​​《论语·第六章》雍也篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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子曰:“雍也可使南面。”

Ran Yong, said the Master, might be made a leader setting his face to the south.

🎈注释:南面——古代早就知道坐北朝南的方向是最好的,因此也以这个方向的位置最为尊贵,无论天子、诸侯、卿大夫,当他作为长官出现的时候,总是南面而坐的。说见王引之《经义述闻》和凌廷堪《礼经释义》。因此译文增译be made a leader,译出「使南面」的暗含之意。若只是字对字译出「南面」,而在译文中没有表达出其真正的意思,则不了解这一文化背景的外国读者恐怕难以理解。

仲弓问子桑伯子,子曰:“可也简。”仲弓曰:“居敬而行简,以临其民,不亦可乎?居简而行简,无乃大简乎?”子曰:“雍之言然。”

When Ran Yong asked about Master Zi Sang Bo, the Master said,“He will do, for he is lenient.”Ran Yong said, “Severe with oneself and lenient with others, one may become a good ruler. Lenient with oneself as with others, will one not become negligent?” The Master said, “Yong, you are right.”

🎈仲弓问子桑伯子,注意是ask about…,而不是ask,因此这里子桑伯子是谈论的话题,而不是对话的对象。

🎈可也简。无主语,结合上文知主语为「子桑伯子」,翻译时需补出主语;另外,说其「可」,是因其「简」,因此添逻辑衔接词for

🎈居敬而行简,以临其民,不亦可乎?这句话没有主语,翻译时增译泛指主语one;「居敬而行简」修饰one,译文处理为形容词结构做状语

🎈以临其民,不亦可乎?翻译时在理解原文的基础上进行改写,原意为:(这样)来治理百姓,不也可以吗?即(这样)来治理百姓是可以的。译为英文one may become a good ruler. 那么「(这样)来治理百姓是可以的」是怎么转化为one may become a good ruler. (他可能成为一个好的统治者)的呢?

举个例子大家就明白了,「她唱歌很好听」,怎样译为英文呢?直译应当是She sings well. 但是这样译并不地道,其实我们可以译为She is a good singer. 「唱歌」在中文原文中是动词,在英文中则处理为名词形式singer。同理,「治理」在中文原文中是动词,在英文译文中则处理为名词形式ruler。大家还可以再看几个例子强理解。

他撒谎了,直译为He lied,也可以译为He is a liar.

他落后,直译为He lags behind,也可译为He is a latecomer/laggard.

🎈无乃大简乎?反问句,这里的「大简」理解为疏忽大意,因此选词negligent(not taking enough care over something that you are responsible for, with the result that serious mistakes are made)

哀公问:“弟子孰为好学?”孔子对曰:“有颜回者好学,不迁怒,不贰过,不幸短命死矣,今也则亡,未闻好学者也。”

Duke Ai of Lu asked Confucius,“Which of your disciples are eager to learn?” Confucius said, “There was Yan Hui who was eager to learn. He did not shift the blame on to others, nor would he make the same mistake again. But it was a pity that he died early. Now there is none like him. I have never again heard of anyone so eager to learn.”

🎈「好学」在《论语》中多次出现,大家可以注意积累一下同义表达,如be eager to learn/be fond of learning等。

🎈不迁怒,不贰过。不…不…,not…nor… 注意nor后面需要用部分倒装。

子华使于齐,冉子为其母请粟,子曰:“与之釜。”请益,曰:“与之庾。”冉子与之粟五秉。子曰:“赤之适齐也,乘肥马,衣轻裘。吾闻之也,君子周急不继富。”

When Gongxi Hua was sent on a mission to the state of Qi, Ran You requested grain for Gongxi’s mother. The Master said, “Give her a measure.” Ran You asked for more. The Master said, “Give her two measures.” But Ran You gave her ten measures. The Master said, “When Gongxi Hua went to Qi, he drove sleek horses and wore light furs. I have heard that a cultured man will help those in need but not those who are rich.”

🎈子华使于齐,冉子为其母请粟,中文多分句,我们在翻译时需要思考分句间是否存在关系,例如这里两个分句,若直接一分句译成一句,则结构太过破碎,其实只要稍加思考,就可以发现实际上「子华使于齐」可以通过when引出,而「冉子为其母请粟」则做主语。

原思为之宰,与之粟九百,辞。子曰:“毋!以与尔邻里乡党乎!”

Yuan Si, when made a governor, was given a salary of nine hundred litres of grain, but he declined. The Master said, “Do not decline it. Why not share it with your neighbors, villagers and townsfolk?”

🎈原思为之宰,与之粟九百,辞。《论语》中许多句子都是省略主语的,所以我们在翻译时要特别斟酌主语具体指什么。例如这句话中,「与之粟九百」的主语是孔子,而「辞」的主语则是原思。为了统一主语,即都让「原思」作主语,可在翻译时将「与之粟九百」处理为被动语态。

原思为之宰,与之粟九百,辞。这句话中有三个谓语(为、与、辞),其中,译文将「为之宰(担任孔子家的总管)」处理为时间状语,即when (he was) made a governor;而「与」「辞」则处理为主句谓语,这样处理显得更加主次分明。

子谓仲弓曰:“犁牛之子骍且角,虽欲勿用,山川其舍诸?”

Would mountain gods and river gods, said the Master, reject the sacrifice of a calf because it is brindled and horned?

🎈这个句子翻译时与原文语序颠倒,采用了倒译。

子曰:“回也,其心三月不违仁,其余则日月至焉而已矣。”

Yan Hui, said the Master, would not do anything against humanism for three months on end. Others may do so, but only for a day or at most for a month.

季康子问:“仲由可使从政也与?”子曰:“由也果,于从政乎何有?”曰:“赐也可使从政也与?”曰:“赐也达,于从政乎何有?”曰:“求也可使从政也与?”曰:“求也艺,于从政乎何有?”

When Ji Kang Zi asked whether Zi Lu was fit to be employed as an officer, the Master said, “Zi Lu is courageous. Why can he not be employed as an officer?” When asked about Zi Gong, the Master gave the same reply because Zi Gong was efficient. When asked about Ran Qiu, the Master said the same again because Ran Qiu was versatile.

🎈从政/做官/为政,在前几章里我们已经积累到了这些表达,大家可以总结起来一起积累。如be occupied with state affairs/fulfill an office/serve as a officer等。

🎈注意译文中将第二次「于从政乎何有?」译为gave the same reply,将第三次「于从政乎何有?」said the same again,这是因为前面已经出现一次了,后面则避免重复。这启示我们在翻译时,有时同一句话出现多次,我们可以考虑通过the same进行指代处理,避免多次重复。

季氏使闵子骞为费宰,闵子骞曰:“善为我辞焉。如有复我者,则吾必在汶上矣。”

When the usurper sent to ask Min Zi Qian to be governor of Fei, Min said, “Would you please decline that office for me? If anyone should come again, I would go far, far beyond the River Wen.”

🎈译文If anyone should come again, I would go far, far beyond the River Wen.为虚拟语气,表示对将来的虚拟。

🎈注意译文I would go far, far beyond the River Wen.为什么不直接译为I would go far beyond the River Wen.呢?对比这两种译法,就会发现第一种语气更强烈,更加符合原文语境。

伯牛有疾,子问之,自牖执其手,曰:“亡之,命矣夫!斯人也而有斯疾也!斯人也而有斯疾也!”

When Bo Niu was ill, the Master went to inquire after him. Grasping his hand through the window, the Master said, “It is all over. Alas! it is fatal for such a good man to have such a fatal illness. Such a good man should have such a fatal illness.”

🎈「自牖执其手,曰:… …」这里有两个动词,译文将「执其手」处理为非谓语作伴随状语(grasping his hand),「曰」处理为谓语(said)

🎈注意译文Such a good man should have such a fatal illness. 这里的should表示的不是应该,而是表示说话人的感情,表失望、惊奇等。

子曰:“贤哉回也!一箪食,一瓢饮,在陋巷,人不堪其忧,回也不改其乐。贤哉,回也!”

How good Yan Hui was, said the Master, living in a humble lane with only a handful of rice to eat and a gourdful of water to drink! Others could not bear such a wretched life, but Yan Hui was as happy as ever. How good Yan Hui was!

🎈「贤哉回也!一箪食,一瓢饮,在陋巷,人不堪其忧,回也不改其乐」,这里有6个分句,如果一个分句译为一个句子,结构太过破碎,因此这里需要重新断句。“贤哉回也!一箪食,一瓢饮,在陋巷,/人不堪其忧,/回也不改其乐。许译将「贤哉回也!一箪食,一瓢饮,在陋巷」作为一个整体处理。

冉求曰:“非不说子之道,力不足也。”子曰:“力不足者,中道而废,今女画。”

Ran Qiu said,“It is not that I am not delighted to follow your way, but that I lack the power.” The Master said, “Those who lack power may stop on the midway, but you have not yet started.”

🎈非不说子之道,力不足也。省略了主语「我」,翻译时需补出主语。

🎈不是…….而是…… It is not that…, but that… 比如:不是我不想帮你,只是我真的无能为力。It is not that I do not want to do you a favor, but that it is beyond my power.

🎈画,停止,这里指冉求止步不前,因此译为not yet started

🎈力不足者,中道而废,/今女画。翻译时需要先进行意群划分,先断句;然后再想想句间有什么逻辑关系,这里「力不足者,中道而废」和「今女画」是转折关系,因此需增加逻辑衔接词but。

子谓子夏曰:“女为君子儒,毋为小人儒。”

The Master said to Zi Xia, “You should be an intellectual of the higher class, not one of the lower class.”

🎈后半句译文not one of the lower class,这里one=an intellectual,为了避免与前文重复,因此用one做指代。

子游为武城宰,子曰:“女得人焉尔乎?”曰:“有澹台灭明者,行不由径,非公事,未尝至于偃之室也。”

When Zi You was governor of the town of Wu, the Master asked him whether he had got any helping hand. Zi You answered, “There is Tantai Mieming who never takes a shortcut in walking and never comes to my office unless on business.”

🎈「有澹台灭明者,行不由径,非公事,未尝至于偃之室也」,译为There is Tantai Mieming who never takes a shortcut in walking and never comes to my office unless on business. 前面我们也出现过类似结构的句子,如:有颜回者好学。译为There was Yan Hui who was eager to learn. 总结一下,「有xx者,……」可译为:There was somebody who…

子曰:“孟之反不伐,奔而殿,将入门,策其马曰:‘非敢后也,马不进也。’”

Meng Zi Fan, said the Master, was no boaster. Once defeated, he was the last to retreat. Whipping up his horse near the city gate, he said, “I am the last to retreat, not because I am brave, but because my horse is slow.”

🎈孟之反不伐。Meng Zi Fan was no boaster. 中文原文里“伐”是动词,英文译文处理为名词形式(boaster)。这和我们前面提到的“她唱歌很好”(She is a good singer)是一个道理。这是因为中文是动态语言,而英文是静态语言,这也是中英语言的一大差异。

🎈原文的背景是在抵御齐国的战役中,右翼的军队溃退了,因此译文增译了once defeated

子曰:“不有祝鮀之佞,而有宋朝之美,难乎免于今之世矣。”

Without the eloquence of the priest Tuo, said the Master, and the beauty of Prince Chao of Song, it would be hard to get through with the world of today.

🎈不有,若没有,含假设意。译文由without引出表示虚拟条件。

子曰:“质胜文则野,文胜质则史。文质彬彬,然后君子。”

More natural than cultured, said the Master, one would appear rustic. More cultured than natural, one would appear artificial. An intelligentle man should appear both cultured and natural.

子曰:“人之生也直,罔之生也幸而免。”

A man should live an honest life, said the Master. It is by luck that a dishonest man can escape punishment.

子曰:“知之者不如好之者;好之者不如乐之者。”

To know the truth is good, said the Master, to love it is better, and to delight in it is best. (To understand is good, to enjoy is better and to delight is best.)

🎈许译通过good, better, best一步步递进,巧妙将「不如……不如……」暗含在其中。

子曰:“中人以上,可以语上也;中人以下,不可以语上也。”

We may talk about what goes beyond the understanding of the average, said the Master, with those who are above mediocrity, not with those who are below.

🎈可以语上也。「上」,指高深的学问,许译处理为what goes beyond the understanding of the average,注意在翻译时可以巧用what引导的名词性从句。

樊迟问知,子曰:“务民之义,敬鬼神而远之,可谓知矣。”问仁,曰:“仁者先难而后获,可谓仁矣。”

When Fan Chi asked about wisdom, the Master said,“A wise man should do what is good for the people, respect spiritual beings and keep away from them.” When asked about a good man, the Master said, “A good man will do hard work before he reaps. So may he be called a good man.”

🎈「务民之义,敬鬼神而远之」无主语句,根据「问知/可谓知矣」可以推断出这里的主语,译文补出主语a wise man。同理,「仁者先难而后获,可谓仁矣」,补出主语a good man。

子曰:“知者乐水,仁者乐山。知者动,仁者静。知者乐,仁者寿。”

The wise, said the Master, delight in water while the good delight in mountains. The wise love mobility while the good love tranquility. The wise live happy while the good live long.

🎈知者,the wise;仁者,the good。the+adj.表示一类人。我们前面还学到:贤人,the worthy;无能之人,the incompetent等。

🎈「知者乐水,仁者乐山」,这两句之间通过while来连接,表示轻微的对比。

子曰:“齐一变,至于鲁;鲁一变,至于道。”

After reformation, said the Master, the strong state of Qi might advance to a moral state, and the moral state of Lu might advance to an ideal state.

🎈至于,译文选词advance,为什么不用become呢?因为这里原文传达的意思更多的是积极、往上、升级,advance更能体现出这种感觉,更为贴切。

🎈这里许译将国家分为三个阶段a strong state→a moral state→an ideal state

宰我问曰:“仁者,虽告之曰:‘井有仁焉。’其从之也?”子曰:“何为其然也?君子可逝也,不可陷也;可欺也,不可罔也。”

Zai Wo asked whether a good man, when told another man was fallen into a well, should go down after him. The Master said, “Why should he go down? A good man might be told to go near the well, but not to go into it. He might be deceived, but not be fooled.”

🎈仁者,虽告之曰:‘井有仁焉。’其从之也?要翻译这句话,首先需要提炼出主干,这句话的主干是「仁者,其从之也?」而「虽告之曰:井有仁焉」,实际上是一个情境,在翻译时可以通过when引导从句译出。因此译文处理为whether a good man, when (he was) told another man was fallen into a well, should go down after him,且when后面省略了he was,在以when, if, though, although, as if, as等连词引导的从句中,如果从句的主语和主句的主语一致,且从句谓语中有be动词,可将从句主语和be省略。

子曰:“君子博学于文,约之以礼,亦可以弗畔矣夫。”

A cultured man, said the Master, if wide read in literature and restrained by the rites, would not overstep what is right.

🎈「博学于文,约之以礼」是「亦可以弗畔矣夫」的前提条件,因此用if引出。

子见南子,子路不说,夫子矢之曰:“予所否者,天厌之!天厌之!”

孔子去见南子,子路不高兴。孔子发誓说:“我假若做了什么不对的事,让上天厌弃我吧!让上天厌弃我吧!”

When Zi Lu was displeased with the Master’s visit to the beautiful but ill-famed Princess Nan Zi, the Master swore, “If I had done anything wrong, may Heaven reject me! May Heaven reject me!”

🎈子见南子(先事实),子路不说(后评价)。译为Zi Lu was displeased with(先评价) the Master’s visit to…(后事实)。这句话翻译时符合我们之前说的「中文先事实后评价,英文先评价后事实」

🎈译文将「子见南子」放在be displeased with后面做宾语,因此需要将短句「子见南子」转换为英文中的名词形式,关键就在于将动词「见」→名词visit,在翻译时,我们可以根据结构需要转换词性,无需受到词性的束缚。

🎈南子,卫灵公夫人,把持着当日卫国的政治,而且有不正当的行为,名声不好。因此译文处理为the beautiful but ill-famed Princess Nan Zi

子曰:“中庸之为德也,其至矣乎!。”

How useful is the Golden Middle Way! said the Master. It is the highest virtue, but it has not been followed for a long time.

🎈民鲜久矣,许译将此句转换为被动语态,这样可以继前以「中庸」为主语,使译文全句统一主语。

🎈中庸之为德,许译处理为the Golden Middle Way。那么「德」需不需要译出来呢?事实上,「德」在这里可以不译,因为「中庸」和「德」是同指(即中庸是一种德),同指现象可以只译一次。例如:He is a rich man.他很有钱。(这句话中he和man是同指,只需译出一次)

子贡曰:“如有博施于民而能济众,何如?可谓仁乎?”子曰:“何事于仁,必也圣乎!尧、舜其犹病诸!夫仁者,己欲立而立人,己欲达而达人。能近取譬,可谓仁之方也已。”

Zi Gong asked whether it could be called virtue to do good to people and benefit them. The Master said, It is more than virtue; it is the accomplishment of a sage. Even the earliest emperors could not boast of such accomplishment. What is virtue? To establish others as you would establish yourself, and help others to develop as you would help yourself to. To judge of others by what is in yourself, that is the way towards virtue.

🎈夫仁者,许译为What is virtue? 可以学习一下这种译法,下次当我们遇到[要开始讲解一个话题]时,可以用What is…?这样的疑问句起头。

重点表达

甩锅shift the blame on to others

使于齐somebody be sent on a mission to the state of Qi

肥马sleek horse

周急不继富help those in need but not the rich

邻里乡党neighbors, villager and townfolk

骍且角brindled and horned

不违仁do nothing against humanism

连续三月for three months on end

从政serve as an officer/be employed as an officer

陋巷a humble lane

一箪食a handful of rice

一瓢饮a gourdful of water

穷困的生活a wretched life

中道而废stop on the midway

从xx中获得乐趣delight in something

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » ​​《论语·第六章》雍也篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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