terrace in her honor.
🎈白话文:项脊生说:巴蜀地方有个名叫清的寡妇,她继承了丈夫留下的朱砂矿,采矿获利为天下第一,后来秦始皇筑“女怀清台”纪念她。
🎈获利;盈利;赚钱make profit
🎈为纪念某人in commemoration of sb/in one’s honor
 

刘玄德与曹操争天下,诸葛孔明起陇中。
When Liu Bei and Cao Cao were fighting each other for the rule of China, Zhuge Liang emerged from Longzhong.
🎈白话文:刘备与曹操争夺天下,诸葛亮由务农出而建立勋业。
🎈Liu Bei (162一223): Emperor of the Kingdom of Shu.
Cao Cao (155—220): Emperor of the Kingdom of Wei.
Zhuge Liang (181—234): Military advisor to Liu Bei.
Longzhong: in Hubei Province.
 

方二人之昧昧于一隅也,世何足以知之?
When Widow Qing and Zhuge Liang lived in obscurity in far-off corners, how did they become known to the outside world?
🎈白话文:当这两个人还待在不为人所知的偏僻角落时,世人又怎么能知道他们呢?
🎈默默 in obscurity
金圣华《一座长桥》
做这一行必须默默耕耘。You have to toil away in obscurity.

 
余区区处败屋中,方扬眉瞬目,谓有奇景; 
This humble man is now living in this shabby room but, when I raise my brows and look up, I claim to see magnificent prospects in it.
🎈白话文:我今天居住在这破旧的小屋里,却自得其乐,以为有奇景异致。
🎈白话文仅供参考,给出的参考译文是以原文为依据的,如译文中有“方扬眉瞬目”,而白话文解释中没有。

 
人知之者,其谓与坎井之蛙何异?”
People who get to know about it will think I am no more than a frog at the bottom of the well.
🎈白话文:如果有知道我这种境遇的人,恐怕会把我看作目光短浅的井底之蛙吧!
🎈no more than表示“只是,至多,只不过”
梁实秋《时间即生命》
我不长时间看电视,通常只看半个小时。
I seldom spend long hours watching TV—usually I watch TV for no more than 30 minutes at a sitting.

 
余既为此志,后五年,吾妻来归。
Five years after I wrote the above article, I got married.
🎈白话文:我作了这篇文章之后,过了五年,我的妻子嫁到我家来。
🎈“吾妻来归”译作I got married,已经表明了“嫁娶”状态,不用画蛇添足,写成marry my wife。

 
时至轩中,从余问古事,或凭几学书。
My wife often came to my study, asking about things of old or learning calligraphy at my desk.
🎈白话文:她时常来到轩中,向我问一些旧时的事情,有时伏在桌旁学写字。
🎈things of old可替换为something old。
 

吾妻归宁,述诸小妹语曰:“闻姊家有阁子,且何谓阁子也? ” 
When she returned from her visit to her parents she told me what her sisters had asked: “We hear there is a chamber in your home, but what is a chamber really?
🎈白话文:我妻子回娘家探亲,回来转述她的小妹妹们的话说:“听说姐姐家有个小阁楼,那么,什么叫小阁楼呢?”
🎈 told me what her sisters had asked:小妹妹们发问发生在过去的过去,故用过去完成时。

 
其后六年,吾妻死,室坏不修。
Six years later my wife died. The condition of the room worsened and I left it as it was.
🎈白话文:这以后六年,我的妻子去世,项脊轩破败没有整修。
🎈 died意同was dead。
 

其后二年,余久卧病无聊,乃使人复葺南阁子,其制稍异于前。
Another two years later I fell ill and was laid up in bed for a long time. Feeling bored, I had South Chamber renovated and it looked a bit different from before.
🎈白话文:又过了两年,我很长时间生病卧床没有什么(精神上的)寄托,就派人再次修缮南阁子,格局跟过去稍有不同。
🎈生病;病倒fall ill
徐光兴《枪口》
那回大姐犯病进院,还多亏这辆车接送。…When your wife fell ill, she was rushed to hospital in the same car.”
🎈卧床be laid up
柔石《为奴隶的母亲》
有一次,次年三月了,这妇人因为身体感觉不舒服,头有些痛,睡了三天。
Once, the following spring, it happened that the young woman fell ill and was laid up for three days with a headache.
 

然自后余多在外,不常居。
Since then I had been away from home most of the time and seldom lived in it.
🎈白话文:这之后我多在外边,不常住在这里。
🎈离家be away from home
 

庭有枇杷树,吾妻死之年所手植也,今已亭亭如盖矣。
In the courtyard there was the loquat my wife planted the year she died. It stood there with graceful poise, its top spread out with exuberant foliage.
🎈白话文:庭院中有一株枇杷树,是我妻子去世那年我亲手种植的,现在已经高高挺立,枝叶繁茂像伞一样了。
🎈 …the year she died:the + “词汇意义非常明确” 的时间名词,例如:the minute, the moment, the second, the instant, the time, the day, the night, the morning, the afternoon, the evening, the week, the month, the year, the first time, the last time, 等等上述时间名词,可以用作先行词,后面跟定语从句,关系副词原则使用that引导,不用when,或者省略that。
🎈亭亭with graceful poise
朱自清《荷塘月色》
亭亭舞女dancing girls in all their grace
何为《第二次考试》
一株亭亭玉立的小树a graceful tree
综上所述:“亭亭”一般译作graceful。
 
🔥必背词汇
chamber        cn. (作特殊用途的)房间
英义
A chamber is a room designed and equipped for a particular purpose.
例句
For many, the dentist’s surgery remains a torture chamber.
对许多人来说,牙医的治疗室一直是间受刑室。
 
emanate         v.表现出,散发,流露
英义
If a quality emanates from you, or if you emanate a quality, you give people a strong sense that you have that quality.
例句
Intelligence and cunning emanated from him.
他透着一种智慧和狡黠。
 
chant          v.吟诵(经文),念经
英义
If you chant or if you chant something, you sing a religious song or prayer.
例句
Muslims chanted and prayed.
穆斯林们诵经、祈祷。
 
plaster          un.灰泥,灰浆,熟石膏
英义
Plaster is a smooth paste made of sand, lime, and water which goes hard when it dries. Plaster is used to cover walls and ceilings and is also used to make sculptures.
例句
There were huge cracks in the plaster, and the green shutters were faded.
灰泥上出现多条大裂缝,绿色百叶窗也褪色了。
 
leak          v.漏,渗漏,泄漏
英义
If a container leaks, there is a hole or crack in it which lets a substance such as liquid or gas escape. You can also say that a container leaks a substance such as liquid or gas.
例句
The roof leaked.
屋顶漏雨。
 
orchids        n.兰科植物;兰花
英义
a plant with brightly coloured flowers of unusual shapes. There are many different types of orchid and some of them are very rare. 
例句
She breeds orchids in her greenhouse.
她在温室里培育兰花。
🔥重点表达
可容一人居large enough for one person to live in
稍后、不久之后soon after
使…停止… stop n V-ing
洞然(通亮)brighten up
兰桂竹木orchids, laurels, bamboos and trees
借来的书books on loan
数节奏、打拍子beat time
三五之夜On the fifteenth night of the lunar month
多可喜,亦多可悲happy in some ways and sad in others
建造put up
老妪an old maid
姐姐elder sister
很久以来since long
有点成就got anywhere
象笏an ivory tablet
前天the day before
忍不住couldn’t help doing
着火catch fire
焚毁;使烧成平地burn down
获利;盈利;赚钱make profit
为纪念某人in commemoration of sb/in one’s honor
默默 in obscurity
坎井之蛙a frog at the bottom of the well
生病;病倒fall ill
卧床be laid up
离家be away from home
亭亭with graceful poise
 
🔥复盘测试
可容一人居
稍后、不久之后
使…停止… 
洞然(通亮)
兰桂竹木
借来的书
数节奏、打拍子
三五之夜
多可喜,亦多可悲
建造
老妪
姐姐
很久以来
有点成就
象笏
前天
忍不住
着火
焚毁;使烧成平地
获利;盈利;赚钱
为纪念某人
默默
坎井之蛙
生病;病倒
卧床
离家
亭亭
🔥表达对比
「进入」有几种表达?
 
It faced the north and the sun could not get inside.
又北向,不能得日。
 
A few minutes later, the boss came in with my bag.
几分钟之后,老板拿着我的包(进来)了。
 
And they are ever ready to cite their own example by way of advice, in hopes of enabling young people to gain access to scholarship in an enjoyable way.
故不惜现身说法,诱导后学,使他们也在愉快的心情之下(走进)学问的大门。
 
He entered the room briskly and stood near the door.
他轻快地走进屋里,站在门边。
 

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 归有光《项脊轩志》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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