​​《论语·第十章》乡党篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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孔子于乡党,恂恂如也,似不能言者;其在宗庙朝廷,便便言,唯谨尔。

In his native village Confucius looked simple and unassuming as if he were not fluent. At court or in the ducal ancestral temple he spoke readily and chose his words with care.

🎈似不能言者,as if he were not fluent。as if+从句,从句内容与现实相反,需要用虚拟语气。

朝,与下大夫言,侃侃如也;与上大夫言,訚訚如也。君在,踧踖如也,与与如也。

When he talked with his colleagues at court, he spoke freely. With his superiors, he spoke formally with restraint. In the presence of the prince, he spoke respectfully with unease but with self-possession.

🎈「朝,与下大夫言,侃侃如也」,这里有两个逗号,看似有三个小分句,在翻译时怎么处理?直接像流水账一样一句一句译出吗?其实不然,在翻译前我们需要先甄别原文中句间的隐含的逻辑关系,「朝」是地点,「与下大夫言」是情境,「侃侃如也」是孔子在「朝,与下大夫言」这一情境下的表现。那现在我们就明确了,「朝,与下大夫言」实际上是指在某种情况/情境下,因此翻译时可以用when引出,而将「侃侃如也」处理为主句主干成分。

君召使摈,色勃如也,足躩如也。揖所与立,左右手,衣前后襜如也。趋进,翼如也。宾退,必复命曰:“宾不顾矣。”

When summoned by the prince in the reception of an honorable guest, he looked solemn, quickened his steps, and saluted his colleagues standing left and right, with his robe evenly adjusted before and behind. He advanced to the guest with his arms like the wings of a bird. When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, “The guest is gone without looking back.”

🎈君召使摈,色勃如也,足躩如也。翻译时通过when引出“君召使摈”做时间状语。

🎈衣前后襜如也,with his robe evenly adjusted before and behind;翼如也,with his arms like the wings of a bird。注意译文中with的使用。

入公门,鞠躬如也,如不容。立不中门,行不履阈。过位,色勃如也,足躩如也,其言似不足者。摄齐升堂,鞠躬如也,屏气似不息者。出,降一等,逞颜色,怡怡如也;没阶,趋进,翼如也;复其位,踧踖如也。

Entering the palace gate, he bent his body as if there were no room enough for him to strengthen up. Halting, he never stood in the middle of the gate. Passing by the vacant throne, his face turned solemn, his pace quickened and his words seemed chocked. Ascending the audience hall, he held up the hem of his robe and bent his body as if he dared not breathe. Coming out, he began to relax after descending the first step and appeared relieved. At the bottom of the steps, he quickened his pace with his sleeves like two wings. Regaining his place, he looked respectfully wary.

🎈入公门,鞠躬如也,如不容。这句话中有多个动词(入、鞠躬),许译将「入」处理为非谓语动词作伴随状语(Entering),将「鞠躬」处理为谓语(bent his body)。这段译文中多处采用非谓语作伴随状语的处理方式。

🎈同时,as if引导的从句中,从句内容并非现实,需用虚拟语气。例如,He talks as if he knew all about it.

执圭,鞠躬如也,如不胜。上如揖,下如授。勃如战色,足蹜蹜如有循。享礼,有容色。私觌,愉愉如也。

Holding the tablet of jade, he seemed to bend his body under an unbearable weight. Holding it high, he seemed to bow; holding it low, he seemed to offer a gift. His face seemed wary and he went straightforward. Presenting the ritual gift, he looked placid. At the private audience, he looked happy.

🎈如不胜。好像拿不动一般。许转译为under an unbearable weight。把「拿不动」之意转换为unbearable。

君子不以绀緅饰,红紫不以为亵服。当暑,袗絺绤,必表而出之。缁衣羔裘,素衣麑裘,黄衣狐裘。亵裘长,短右袂。必有寝衣,长一身有半。狐貉之厚以居。去丧,无所不佩。非帷裳,必杀之。羔裘玄冠不以吊。吉月,必朝服而朝。

暑天,穿着粗的或者细的葛布单衣,但一定裹着衬衫,使它露在外面。黑色的衣配紫羔,白色的衣配麑裘,黄色的衣配狐裘。居家的皮袄身材较长,可是右边的袖子要做得短些。睡觉一定有小被,长度合本人身长的一又二分之一。用狐貉皮的厚毛作坐垫。丧服满了以后,什么东西都可以佩带。不是[上朝和祭祀穿的]用整幅布做的裙子,一定裁去一些布。紫羔和黑色礼帽都不穿戴着去吊丧。大年初一,一定穿着上朝的礼服去朝贺。

A cultured man does not wear a black-collared dress with greyhemmed sleeves nor a reddish or purple undress. In hot weather he wears an unlined gown of fine thread loosely woven, but put on an outside garment before going out-of-doors. He wears a a black robe over lampskin, a white robe of undyed silk over fawn’s fur, or a yellow robe over fox’s fur. On the fur robe of his undress the right sleeve is shorter than the left. His bedcloth must be half as long again as his body. Thick furs of fox or badger are used as cushions at home. He may wear all his girdle-ornaments after the mourning. His under-garment must be cut short, except his court apron. Black-dyed lampskin and hat must not be worn on a visit of condolescence. On the first day of the moon he must go to court in full court dress.

🎈「君子不以绀緅饰,红紫不以为亵服」 即君子不以绀緅饰,亦不以红紫为亵服,这里的结构是「不以…不以…」,因此译文处理为A cultured man does not wear A nor B,注意学习not…nor…的用法。

🎈狐貉之厚以居,用狐貉皮的厚毛作坐垫,用…作…,处理为被动语态be used as…,这种译法在科技类文本中十分常见。

齐,必有明衣,布。齐必变食,居必迁坐。

Before sacrifice, he must wear bathrobe made of lenin cloth. He must change his food and live in another bedroom not together with his wife.

🎈「齐必变食,居必迁坐」,这个句子看似「齐」和「居」是主语,其实不然。本句意为:斋戒的时候,一定改变平常的饮食;居住也一定搬移地方[不和妻妾同房]。可以看出,「齐」「居」并非主语,而是指某个方面(即斋戒、居住的场所)。因此这句话实际上是无主语句,在翻译时需要补出主语。我们在翻译时要做的第一步就是理解原文,甄别出真正的主语。

食不厌精,脍不厌细。食饐而餲,鱼馁而肉败,不食;色恶,不食;臭恶,不食;失饪,不食;不时,不食;割不正,不食;不得其酱,不食。肉虽多,不使胜食气。唯酒无量,不及乱。沽酒市脯,不食。不撤姜食,不多食。

He did not reject finely cleaned rice or minced meat. He did not eat rice affected by weather or turned sour, nor rotten fish and putrid flesh, nor discolored or bad-smelling meat. He did not eat over-or under-cooked food, nor vegetables out of season or improperly cut, nor meat or food without its proper sauce. He must not eat more meat than rice. There was no limit for wine, but he must not get drunken. He must not buy wine or dried meat in the market. He might eat ginger food, but not much.

🎈食不厌精,脍不厌细。这两个小分句结构类似,在翻译时进行合并处理,即:(他)不厌精食或细脍。因此许译处理为He did not reject finely cleaned rice or minced meat.

祭于公,不宿肉。祭肉不出三日,出三日不食之矣。

The sacrificial flesh he received from the ducal palace must not be kept overnight. The sacrificial flesh of the family must not be kept over three days, or it is uneatable.

🎈祭于公,不宿肉。「祭于公」修饰的是「肉」,因此译文处理为the sacrificial flesh he received from the ducal palace。分别用前置定语sacrificial和后置定语从句he received from the ducal palace来译出「祭于公」,修饰「肉」(flesh)

食不语,寝不言。

While eating, he did not talk. In bed, he did not speak.

🎈「食」「寝」在原文中都是指某种情境,因此在译文中处理为状语while eating; in bed

🎈无主语句,翻译时需补出主语

虽疏食菜羹,瓜祭,必齐如也。

Even coarse rice and vegetables may be respectfully offered as sacrificial food.

🎈瓜祭,即必祭,在译文中转换为形容词sacrificial,来修饰food

席不正,不坐。

He did not sit in improper order.

🎈席不正,不坐。调整一下语序就是:不坐不正之席。这是无主语句,翻译时需补出主语。

乡人饮酒,杖者出,斯出矣。

He did not leave the villagers’ drinking party before the staff-carrying elders left.

🎈「乡人饮酒」在原文中交代的是一个情境,可以理解为:在乡人的酒宴上,因此许译处理为the villager’s drinking party

🎈杖者,the staff-carrying elders。可以借鉴这种译法,注意staff-carrying的构词法,由于elders和carry是主动关系,所以用ing。这种构词法十分常见,例如,a money-making opportunity(opportunity和make money是主动的关系,因此用ing)

乡人傩,朝服而立于阼阶。

At the villagers’ evil-driving ceremony, he put on his court robe and stood on the eastern steps.

🎈「乡人傩」在中文原文中表示一个情境下,可以理解为:在乡人的傩上,因此译文出来为状语At the villagers’ evil-driving ceremony

问人于他邦,再拜而送之。

When sending inquiry after a friend in another state, he bowed twice and saw the messenger off.

🎈问人于他邦,再拜而送之。两个分句,均为无主语句,在翻译时需要补出主语。

🎈注意许译并没有将这两个看似并列的句子译为两个分句,而是将「问人于他邦」通过when引出,将「再拜而送之」作为主干。

康子馈药,拜而受之。曰:“丘未达,不敢尝。”

When Ji Kang Zi sent him some medicine, he bowed and accepted it, saying, “As I am not acquainted with its properties, I dare not taste it.”

🎈康子馈药,拜而受之。「康子馈药」同样是通过when引出。

厩焚,子退朝,曰:“伤人乎?”不问马。

His stable was burned down when he was at court. On his return he asked if anybody was hurt without asking about his horses.

🎈厩焚 His stable was burned down when he was at court. 这里根据下文的「子退朝」增译出了when he was at court

🎈子退朝, 「退朝」是动词形式,译文转化为名词形式return,通过介词短语on his return译出。

🎈不问马,通过without+doing译出来。

君赐食,必正席先尝之。君赐腥,必熟而荐之。君赐生,必畜之。侍食于君,君祭,先饭。

When the prince sent him food, he would sit in his place and taste it. When undressed meat was sent, he would cook it and offer it to his ancestors. When a live animal was sent, he would rear it. When he attended the prince at a meal while the prince was making a sacrificial offering, he would taste the dishes.

🎈侍食于君,君祭,先饭。「侍食于君」和「君祭」是同时进行,通过while进行连接,表示「而」,含细微的转折意。

疾,君视之,东首,加朝服,拖绅。

If he received the prince’s visit while ill, he would lie with his head towards the east, his court robe spread over his body and his girdle across his robe.

🎈「疾,君视之,/东首,/加朝服,拖绅」,这句话有5个小分句,在翻译时需要注意断句。「疾,君视之」表示的是某种情境,因此断为一个意群;「加朝服,拖绅」是穿着描写,可分为一个意群,可以考虑用with引出,这里许译通过独立主格结构译出。

🎈「疾,君视之」,这里「疾」的主语是孔子,而「视之」的主语是君。在翻译时则统一主语为孔子,因此“君视之”处理为he received the prince’s visit。全句翻译中If he received the prince’s visit while (he was) ill,while后面省略了he was。

君命召,不俟驾行矣。

When summoned by the prince, he would go at once without waiting for the carriage to be yoked.

🎈When (he was) summoned by the prince,注意省略,我们在前面几章讲解中已经多次提及。

🎈不俟驾,通过without doing译出

入太庙,每事问。

When he entered the Grand Temple, he asked about everything there.

🎈「入太庙」在原文中表达一种情境,即:当他入太庙时,因此翻译时用when引出。在本章讲解中,我们多次提到when在翻译中的用法,大家注意领会借鉴。

朋友之馈,虽车马,非祭肉,不拜。

He would not bow on receiving a gift from a friend, be it a cariage with horses. He would only bow on receiving a sacrificial flesh.

🎈「非祭肉,不拜」双重否定表肯定,因此译文结尾处理为He would only bow on receiving a sacrificial flesh.

寝不尸,居不容。

He would not lie in bed like a corpse nor sit at home like a guest.

🎈无主语句,在翻译时注意补出主语。

🎈注意观察学习 不…不… not…nor… 的用法

见齐衰者,虽狎,必变。见冕者与瞽者,虽亵,必以貌。凶服者式之,式负版者。有盛馔,必变色而作。迅雷风烈,必变。

He would change his attitude on seeing a mourner, or a man in sacrificial dress, or a blind man, though they were his friends or in undress. He would bow even in his carriage when he met with a man in mourning dress or on official duty. He would rise with altered facial expression at a sumptuous feast or on hearing sudden thunder or a violent gale.

🎈见齐衰者,虽狎,必变。中文先事实(见齐衰者,虽狎)后判断(必变);英文则先判断(He would change his attitude)后事实(seeing a mourner),在翻译时注意中英的这点差异。

升车,必正立,执绥。车中不内顾,不疾言,不亲指。

He would stand straight in his carriage, holding the cord. He would not turn round, nor speak hastily, nor point with his fingers.

🎈不……不……不…… not…nor…nor…

色斯举矣,翔而后集。曰:“山梁雌雉,时哉时哉!”子路共之,三嗅而作。

His face changed color on seeing birds hover and settle. He read the verse:Hen-pheasants at their prime Know how to bide their time. Zi Lu made an offering to them, but they sniffed thrice and flew away.

🎈山梁雌雉,时哉时哉!Hen-pheasants at their prime Know how to bide their time. prime和time押韵,体现音韵美。

🎈重点表达

谨言 choose words with care

接待宾客in reception of an honorable guest

单衣an unlined gown

吊丧on a visit of condolescence

杖者the staff-carrying elders

生肉undressed meat

侍食于君attend the prince at a meal

穿丧服in mourning dress

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » ​​《论语·第十章》乡党篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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