In his native village Confucius looked simple and unassuming as if he were not fluent. At court or in the ducal ancestral temple he spoke readily and chose his words with care.
🎈似不能言者，as if he were not fluent。as if+从句，从句内容与现实相反，需要用虚拟语气。
When he talked with his colleagues at court, he spoke freely. With his superiors, he spoke formally with restraint. In the presence of the prince, he spoke respectfully with unease but with self-possession.
When summoned by the prince in the reception of an honorable guest, he looked solemn, quickened his steps, and saluted his colleagues standing left and right, with his robe evenly adjusted before and behind. He advanced to the guest with his arms like the wings of a bird. When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, “The guest is gone without looking back.”
🎈衣前后襜如也，with his robe evenly adjusted before and behind；翼如也，with his arms like the wings of a bird。注意译文中with的使用。
Entering the palace gate, he bent his body as if there were no room enough for him to strengthen up. Halting, he never stood in the middle of the gate. Passing by the vacant throne, his face turned solemn, his pace quickened and his words seemed chocked. Ascending the audience hall, he held up the hem of his robe and bent his body as if he dared not breathe. Coming out, he began to relax after descending the first step and appeared relieved. At the bottom of the steps, he quickened his pace with his sleeves like two wings. Regaining his place, he looked respectfully wary.
🎈入公门，鞠躬如也，如不容。这句话中有多个动词（入、鞠躬），许译将「入」处理为非谓语动词作伴随状语（Entering），将「鞠躬」处理为谓语（bent his body）。这段译文中多处采用非谓语作伴随状语的处理方式。
🎈同时，as if引导的从句中，从句内容并非现实，需用虚拟语气。例如，He talks as if he knew all about it.
Holding the tablet of jade, he seemed to bend his body under an unbearable weight. Holding it high, he seemed to bow; holding it low, he seemed to offer a gift. His face seemed wary and he went straightforward. Presenting the ritual gift, he looked placid. At the private audience, he looked happy.
🎈如不胜。好像拿不动一般。许转译为under an unbearable weight。把「拿不动」之意转换为unbearable。
A cultured man does not wear a black-collared dress with greyhemmed sleeves nor a reddish or purple undress. In hot weather he wears an unlined gown of fine thread loosely woven, but put on an outside garment before going out-of-doors. He wears a a black robe over lampskin, a white robe of undyed silk over fawn’s fur, or a yellow robe over fox’s fur. On the fur robe of his undress the right sleeve is shorter than the left. His bedcloth must be half as long again as his body. Thick furs of fox or badger are used as cushions at home. He may wear all his girdle-ornaments after the mourning. His under-garment must be cut short, except his court apron. Black-dyed lampskin and hat must not be worn on a visit of condolescence. On the first day of the moon he must go to court in full court dress.
🎈「君子不以绀緅饰，红紫不以为亵服」 即君子不以绀緅饰，亦不以红紫为亵服，这里的结构是「不以…不以…」，因此译文处理为A cultured man does not wear A nor B，注意学习not…nor…的用法。
🎈狐貉之厚以居，用狐貉皮的厚毛作坐垫，用…作…，处理为被动语态be used as…，这种译法在科技类文本中十分常见。
Before sacrifice, he must wear bathrobe made of lenin cloth. He must change his food and live in another bedroom not together with his wife.
He did not reject finely cleaned rice or minced meat. He did not eat rice affected by weather or turned sour, nor rotten fish and putrid flesh, nor discolored or bad-smelling meat. He did not eat over-or under-cooked food, nor vegetables out of season or improperly cut, nor meat or food without its proper sauce. He must not eat more meat than rice. There was no limit for wine, but he must not get drunken. He must not buy wine or dried meat in the market. He might eat ginger food, but not much.
🎈食不厌精，脍不厌细。这两个小分句结构类似，在翻译时进行合并处理，即：（他）不厌精食或细脍。因此许译处理为He did not reject finely cleaned rice or minced meat.
The sacrificial flesh he received from the ducal palace must not be kept overnight. The sacrificial flesh of the family must not be kept over three days, or it is uneatable.
🎈祭于公，不宿肉。「祭于公」修饰的是「肉」，因此译文处理为the sacrificial flesh he received from the ducal palace。分别用前置定语sacrificial和后置定语从句he received from the ducal palace来译出「祭于公」，修饰「肉」（flesh）
While eating, he did not talk. In bed, he did not speak.
🎈「食」「寝」在原文中都是指某种情境，因此在译文中处理为状语while eating; in bed
Even coarse rice and vegetables may be respectfully offered as sacrificial food.
He did not sit in improper order.
He did not leave the villagers’ drinking party before the staff-carrying elders left.
🎈「乡人饮酒」在原文中交代的是一个情境，可以理解为：在乡人的酒宴上，因此许译处理为the villager’s drinking party
🎈杖者，the staff-carrying elders。可以借鉴这种译法，注意staff-carrying的构词法，由于elders和carry是主动关系，所以用ing。这种构词法十分常见，例如，a money-making opportunity（opportunity和make money是主动的关系，因此用ing）
At the villagers’ evil-driving ceremony, he put on his court robe and stood on the eastern steps.
🎈「乡人傩」在中文原文中表示一个情境下，可以理解为：在乡人的傩上，因此译文出来为状语At the villagers’ evil-driving ceremony
When sending inquiry after a friend in another state, he bowed twice and saw the messenger off.
When Ji Kang Zi sent him some medicine, he bowed and accepted it, saying, “As I am not acquainted with its properties, I dare not taste it.”
His stable was burned down when he was at court. On his return he asked if anybody was hurt without asking about his horses.
🎈厩焚 His stable was burned down when he was at court. 这里根据下文的「子退朝」增译出了when he was at court
🎈子退朝， 「退朝」是动词形式，译文转化为名词形式return，通过介词短语on his return译出。
When the prince sent him food, he would sit in his place and taste it. When undressed meat was sent, he would cook it and offer it to his ancestors. When a live animal was sent, he would rear it. When he attended the prince at a meal while the prince was making a sacrificial offering, he would taste the dishes.
If he received the prince’s visit while ill, he would lie with his head towards the east, his court robe spread over his body and his girdle across his robe.
🎈「疾，君视之」，这里「疾」的主语是孔子，而「视之」的主语是君。在翻译时则统一主语为孔子，因此“君视之”处理为he received the prince’s visit。全句翻译中If he received the prince’s visit while (he was) ill，while后面省略了he was。
When summoned by the prince, he would go at once without waiting for the carriage to be yoked.
🎈When (he was) summoned by the prince，注意省略，我们在前面几章讲解中已经多次提及。
When he entered the Grand Temple, he asked about everything there.
He would not bow on receiving a gift from a friend, be it a cariage with horses. He would only bow on receiving a sacrificial flesh.
🎈「非祭肉，不拜」双重否定表肯定，因此译文结尾处理为He would only bow on receiving a sacrificial flesh.
He would not lie in bed like a corpse nor sit at home like a guest.
🎈注意观察学习 不…不… not…nor… 的用法
He would change his attitude on seeing a mourner, or a man in sacrificial dress, or a blind man, though they were his friends or in undress. He would bow even in his carriage when he met with a man in mourning dress or on official duty. He would rise with altered facial expression at a sumptuous feast or on hearing sudden thunder or a violent gale.
🎈见齐衰者，虽狎，必变。中文先事实（见齐衰者，虽狎）后判断（必变）；英文则先判断（He would change his attitude）后事实（seeing a mourner），在翻译时注意中英的这点差异。
He would stand straight in his carriage, holding the cord. He would not turn round, nor speak hastily, nor point with his fingers.
His face changed color on seeing birds hover and settle. He read the verse:Hen-pheasants at their prime Know how to bide their time. Zi Lu made an offering to them, but they sniffed thrice and flew away.
🎈山梁雌雉，时哉时哉！Hen-pheasants at their prime Know how to bide their time. prime和time押韵，体现音韵美。
谨言 choose words with care
接待宾客in reception of an honorable guest
单衣an unlined gown
吊丧on a visit of condolescence
杖者the staff-carrying elders
侍食于君attend the prince at a meal
穿丧服in mourning dress