丰子恺《作客者言》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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作客者言

丰子恺

 

有一位天性真率的青年,赴亲友家作客,归家的晚上,垂头丧气地跑进我的房间来,躺在藤床上,不动亦不语。

 

看他的样子很疲劳,好象做了一天苦工而归来似的。我便和他问答:

“你今天去作客,喝醉了酒么?”

“不,我不喝酒,一滴儿也不喝。”

“那么为甚么这般颓丧?”

“因为受了主人的异常优礼的招待。”

 

我惊奇地笑道:“怪了!作客而受主人优待,应该舒服且高兴,怎的反而这般颓丧?倒好像被打翻了似的。”

他苦笑地答道:“我宁愿被打一顿,但愿以后不再受这种优待。”

 

我知道他正在等候我去打开他的话匣子来。便放下笔,推开桌上的稿纸,把坐着的椅子转个方向,正对着他。点起一支烟来,津津有味地探问他:“你受了怎样异常优礼的招待?来!讲点给我听听看!”

他抬起头来看看我桌上的稿件,说:“你不是忙写稿么?我的话说来长呢!”

我说:“不,我准备一黄昏听你谈话。并且设法慰劳你今天受优待的辛苦呢。”

 

他笑了,从藤床上坐起身来,向茶盘里端起一杯菊花茶来喝了一口,慢慢地、一五一十地把这一天赴亲友家作客而受异常优礼的招待的经过情形描摹给我听。

以下所记录的便是他的话。

 

我走进一个幽暗的厅堂,四周阒然无人。我故意把脚步走响些,又咳嗽几声,里面仍然没有人出来;外面的厢房里倒走进一个人来。这是一个工人,好像是管门的人。他两眼钉住我,问我有甚么事。我说访问某先生。他说“片子!”我是没有名片的,回答他说:“我没有带名片,我姓某名某,某先生是知道我的,烦你去通报罢。”他向我上下打量了一回,说一声“你等一等”,怀疑似地进去了。

 

我立着等了一会,望见主人缓步地从里面的廊下走出来。走到望得见我的时候他的缓步忽然改为趋步,拱起双手,口中高呼“劳驾,劳驾!”一步紧一步地向我赶将过来,其势急不可当,我几乎被吓退了。因为我想,假如他口中所喊的不是“劳驾,劳驾”而换了“捉牢,捉牢”,这光景定是疑心我是窃了他家厅上的宣德香炉而赶出来捉我去送公安局。幸而他赶到我身边,并不捉牢我,只是连连地拱手,弯腰,几乎要拜倒在地。我也只得模仿他拱手,弯腰,弯到几乎拜倒在地,作为相当的答礼。

 

大家弯好了腰,主人袒开了左手,对着我说:“请坐,请坐!”他的袒开的左手所照着的,是一排八仙椅子。每两只椅子夹着一只茶几,好象城头上的一排女墙。我选择最外口的一只椅子坐了。一则贪图近便。二则他家厅上光线幽暗,除了这最外口的一只椅子看得清楚以外,里面的椅子都埋在黑暗中,看不清楚;我看见最外边的椅子颇有些灰尘,恐怕里面的椅子或有更多的灰尘与龌龊,将污损我的新制的淡青灰哔叽长衫的屁股部分,弄得好像被摩登破坏团射了镪水一般。三则我是从外面来的客人,像老鼠钻洞一般地闯进人家屋里深暗的内部去坐,似乎不配。四则最外面的椅子的外边,地上放着一只痰盂,丢香烟头时也是一种方便。我选定了这个好位置,便在主人的“请,请,请”声中捷足先登地坐下了。但是主人表示反对,一定要我“请上坐”。请上坐者,就是要我坐到里面的、或许有更多的灰尘与龌龊、而近旁没有痰盂的椅子上去。我把屁股深深地埋进我所选定的椅子里,表示不肯让位。他便用力拖我的臂,一定要夺我的位置。我终于被他赶走了,而我所选定的位置就被他自己占据了。

 

当此夺位置的时间,我们二人在厅上发出一片相骂似的声音,演出一种打架似的举动。我无暇察看我的新位置上有否灰尘或龌龊,且以客人的身份,也不好意思俯下头去仔细察看椅子的干净与否。我不顾一切地坐下了。然而坐下之后,很不舒服。我疑心椅子板上有甚么东西,一动也不敢动。我想,这椅子至少同外面的椅子一样地颇有些灰尘,我是拿我的新制的淡青灰哔机长衫来给他揩抹了两只椅子。想少沾些龌龊,我只得使个劲儿,将屁股摆稳在椅子板上,绝不转动摩擦。宁可费些气力,扭转腰来对主人谈话。

 

正在谈话的时候,我觉得屁股上冷冰冰起来。我脸上强装笑容——因为这正是“应该”笑的时候——心里却在叫苦。我想用手去摸摸看,但又邊巡不敢,恐怕再污了我的手。我作种种猜想,想象这是梁上挂下来的一只蜘蛛,被我坐扁,内脏都流出来了。又想象这是一朵鼻涕、一朵带血的痰。我浑身难过起来,不敢用手去摸。后来终于偷偷地伸手去摸了。指尖触着冷冰冰的湿湿的一团,偷偷摸出来一看,色彩很复杂,有白的,有黑的,有淡黄的,有蓝的,混在一起,好像五色的牙膏。我不辨这是何物,偷偷地丢在椅子旁边的地上了。但心里疑虑得很,料想我的新制的淡青灰哔叽长衫上一定染上一块五色了。但主人并不觉察我的心事,他正在滥用各种的笑声,把他近来的得意事件讲给我听。我记念着屁股底下的东西,心中想皱眉头;然而不好意思用颦蹙之颜来听他的得意事件,只得强颜作笑。我感到这种笑很费力。硬把嘴巴两旁的筋肉吊起来,久后非常酸痛。须得乘个空隙用手将脸上的筋肉用力揉一揉,然后再装笑脸听他讲。其实我没有仔细听他所讲的话,因为我听了好久,已能料知他的下文了。我只是顺口答应着,而把眼睛偷看环境中,凭空地研究我屁股底下的究竟是什么东西。我看见他家梁上筑着燕巢,燕子飞进飞出,遗弃一朵粪在地上,其颜色正同我屁股底下的东西相似。我才知道,我新制的淡青灰哔叽长衫上已经沾染一朵燕子粪了。

 

外面走进来一群穿长衫的人。他们是主人的亲友或邻居。主人因为我是远客,特地邀他们来陪我。大部分的人是我所未认识的,主人便立起身来为我介绍。他的左手臂伸直,好像一把刀。他用这把刀把新来的一群人一个一个地切开来,同时口中说着:“这位是某某先生,这位是某某君……”等到他说完的时候,我已把各人的姓名统统忘却了。因为当他介绍时,我只管在那里看他那把刀的切法,不曾用心听着。我觉得很奇怪,为甚么介绍客人姓名时不用食指来点,必用刀一般的手来切?又觉得很妙,为甚么用食指来点似乎侮慢,而用刀一般的手来切似乎客气得多?这也许有造形美术上的根据:五指并伸的手,样子比单伸一根食指的手美丽、和平、而恭敬得多。这是合掌礼的一半。合掌是作个揖,这是作半个揖,当然客气得多。反之,单伸一根食指的手,是指示路径的牌子上或“小便在此”的牌子上所画的手。若用以指客人,就像把客人当作小便所,侮慢太甚了!我当时忙着这样的感想,又叹佩我们的主人的礼貌,竟把他所告诉我的客人的姓名统统忘记了。但觉姓都是百家姓所载的,名字中有好几个“生”字和“卿”字。

 

主人请许多客人围住一张八仙桌坐定了。这回我不自选座位,一任主人发落,结果被派定坐在左边,独占一面。桌上已放着四只盆子,内中两盆是糕饼,一盆是瓜子,一盆是櫻桃。

 

仆人送到一盘茶,主人立起身来,把盘内的茶一一端送客人。客人受茶时,有的立起身来,伸手遮住茶杯,口中连称“得罪,得罪”。有的用中央三个指头在桌子边上敲击:“答,答,答,答”,口中连称“叩头,叩头”。其意仿佛是用手代表自己的身体,把桌子当作地面,而伏在那里叩头。我是第一个受茶的客人,我点一点头,应了一声。与别人的礼貌森严比较之下,自觉太过傲慢了。我感觉自己的态度颇不适合于这个环境,局促不安起来。第二次主人给我添茶的时候,我便略略改变态度,也伸手挡住茶杯。我以为这举动可以表示两种意思,一种是“够了,够了”的意思,还有一种是用此手作半个揖道谢的意思,所以可取。但不幸技巧拙劣,把手遮隔了主人的视线,在幽暗的厅堂里,两方大家不易看见杯中的茶。他只管把茶注下来,直到泛滥在桌子上,滴到我的新制的淡青灰哔叽长衫上,我方才觉察,动手拦阻。于是找抹桌布,揩拭衣服,弄得手忙脚乱。主人特别关念我的衣服,表示十分抱歉的样子,要亲自给我揩拭。我心中很懊恼,但脸上只得强装笑容,连说“不要紧,没有甚么”;其实是“有甚么”的!我的新制的淡青灰哔机长衫上又染上了芭蕉扇大的一块茶渍!

 

主人以这事件为前车,以后添茶时逢到伸手遮住茶杯的客人,便用开诚布公似的语调说:“不要客气,大家老实来得好!”客人都会意,便改用指头敲击桌子:“答,答,答,答。”这办法的确较好,除了不妨碍视线的好处外,又是有声有色,郑重得多。况且手的样子活像一个小形的人:中指象头,食指和无名指像手,大指和小指像足,手掌像身躯,口称“叩头”而用中指“答,答,答,答”地敲击起来,俨然是“五体投地”而“捣蒜”一般叩头的模样。

 

主人分送香烟,座中吸烟的人,连主人共有五六人,我也在内。主人划一根自来火,先给我的香烟点火。自来火在我眼前烧得正猛,匆促之间我真想不出谦让的方法来,便应了一声,把香烟凑上去点着了。主人忙把已经烧了三分之一的自来火给坐在我右面的客人的香烟点火。这客人正在咬瓜子,便伸手推主人的臂,口里连叫“自来,自来”。“自来”者,并非“自来火”的略语,是表示谦让,请主人“自”己先“来”(就是点香烟)的意思。主人坚不肯“自来”,口中连喊“请,请,请”,定要隔着一张八仙桌,拿着已剩二分之一弱的火柴杆来给这客人点香烟。我坐在两人中间,眼看那根不知趣的火柴杆越烧越短,而两人的交涉尽不解决,心中替他们异常着急。主人又似乎不大懂得燃烧的物理,一味把火头向下,因此火柴杆烧得很快。幸而那客人不久就表示屈服,丢去正咬的瓜子,手忙脚乱地向茶杯旁边捡起他那支香烟,站起来,弯下身子,就火上去吸。这时候主人手中的火柴杆只剩三分之一弱,火头离开他的指爪只有一粒瓜子的地位了。

 

出乎我意外的,是主人还要撮着这一粒火柴杆,去给第三个客人点香烟。第三个客人似乎也没有防到这一点,不曾预先取烟在手。他看见主人有“燃指之急”,特地不取香烟,摇手喊道:“我自来,我自来。”主人依然强硬,不肯让他自来。这第三个客人的香烟的点火,终于像救火一般惶急万状地成就了。他在匆忙之中带翻了一只茶杯,幸而杯中盛茶不多,不曾作再度的泛滥。我屏息静观,几乎发呆了,到这时候才抽一口气。主人把拿自来火的手指用力地搓了几搓,再划起一根自来火来,为第四个客人的香烟点火。在这事件中,我顾怜主人的手指烫痛,又同情于客人的举动的仓皇。觉得这种主客真难做:吸烟,原是一件悠闲畅适的事;但在这里变成救火一般惶急万状了。

 

这一天,我和别的几位客人在主人家里吃一餐饭,据我统计,席上一共闹了三回事:第一次闹事,是为了争座位。所争的是朝里的位置。这位置的确最好:别的三面都是两人坐一面的,朝里可以独坐一面;别的位置都很幽暗,朝里的位置最亮。且在我更有可取之点,我患着羞明的眼疾,不耐对着光源久坐,最喜欢背光而坐。我最初看中这好位置,曾经一度占据;但主人立刻将我一把拖开,拖到左边的里面的位置上,硬把我的身体装进在椅子里去。这位置最黑暗,又很狭窄,但我只得忍受。因为我知道这座位叫做“东北角”,是最大的客位;而今天我是远客,别的客人都是主人请来陪我的。主人把我驱逐到“东北”之后,又和别的客人大闹一场:坐下去,拖起来;装进去,逃出来;约莫闹了五分钟,方才坐定。“请,请,请”,大家“请酒”“用菜”。

 

第二次闹事,是为了灌酒。主人好像是开着义务酿造厂的,多多益善地劝客人饮酒。他有时用强迫的手段,有时用欺诈的手段。客人中有的把酒杯藏到桌子底下,有的拿了酒杯逃开去。结果有一人被他灌醉,伏在痰盂上呕吐了。主人一面照料他,一面劝别人再饮。好象已经“做脱”了一人,希望再麻翻几个似的。我幸而以不喝酒著名,当时以茶代酒,没有卷入这风潮的旋涡中,没有被麻翻的恐慌。但久作壁上观,也觉得厌倦了,便首先要求吃饭。后来别的客人也都吃饭了。

 

第三次闹事,便是为了吃饭问题。但这与现今世间到处闹着的吃饭问题性质完全相反。这是一方强迫对方吃饭,而对方不肯吃。起初两方各提出理由来互相辩论;后来是夺饭碗 方硬要给他添饭,对方决不肯再添;或者一方硬要他吃一满碗,对方定要减少半碗。粒粒皆辛苦的珍珠一般的白米,在这社会里全然失却其价值,几乎变成狗子也不要吃的东西了。我没有吃酒,肚子饿着,照常吃两碗半饭。在这里可说是最肯负责吃饭的人,没有受主人责备。因此我对于他们的争执,依旧可作壁上观。我觉得这争执状态真是珍奇;尤其是在到处闹着没饭吃的中国社会里,映成强烈的对比。可惜这种状态的出现,只限于我们这主人的客厅上,又只限于这一餐的时间。若得因今天的提倡与励行而普遍于全人类,永远地流行,我们这主人定将在世界到处的城市被设立生祠,死后还要在世界到处的城市中被设立铜像呢。我又因此想起了以前在你这里看见过的日本人描写乌托邦的几幅漫画:在那漫画的世界里,金银和钞票是过多而没有人要的,到处被弃掷在垃圾桶里。清道夫满满地装了一车子钞票,推到海边去烧毁。半路里还有人开了后门,捧出一畚箕金镑来,硬要倒进他的垃圾车中去,却被清道夫拒绝了。马路边的水门汀上站着的乞丐,都提着一大筐子的钞票,在那里哀求苦告地分送给行人,行人个个远而避之。我看今天座上为拒绝吃饭而起争执的主人和客人们,足有列入那种漫画人物中的资格。请他们侨居到乌托邦去,再好没有了。

 

我负责地吃了两碗半白米饭,虽然没有受主人责备,但把胃吃坏,积滞了。因为我是席上第一个吃饭的人,主人命一仆人站在我身旁,伺候添饭。这仆人大概受过主人的训练,伺候异常忠实:当我吃到半碗饭的时候,他就开始鞠躬如也地立在我近旁,监督我的一举一动,注视我的饭碗,静候我的吃完。等到我吃剩三分之一的时候,他站立更近,督视更严,他的手跃跃欲试地想来夺我的饭碗。在这样的监督之下,我吃饭不得不快。吃到还剩两三口的时候,他的手早已搭在我的饭碗边上,我只得两三口并作一口地吞食了,让他把饭碗夺去。这样急急忙忙地装进了两碗半白米饭,我的胃就积滞,隐隐地作痛,连茶也喝不下去。但又说不出来。忍痛坐了一会,又勉强装了几次笑颜,才得告辞。我坐船回到家中,已是上灯时分,胃的积滞还没有消,吃不进夜饭。跑到药房里去买些苏打片来代夜饭吃了,便倒身在床上。直到黄昏,胃里稍觉松动些,就勉强起身,跑到你这里来抽一口气。但是我的身体、四肢还是很疲劳,连脸上的筋肉,也因为装了一天的笑,酸痛得很呢。我但愿以后不再受人这种优礼的招待!

 

他说罢,又躺在藤床上了。我把香烟和火柴送到他手里,对他说:“好,待我把你所讲的一番话记录出来。倘能卖得稿费,去买许多饼干、牛奶、巧格力和枇杷来给你开慰劳会罢。”

 

作客者言

丰子恺

A Frustrated Guest

—By Feng Zikai

🎈「者」表示「…的人」,作客者言即作客者(想说)的话。结合全文内容,将作客者言以作客者的整体情绪代之,故而译为A Frustrated Guest。


 

有一位天性真率的青年,赴亲友家作客,归家的晚上,垂头丧气地跑进我的房间来,躺在藤床上,不动亦不语。看他的样子很疲劳,好象做了一天苦工而归来似的。

One night a simple and outspoken young man, upon returning from his visit to a relative, walked crestfallen into my room and threw himself on my rattan bed. He was lying there motionless and speechless, looking totally exhausted, as if he had just come back from a hard day’s work.

🎈upon returning from his visit to a relative作时间状语。

upon/on + noun.或upon/on + V-ing在句中作时间状语,表示「一…就…」,相当于as soon as引导的时间状语从句。

例句

All the soldiers stood up on the entrance of the general.

将军一进来,士兵们就起立。

🎈crestfallen是形容词,表示「垂头丧气的,灰溜溜的,挫败的」,在句中作伴随状语;motionless and speechless是形容词短语作伴随状语。

形容词或形容词短语作状语,表示方式或伴随,说明谓语动作的方式,它在句子中有时像非限制性分句一样,表示意义上的增补。其逻辑主语是句子的主语,这种情况下,其位置比较灵活,可位于句首、句末或句中。补充一个最常用的形容词组:safe and sound。


 

我便和他问答:

“你今天去作客,喝醉了酒么?”

“不,我不喝酒,一滴儿也不喝。”

“那么为甚么这般颓丧?”

“因为受了主人的异常优礼的招待。”

So I struck up a conversation with him.

“Did you get drunk at your relative’s place?”

“No. I never drink!”

“Then why so upset?”

“Because I was treated with exceptional courtesy.”

🎈struck是strike的过去式,可与up搭配构成表达strike up,表示「开始」之意

1)开始(交谈);建立(友谊);开始(来往)

例句

I trailed her into Penney’s and struck up a conversation.

我跟着她进了彭尼家然后开始交谈起来。

2)开始演奏

例句

Music struck up in one of the big old buildings along the seafront.

音乐从海滨区一栋古老的大楼里响起。


 

我惊奇地笑道:“怪了!作客而受主人优待,应该舒服且高兴,怎的反而这般颓丧?倒好像被打翻了似的。”

Puzzled by what I heard, I said with a smile, “I don’t understand! A guest who was well treated should feel comfortably happy. Why are you so unhappy? You look as if you had been thrashed.”

🎈受到款待 be well treated

🎈「舒服且高兴」表示同时存在两种情绪,除去用形容词并列的方式,也可借鉴文中adv.+ adj.的处理方式。


 

他苦笑地答道:“我宁愿被打一顿,但愿以后不再受这种优待。”

With a forced smile he replied, “I would rather be flogged than being treated with such courtesy.”

🎈苦笑,强颜欢笑 a forced smile

聂绀弩《我若为王》

“不快乐的时候不敢不笑”译作…

a forced smile when there was no joy at all to justify a smile

🎈近义词替换flog/thrash

flog:鞭笞,棒打to hit sb. very hard with a whip or stick as a punishment

thrash: 连续殴打,痛打to hit sb. several times as a punishment


 

我知道他正在等候我去打开他的话匣子来。便放下笔,推开桌上的稿纸,把坐着的椅子转个方向,正对着他。点起一支烟来,津津有味地探问他:“你受了怎样异常优礼的招待?来!讲点给我听听看!”

I knew he was waiting for me to ask him why, so I put down my pen, pushed aside the writing paper on the desk, and turned my chair around towards him. I lit up a cigarette and asked with great interest, “What kind of exceptional reception did you receive? Tell me about it!”

🎈理由,原因,缘故,来龙去脉 the whys and (the) wherefores

例句

I had no intention of going into the whys and the wherefores of the situation.

我无意深入调查这一情况的来龙去脉。

🎈把…搁置一边;忽视 push sth. aside

例句

” Harry-get-out-of-it! ” snarled Sirius, pushing him aside with his free hand.

“哈利——让开——!”小天狼星大吼一声,一掌把他推到旁边。

🎈点一支烟 light up (a cigarette)

英义

If you light up, you make a cigarette, cigar, or pipe start burning and you start smoking it.

🎈“津津有味”:形容趣味特别浓厚。此处指对“常优礼的招待”的巨大兴趣,不应误解为对吸烟的描述。


 

他抬起头来看看我桌上的稿件,说:“你不是忙写稿么?我的话说来长呢!” 我说:“不,我准备一黄昏听你谈话。并且设法慰劳你今天受优待的辛苦呢。”

Lifting his head, he cast a glance at the manuscript on the desk and said, “Aren’t you busy working on your manuscript? I have a long story.” “It’s all right. I have all the night for you, and I will try to heal your wounds from today’s special treatment.”

🎈望了望,看了看 cast a glance at sb.

《健忘的画眉》

老人望了望我,又冷冷一笑:“飞走,往哪儿飞!它舍不得那个食罐儿!”

The old man cast a glance at me and gave an uncaring smile. “Fly away? But why should it? It can’t leave the food bowl.”

🎈忙于… be busy (in) doing sth.

🎈长话短说 make/cut a long story short

说来话长 It is a long story.


 

他笑了,从藤床上坐起身来,向茶盘里端起一杯菊花茶来喝了一口,慢慢地、一五一十地把这一天赴亲友家作客而受异常优礼的招待的经过情形描摹给我听。以下所记录的便是他的话。

He smiled. As he sat up from the bed, he took a cup of chrysanthemum tea from the tray. After taking a sip, he began to describe to me in detail his exceptional experience at his relative’s place. Here is his story.

🎈茶盘;茶托,茶碟 the tray / saucer

一杯菊花茶 a cup of chrysanthemum tea

花茶 herbal tea

水果茶 fruit tea

薄荷茶 mint tea

红茶 black tea

绿茶 green tea

下午茶 afternoon tea / high tea


 

我走进一个幽暗的厅堂,四周阒然无人。我故意把脚步走响些,又咳嗽几声,里面仍然没有人出来;外面的厢房里倒走进一个人来。

I entered a gloomy hall, where not a single person could be seen. I made a few loud steps on the floor and coughed a few times on purpose, but still no one came out. Then, from one of the wing rooms emerged a workman who seemed to be the gate keeper.

🎈I entered a gloomy hall, where not a single person could be seen. 也可写作I entered a gloomy hall, not a soul in sight.其中a single连用表示强调, 比如,“没有任何一个国家能……”可以译作not a single country can…

🎈loud是形容词,指(声源)发出响亮声音的

aloud是副词,指「出声地」

🎈偶然地,无意识地by chance /be accident /accidentally

有意地,成心地on purpose /intentionally /deliberately


 

这是一个工人,好像是管门的人。他两眼钉住我,问我有甚么事。我说访问某先生。他说“片子!”我是没有名片的,回答他说:“我没有带名片,我姓某名某,某先生是知道我的,烦你去通报罢。”

He fixed his eyes on me and asked me what had brought me there. I replied that I wanted to see the Master. “Your visiting card!” he said. I told him I did not have one, but then continued, “I do not carry one with me. My name is Mr. So-and-So. Your master knows me. Could you please tell him I am here?”

🎈密切注意某人keep a wary eye on sb.

目不转睛,盯着,凝视 feast/fix sb.’s eyes on sth.

《小麻雀》瞧着小鸟,猫一头跑进厨房,又一头跑到西屋。

With my eyes fixed on the bird, I watched the kitten run first to the kitchen and then to the room at the west end.

🎈英文中表示「说」的词汇很多,而且词汇有各自的侧重点,比如reply(回答)、continue(继续说)、add(补充说)、explain/elaborate(解释说)、conclude(总结道)

🎈so-and-so泛指某某人、某某事。

例句

It would be a case of ‘just do so-and-so and here’s your cash’.

就是这样一种情况,“只要干某某事,你就能拿到钱”。

If Mrs So-and-so was ill then Mrs So-and-so down the street would go and clean for her.

如果某某太太病了,那么她的街坊某某太太就会来为她打扫卫生。


 

他向我上下打量了一回,说一声“你等一等”,怀疑似地进去了。

He looked me up and down and replied, “Just a second!” With a suspicious expression, he went inside.

🎈上下打量某人 look sb. up and down

🎈稍等一下 wait for a moment

just a moment/just a second/just a minute

hold on/hang on


 

我立着等了一会,望见主人缓步地从里面的廊下走出来。走到望得见我的时候他的缓步忽然改为趋步,拱起双手,口中高呼“劳驾,劳驾!”

I stood waiting for quite a while before I saw the host strolling out along the corridor. When he walked to the place where he could see me, he suddenly redoubled his pace. With one hand cupped in the other before his chest, he shouted, “I’m so sorry!”

🎈await是及物动词,wait是不及物动词。

🎈一会儿,半晌 for quite a while


 

一步紧一步地向我赶将过来,其势急不可当,我几乎被吓退了。

With each step faster than the last one, he raced toward me; his pace was such that no one could stop him and I was almost frightened into retreat.

🎈关于「加快步速」的译法

redouble one’s pace

with each step faster than the last one

🎈赶往,疾走 race somewhere

ube such that…等同be so+ 享用的形容词(结合语境)+that…

文中his pace was such that no one…也可写作his pace was so fast that no one…


 

因为我想,假如他口中所喊的不是“劳驾,劳驾”而换了“捉牢,捉牢”,这光景定是疑心我是窃了他家厅上的宣德香炉而赶出来捉我去送公安局。

His tone was such that if he had shouted “stop thief!” instead of “I’m sorry!” I would have thought I was about to be handed over to the police for stealing his most valued antique incense burner.

🎈辨析instead of 和rather than

都有「而不是」的意思

instead of:“代替,而不是”,重点词是of,它是介词,所以后接名词,代词和v-ing形式,尤其需注意的是动词该用动名词形式,即v-ing

rather than:“(是……)而不是……”,它是连词,前后成分在形式上必须保持一致,所以后面的结构应该与前面一样,就有可能出现代词主格,动词的各种形式等,不一而足,但关键是要和与它对比的结构形式一致!

🎈移交(犯人等) hand over

🎈香炉 incense burner

(李白《望庐山瀑布》)

日照香炉生紫烟,

The mountain produces purple smoke in the sunshine.

遥看瀑布挂前川。

Seen afar a waterfall hangs in front of a river.

飞流直下三千尺,

Flying down rapidly from 3000-foot-high,

疑似银河落九天。

It’s like the Milky Way falling from the sky.

🎈valuable, valued 的区别

这两个形容词有时侯可以换用,尤其是在形容友谊、援助等方面表示「宝贵的或珍贵的」的意思时,常可以通用。

例句

This valuable /valued friendship between us should be kept on forever.

我们之间的这种珍贵的友谊应当永远保持下去。

He is our valuable /valued friend.

他是我们的挚友。

1) valuable 是一个纯形容词,它主要指珠宝、黄金等”贵重的,值钱的”;它也可用来形容人的品质或特征等是”令人钦佩的”或”受人尊重的”的意思。

例句

He lost a valuable diamond.

他丢失了一颗贵重的钻石。

She is a most valuable player.

她是一位最受尊敬的运动员。

2)valued尽管也被有的词典收录为形容词,但它是动词value的过去分词形式,多少还带有些过去分词完成或被动的含义。因此,它的主要意义是指”已有评价的,经估价的”和”受重视的,受敬重的”。

例句

This is a painting valued at ten thousand dollars.

这是一幅估价一万的画。

The friendship of the two countries was old and valued.

两国间的友谊历史悠久并受到珍视。


 

幸而他赶到我身边,并不捉牢我,只是连连地拱手,弯腰,几乎要拜倒在地。我也只得模仿他拱手,弯腰,弯到几乎拜倒在地,作为相当的答礼。

Luckily, when he came close to me, he did not try to apprehend me. Instead he kept joining his hands in salute and making deep bows; he bent so low that he almost touched the ground. In return for his courtesy, I could only do the same.

🎈走进某人身边 come close to sb.

🎈拱手join one’s hands in salute

 


 

大家弯好了腰,主人袒开了左手,对着我说:“请坐,请坐!”他的袒开的左手所照着的,是一排八仙椅子。每两只椅子夹着一只茶几,好象城头上的一排女墙。

As we were both hunching up, the host stretched out his left hand and said, “Have a seat, please!” Following the direction of his left hand, I saw a row of chairs. Between each two chairs was sandwiched a tea table, which looked like a parapet on the city wall.

🎈弓起身子,弯腰 hung up

🎈请坐 Sit down/ Have a seat, please!

🎈八仙椅:泛指硬质有靠背的椅子。

 

🎈八仙桌(old-fashioned square table for eight people):中华民族传统家具之一。指桌面四边长度相等的、桌面较宽的方桌,大方桌四边,每边可坐二人,四边围坐八人(犹如八仙)

 


 

我选择最外口的一只椅子坐了。一则贪图近便。二则他家厅上光线幽暗,除了这最外口的一只椅子看得清楚以外,里面的椅子都埋在黑暗中,看不清楚;

I took the outermost chair, for the sake of convenience, and because this was the only one that could be clearly seen in the dimly lit room. All the others inside were enveloped in darkness.

🎈后缀-most可用于构成形容词,表示「最远的」「最深远的」。例如topmost最高处的、innermost(内心)最深处的、northernmost最北边的、outermost最外边的

🎈为了……for…’s sake/for the sake of

梁实秋《学问与趣味》

只是‘无所为而为’solely for its own sake

形式主义 the practice of formalities for formalities’ sake


 

我看见最外边的椅子颇有些灰尘,恐怕里面的椅子或有更多的灰尘与龌龊,将污损我的新制的淡青灰哔叽长衫的屁股部分,弄得好像被摩登破坏团射了镪水一般。

The closest one was dusty, but I feared the others might be more so, or even filthier, and might dirty my new gray serge coat and leave it with ugly spots that look like acid thrown by street rioters.

🎈更是如此 be more so,在此处相当于be dustier

🎈serge n.哔叽(一种结实的羊毛布)

英义

a type of strong woollen cloth used to make clothes such as skirts, coats, and trousers

🎈关于摩登少年团:专门破坏「摩登衣服」的人

1933年行政院长汪兆铭要求查纠「摩登破坏团」。是年4月5日汪电令内政部、浙省府、行政院驻平政务整理委员会云:“阅报载杭州、北平等处有自称某破坏团,专事剪坏西装衣服,南京亦将发起等语,是否笃实仰即饬首都警察厅公安局切实防范,并严加究治。须知此等举动,幼稚鲁莽,贻笑天下”。


 

三则我是从外面来的客人,像老鼠钻洞一般地闯进人家屋里深暗的内部去坐,似乎不配。

In addition, it was inappropriate for me, a guest, to intrude into the depth of the shadowy hall, like a mouse darting into a hole.

🎈侵入,闯入 intrude into

冲入 dart into

这两个短语是为了突出行为的鲁莽。


 

四则最外面的椅子的外边,地上放着一只痰盂,丢香烟头时也是一种方便。

Moreover, next to this chair there was a spittoon, which made it convenient for me to dispose of my cigarette ashes.

🎈丢掉,处理 dispose of

例句

Just fold up the nappy and dispose of it in the normal manner.

把尿布叠起,像平常扔东西一样扔掉即可。

任由某人支配/任意适用 at one’s disposal

例句

If I can be of service, I am at your disposal.

如果我可以效劳的话,敬请吩咐。

🎈烟头 cigarette end/ butt

烟灰 cigarette ashes

弹烟灰 flick the ash from the cigarette / flick the butt


 

我选定了这个好位置,便在主人的“请,请,请”声中捷足先登地坐下了。但是主人表示反对,一定要我“请上坐”。

I decided to take this seat and immediately settled into it before my host could politely suggest otherwise. Unfortunately he disapproved and insisted that I should take the seat of honour.

🎈句中otherwise是副词,表示「与之不同地,相反地」

🎈insisted that I (should) take the seat of honour:

在表示命令、建议或要求等动词后的宾语从句中要求用虚拟语气,谓语形式为“(should)+动词原形”。这类动词有:ask, advice, suggest, request, commend, decide, determine, insist, intend, prefer, propose, order, recommend, imagine等。

例句

I suggested that you (should) try to understand him.

我曾建议你试着去理解他。

🎈上座 the seat of honour

上坐 take the seat of honour


 

请上坐者,就是要我坐到里面的、或许有更多的灰尘与龌龊、而近旁没有痰盂的椅子上去。

In other words, I was supposed to take the seat at the head of the row, which may be even dustier or filthier, far away from any spittoon.

🎈换句话说 in other words/ put another way /to put it another way

🎈痰盂 spittoon


 

我把屁股深深地埋进我所选定的椅子里,表示不肯让位。他便用力拖我的臂,一定要夺我的位置。我终于被他赶走了,而我所选定的位置就被他自己占据了。

I sat far back into my chair to show him that I was reluctant to give it up. In response, he strained every muscle trying to pull me up. He finally got me out of the chair and took my seat instead.

🎈作为回应 in response

🎈绷紧每一寸肌肉 strain every muscle。

注:strain a muscle也指拉伤肌肉。

绷紧的心弦the straining heart

断裂的筋肉the breaking muscles

《乐山龙舟会多姿多彩》

龙舟上敲着急促的锣鼓,划桨奋力击水,围追堵截,鸭子扑打着翅膀纷纷逃避。

Immediately from the dragon boats, drums and gongs beat furiously as oarsmen strain their muscles to chase the floating ducks.


 

当此夺位置的时间,我们二人在厅上发出一片相骂似的声音,演出一种打架似的举动。

As this scramble for seats was going on, we talked as if calling each other names, and acted as if putting up a fight in the hall.

🎈as if calling each other names

在以if, when, though, although, as, as if等连词引导的从句中,如果从句的主语和主句的主语一致,且从句谓语中含有be动词,可将主语和动词be省掉。

🎈显示,表现(出)… put up

例句

They surrendered without putting up much of a fight.

他们没怎么抵抗就投降了。

The team put up a great performance (= played very well).

这个队表现好极了。


 

我无暇察看我的新位置上有否灰尘或龌龊,且以客人的身份,也不好意思俯下头去仔细察看椅子的干净与否。我不顾一切地坐下了。

I did not have time to check if my new seat was dusty or filthy, and as a guest I would embarrass the host if I lowered my head to see if the chair was clean. Disregarding the possible mess, I sat down on the head chair.

🎈本句中的to check if my new seat was dusty or filthy和to see if the chair was clean表达的意思均为“座椅是不干净(干净)还是干净(不干净)”,实则是if/whether…+adj. (+or not)的形式。


 

然而坐下之后,很不舒服。

After taking my seat, however, I felt quite ill at ease.

🎈不好意思,尴尬,不自在 feel ill at ease

英义

feeling uncomfortable and embarrassed

《枣核》朋友有点不好意思地解释说,……

My friend looked somewhat ill at ease when he told me this…


 

我疑心椅子板上有甚么东西,一动也不敢动。我想,这椅子至少同外面的椅子一样地颇有些灰尘,我是拿我的新制的淡青灰哔机长衫来给他揩抹了两只椅子。

Although I suspected that there was something undesirable on the chair, I dared not move a muscle. The chair might be as dusty as the first one, I thought, and I had already wiped two of his chairs with my new coat.

🎈something undesirable

复习:英语中形容词作后置定语的十种情况

1、当形容词修饰由 some-,no-,any和 every-,-thing,-body和-one构成的不定代词,如something, everything, anything, nothing, somebody, everybody, anybody, nobody, someone, everyone, anyone等时,该形容词要后置。

Every minute there is something exciting going on here.

这里每一分钟都有使人兴奋的事情发生。

2、形容词性短语作定语时要后置,这时该短语相当于一个定语从句。

The basket full of fruits belongs to the beautiful girl.

装满水果的这个篮子是属于这个漂亮女孩的。

3、当某些以-ble或-ible结尾的形容词具有动词色彩,并表示被动意义时,应置于被修饰的词的后面,而且这些形容词大都和形容词最高级或 all,only,every等词连用。

His is the earliest edition obtainable.

他那本是现在能找到的最早的版本。

4、由and, or等连接的两个或几个形容词作定语时常后置,从而进一步说明被修饰词的性质或特点,并起强调作用。

I like reading story-books both interesting and instructive.

我喜欢读那些既有趣又有教育意义的故事书。

5、在比较结构的句型中,修饰名词的比较结构须后置,以说明大小、多少、新旧、高矮等方面比较的情况。

They produced gases almost as harmful as the gases from the factories.

他们排出的废气几乎和工厂排出的废气一样有害。

6、”基数词+名词(时间、度量)+形容词”构成的数量结构常放在名词之后作后置定语,以说明所修饰名词的年龄、长度、深度、高度等情况。

He found a good place in the rocks, more than twelve feet high with a narrow entrance.

他在岩石中找到一个好地方,十二英尺多高,还有一个狭窄的入口。

There was an ancient tree 30 metres high.

那是一棵三高的古树。

7、else, left, present(出席的、在场的)等形容词作定语修饰名词时常后置,以说明名词的状态、特点等情况。

All the people present spoke at the meeting.

所有出席的人都在会议上讲了话。

8、形容词连同其后面的介词短语或不定式短语一起修饰名词的时候,该形容词及其之后的部分一并后置,作后置定语。

This is an article worthy of careful study.

这是一篇很值得研究的文章。

9、某些以a-开头的形容词,常用来作定语、表语,在作定语时要后置。这类形容词主要有asleep(睡着的),afraid(害怕的),alive(活着的),afloat(漂着的),afire(烧着的), awake, aged,ablaze(着火的)等。

He was the only person alive at that moment.

他是那时惟一活着的人。

10、当形容词前有so,more,most等词修饰时,形容词应后置。

I have never seen a calm so deep.我从来没见过此平静的场面。


 

想少沾些龌龊,我只得使个劲儿,将屁股摆稳在椅子板上,绝不转动摩擦。宁可费些气力,扭转腰来对主人谈话。

To avoid making my clothes even dirtier, I could only will myself to remain motionless and not rub against the seat. So I had to turn my waist with an effort when talking with the host.

🎈使劲儿/竭力让…去做… will sb./sth. to do

例句

She willed her eyes to stay open.

她使劲睁着眼睛。

He willed himself not to panic.

他竭力让自己不要恐慌。


 

正在谈话的时候,我觉得屁股上冷冰冰起来。

Then, in the middle of our conversation, I felt my bottom went ice-cold.

🎈 ice-cold是合成形容词,构词法为:名词+形容词。

例句

duty-free免税的

self-satisfied自满的


 

我脸上强装笑容——因为这正是“应该”笑的时候——心里却在叫苦。我想用手去摸摸看,但又邊巡不敢,恐怕再污了我的手。

I put on a smiling face—this was the “right” time for a smile—but I was inwardly groaning. I wanted to search out the cause with my hand, but I hesitated for fear that it would become dirty too.

🎈面上欢笑 put on a smiling face

心里叫苦 be inwardly groaning

🎈“我想用手去摸摸看”,去摸什么?答案是让“我”如此不自在的罪魁祸首(the cause)

🎈 for fear that it would become dirty too

lest, in case, for fear that“以防,万一,唯恐”引导目的状语从句常用should/would/might + do结构的虚拟语气。需要注意的是如果后接should,三个表达的用法略有不同:lest, for fear that从句中的should可以省去,in case从句中的should通常不省略。


 

我作种种猜想,想象这是梁上挂下来的一只蜘蛛,被我坐扁,内脏都流出来了。又想象这是一朵鼻涕、一朵带血的痰。

I made wild guesses: the thing crushed under the weight of my body might be a spider that dropped from the ceiling, or perhaps a pool of nasal mucus or bloody phlegm.

🎈胡乱猜想;大胆猜测 make/have/take a wild guess

作种种猜想 make wild guesses

🎈一滩鼻涕a pool of nasal mucus

一滩血痰a pool of bloody phlegm

风乍起,吹皱一池春水。

The breeze begins to blow, ruffling a pool of spring water below.


 

我浑身难过起来,不敢用手去摸。

I felt my flesh creep, but dared not touch the place.

🎈creep可作名词,也可作动词

使某人恐慌/心里发毛 give sb. the creeps 或make someone’s flesh creep/crawl


 

后来终于偷偷地伸手去摸了。指尖触着冷冰冰的湿湿的一团,偷偷摸出来一看,色彩很复杂,有白的,有黑的,有淡黄的,有蓝的,混在一起,好像五色的牙膏。

When I finally decided to reach down to feel, without being noticed, my fingertips came into contact with something that was cold and wet. I took a glance down and saw a collage of colors—white, black, light yellow, and blue. It looked like multi-coloured toothpaste.

🎈 …大杂烩 a collage of…

例句

Rego’s work is a rich collage of 20th-century painting styles.

瑞格的作品糅合了20世纪各种绘画风格。


 

我不辨这是何物,偷偷地丢在椅子旁边的地上了。但心里疑虑得很,料想我的新制的淡青灰哔叽长衫上一定染上一块五色了。但主人并不觉察我的心事,他正在滥用各种的笑声,把他近来的得意事件讲给我听。

As I could not tell what it was, I quietly dropped it on the floor beside the chair. I was filled with misgivings, thinking my new robe must now be permanently stained with multiple colors. However, the host did not seem to perceive what was going on in my mind. Laughing now in one way and then in another, he related to me his recent successes.

🎈to perceive what was going on in my mind :

《散书有感》中有一句“散书也是近年来我常常想到的问题。

In recent years, I, too, have often turned over in my mind the question of books.

其中turn over in my mind… 、意为「…在我脑海里翻转」,与此处的be going on in my mind类似。

🎈把某事讲述给某人 relate sth. to sb.

何为《生命》

一位朋友偶然讲起一件事,有如一篇小小说,听者动容。

A friend of mine incidentally related to me the following occurrence which, like a little story, is very touching.


 

我记念着屁股底下的东西,心中想皱眉头;然而不好意思用颦蹙之颜来听他的得意事件,只得强颜作笑。

As I was wondering about the stuff under my bottom, I had an urge to knit my eyebrows to reflect my displeasure, but felt it impolite to be disrespectful to his stories in such a way. Instead, I could only force a smile.

🎈皱眉头 knit one’s eyebrows或frown

🎈强颜欢笑 (名词词组)a forced smile/(动词词组)force a smile

🎈对…不敬 be disrespectful to sb./sth.


 

我感到这种笑很费力。硬把嘴巴两旁的筋肉吊起来,久后非常酸痛。须得乘个空隙用手将脸上的筋肉用力揉一揉,然后再装笑脸听他讲。

As you can imagine, this kind of smiling was strenuous, and as time went by my face became awfully sore from the strain of holding my mouth suspended upward. During our talk, I had to repeatedly rub my facial muscles, and then reinstall my smile as he rattled on.

🎈「非常酸痛」译作awfully sore

awfully是副词,表程度(very or extremely)

例句

I’m awfully sorry about that problem the other day.

我对前几天的那个问题感到非常遗憾。

awfully的释义对应形容词awful的释义之一「量大的,极多的」,而非我们熟知的「糟糕的,令人讨厌的」

例句

I’ve got an awful lot of work to do.

我有一大堆事情要做。

另外,awful本就可与与表示特征的形容词连用,此时便有了副词属性,用于强调「极度地,非常」

例句

Gosh, you’re awful pretty!

天哪,你太漂亮了!

🎈面部肌肉 facial muscle

🎈喋喋不休地讲,滔滔不绝地说 rattle on (about something)


 

其实我没有仔细听他所讲的话,因为我听了好久,已能料知他的下文了。我只是顺口答应着,而把眼睛偷看环境中,凭空地研究我屁股底下的究竟是什么东西。

As a matter of fact, I did not listen carefully, for his stories went on for such a long time that they became quite predictable. I responded to him absent-mindedly, still concerned by the mystery of whatever was now lying under my bottom.

🎈事实上,实际上as a matter of fact

谢逸《下蛋·唱鸡及其它》

其实,古人早就以鸡喻人了……

As a matter of fact, our forefathers long ago already drew an analogy between the hen and man…

🎈absent-minded/absentminded

adj.心不在焉的,走神的,健忘的


 

我看见他家梁上筑着燕巢,燕子飞进飞出,遗弃一朵粪在地上,其颜色正同我屁股底下的东西相似。我才知道,我新制的淡青灰哔叽长衫上已经沾染一朵燕子粪了。

Then I saw swallows flying in and out of their nest on the beam above. They dropped things on the ground that looked similar to the stuff under my bottom. I realized at once that my new coat was stained by swallow droppings.

🎈复习之前见过的beam的用法

1)n.梁

横梁a transverse beam

2)n.笑容;眉开眼笑

满意的笑容a beam of satisfaction

3)v.眉开眼笑

喜笑颜开 beam with joy

🎈droppings(复数名词),专指鸟或小动物的粪便。

鸽子屎 pigeon droppings

燕子粪 swallow droppings

鸟粪 bird droppings


 

外面走进来一群穿长衫的人。他们是主人的亲友或邻居。主人因为我是远客,特地邀他们来陪我。大部分的人是我所未认识的,主人便立起身来为我介绍。

At that moment in came a group of people in formal wear, the relatives and neighbors of the host. Since I was a guest from afar, the host took the trouble to invite them over to keep me company. Most of them were people who I hadn’t met before, so the host stood up to introduce them to me.

🎈从远处 from afar

从远处看 view from afar

远道而来 come from afar

有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?It is such a delight to have friends coming from afar.

遥祝… wish sb. from afar

冰心《再寄小读者》

我独自留下,抽空再写几行,免得你们盼望,遥祝你们好好地度一个快乐的星期天!

I’m the only one left alone, so I manage to find time to write you a few lines so as to keep you from worrying about me. I wish you from afar a happy Sunday!

🎈拼尽力气,费心思… take the trouble to do

例句

Don’t take the trouble.不用麻烦了。

🎈company搭配

1)陪伴某人,给某人做伴 keep sb. company

与…交朋友,与…为伍 keep company with sb.

例句

Why don’t you stay here and keep Emma company?

你为什么不呆在这儿,陪陪埃玛?

He keeps company with all sorts of lazy characters.

他与形形色色的懒人为伍。

2)有朋友或客人在 have company

与别人在一起 be in company

例句

He didn’t say he had had company.

他没说当时有客人在。

I feel awkward and shy in company.

跟别人在一起的时候,我觉得很别扭,不好意思。

3)分手,分离,分开 part company(with sb.)

例句

The three of them parted company at the bus stop.

他们三个在公共汽车站分了手。

We have agreed to part company with each other after differences of opinion.

我们道不同不相为谋。


 

他的左手臂伸直,好像一把刀。他用这把刀把新来的一群人一个一个地切开来,同时口中说着:“这位是某某先生,这位是某某君……”

He stretched out his left arm as straight as a knife and carved the group into individuals with this blade of a hand. “This is Mr. So-and-So, and that is Mr. So-and-So.”

🎈(手掌以上的)胳膊是刀柄(the knife handle),手掌是刀刃(the blade),所以手臂(your arms are the two long parts of your body that are attached to your shoulders and that have your hands at the end. )是刀。


 

等到他说完的时候,我已把各人的姓名统统忘却了。因为当他介绍时,我只管在那里看他那把刀的切法,不曾用心听着。

Before he finished, I had forgotten all the names of the people because when he introduced them, I only paid attention to his carving instead of what he was saying.

🎈「切法」译作carving,指 the act or art of one who carves,和上句中的carve对应。


 

我觉得很奇怪,为甚么介绍客人姓名时不用食指来点,必用刀一般的手来切?又觉得很妙,为甚么用食指来点似乎侮慢,而用刀一般的手来切似乎客气得多?

I couldn’t understand why he motioned with his hand instead of pointing with his forefinger. Also I wondered why it seemed disrespectful to point with the forefinger, but much more polite to carve with the blade of a hand.

🎈大拇指 thumb或pollex

食指 index finger 或forefinger

中指 middle finger

无名指 ring figure

小拇指 little finger


 

这也许有造形美术上的根据:五指并伸的手,样子比单伸一根食指的手美丽、和平、而恭敬得多。这是合掌礼的一半。合掌是作个揖,这是作半个揖,当然客气得多。

This is possibly based on Chinese folk art design which sees the opened hand as more beautiful, peaceful, and respectful than a single pointing forefinger. Opening one hand is half the etiquette of a Buddhist greeting. Since one holds the two hands together when making a bow, it follows that opening one hand is making half a bow, and so it is more polite than only extending a finger.

🎈译文中的Chinese folk art是译者根据对文章理解和时代背景补充的成分。

🎈合十礼,又称「合掌礼」(the etiquette of a Buddhist greeting),原是印度古国的文化礼仪之一,后为各国佛教徒沿用为日常普通礼节。行礼时,双掌合于胸前,十指并拢,以示虔诚和尊敬。遇到不同身份的人,行此礼的姿势也有所不同。


 

反之,单伸一根食指的手,是指示路径的牌子上或“小便在此”的牌子上所画的手。若用以指客人,就像把客人当作小便所,侮慢太甚了!

Pointing with the forefinger, on the contrary, is like a direction sign pointing to the destination of a road or indicating the way to the toilet. If one points at a guest this way, he would be treating the guest as a toilet. That is too disrespectful!

🎈反之on the contrary

相比之下 by comparison

🎈pointing to the destination of a road or indicating the way to the toilet作a direction sign(方向指示标志)的后置定语。


 

我当时忙着这样的感想,又叹佩我们的主人的礼貌,竟把他所告诉我的客人的姓名统统忘记了。

I was so engrossed in such thoughts and busy admiring the host’s politeness that I forgot all the names of the guests as soon as I was introduced to them.

🎈全神贯注,非常专注于某事 be engrossed in sth.

张恨水《我写小说的道路》

我在十一二岁,看小说已经成迷了。

became engrossed in reading fiction when I was 12.


 

但觉姓都是百家姓所载的,名字中有好几个“生”字和“卿”字。

However, I do remember that all their surnames could be found in the Book of China’s Family and quite a few given names contained such ordinary characters as sheng and qing.

🎈「全名」是full name,「姓」可以表达为:surname或family name或last name,「名」可以表达为first name或given name.

🎈百家姓Book of China’s Family

三字经 Three-Character Classic

(注:英文中没有书名号“《》”,书名需要用斜体)

🎈quite a few指a fairly large number,不要被表达里的few干扰,误以为这个词指few。

例句

I’ve been there quite a few times.

我去过那里好多次了。


 

主人请许多客人围住一张八仙桌坐定了。这回我不自选座位,一任主人发落,结果被派定坐在左边,独占一面。

The host invited the guests to take their seats around the table. This time I did not choose my seat, and instead waited for the host’s decision. I was assigned the seat of honor to the left of the table that faced the gate.

🎈近义词辨析choose/select/select/pick/prefer/opt

choose: 普通用词,侧重根据个人意愿和判断从众多的对象中进行选择,着重被选者的优点。

select: 书面用词,具有庄严、正式的感情色彩。强调精选。

elect: 指按照一定的规章或法律,用投票等方式进行的认真慎重的选择。

pick: 口语用词,多指从个人角度仔细挑选,也含任意挑选之意。

prefer: 强调个人偏爱,不一定有选择的行动。

opt: 多指在几种可能性之间进行选择。

补充

自然选择论(the Natural Selection Theory)不宜选用choose/choice。和choose相比,select含「支配、操纵」之意。


 

桌上已放着四只盆子,内中两盆是糕饼,一盆是瓜子,一盆是櫻桃。仆人送到一盘茶,主人立起身来,把盘内的茶一一端送客人。

On the table were already placed four plates: two filled with cakes, one of sunflower seeds, the other with cherries.When the maid brought in teacups on a tray, the host stood up and handed the cups one after another to the guests.

🎈On the table were already placed four plates

倒装的情况之一——为强调状语

🎈(1)当句首状语为方位词或拟声词,谓语动词为go, come等表示位置转移的动词时句子须倒装。

例句

Up went the plane.

In came the chairman and the meeting began.

注:如果主语是代词则不发生倒装。

例句

They rushed out!

He bent Lower and lower.

(2)当句首状语为表示地点、方向等的介词词组时,句子须倒装。

例句

Round the corner walked a large policeman.

Under the table was lying a half-conscious young man.

(3)当句首状语由“only +副词”,“only +介词词组”,“only +状语从句”构成时,句子须倒装。

例句

Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing.

不属于完全倒装


 

客人受茶时,有的立起身来,伸手遮住茶杯,口中连称“得罪,得罪”。有的用中央三个指头在桌子边上敲击:“答,答,答,答”,口中连称“叩头,叩头”。其意仿佛是用手代表自己的身体,把桌子当作地面,而伏在那里叩头。

When they accepted the tea, some stood up with one hand covering the cup and repeatedly saying “thanks”. Some tapped at the edge of the table with the three middle fingers while uttering profuse thanks. With this gesture they symbolically prostrated themselves and kowtowed to the host.

🎈积累动词cover(遮/盖)、tap(敲击/叩击)、extend(伸出)

🎈连连称道 repeated say… /utter profuse…

🎈prostrate

1)v. 俯伏/拜倒

使自己俯伏/拜倒prostrate oneself

例句

They prostrated themselves before their king.

他们向国王跪拜行礼。

2)a. 俯卧的,平卧的

平躺 lie prostrate

例句

Percy was lying prostrate, his arms outstretched and his eyes closed.

珀西闭着眼四仰八叉地平躺着。

3)a. 衰竭的;沮丧的;一蹶不振的

痛不欲生 be prostrate with grief

一蹶不振的经济 the prostrate economy

🎈烧香磕头 burn incense and kowtow


 

我是第一个受茶的客人,我点一点头,应了一声。与别人的礼貌森严比较之下,自觉太过傲慢了。我感觉自己的态度颇不适合于这个环境,局促不安起来。

As the first to accept the tea, I simply nodded and said thanks. Compared with the other guests’ meticulous courtesy, I felt I was too supercilious. Thinking I was out of tune with the other guests, I became quite ill at ease.

🎈与…协调/一致/融洽 be in of tune with…

与…不协调/不一致/不融洽;不合群 be out of tune with…


 

第二次主人给我添茶的时候,我便略略改变态度,也伸手挡住茶杯。我以为这举动可以表示两种意思,一种是“够了,够了”的意思,还有一种是用此手作半个揖道谢的意思,所以可取。

So, when the host came around with tea a second time, I changed my attitude slightly—I also extended my hand to cover my cup. I thought this particular move could have dual meanings—to signal to him that I had had enough, and that I wanted to bow my thanks to him. So I considered it a proper gesture.

🎈双重意义 due meanings

双标/双重标准 double standards

🎈signal to sb that…中signal名词动用,指“(用手势、声音等)发信号,发暗号,示意”.

例句

He stood up, signalling to the officer that he had finished with his client…

他站起身,向警察示意他和他的当事人已经谈完了。

🎈bow可作及物动词,后接名词,表示to express by bending the head, body, or knee。例如:颔首/弯腰表示感激 bow his appreciation/thanks


 

但不幸技巧拙劣,把手遮隔了主人的视线,在幽暗的厅堂里,两方大家不易看见杯中的茶。

Unfortunately, I was so clumsy that my hand obstructed the host’s view, and in the shadowy hall neither the host nor I could see the tea in the cup.

🎈遮挡/阻隔视线 block/obstruct the view


 

他只管把茶注下来,直到泛滥在桌子上,滴到我的新制的淡青灰哔叽长衫上,我方才觉察,动手拦阻。于是找抹桌布,揩拭衣服,弄得手忙脚乱。

He was pouring for all he was worth. It was not until my tea overflowed to the table and dripped on my new coat that I noticed it and stopped him. In a flurry I looked for a cloth to clean my gown.

🎈拼命地; 全力以赴地;热情高涨地 for all sb. be worth (如for all you are worth)

例句

We both began waving to the crowd for all we were worth.

我们俩开始使劲地朝人群挥手。


 

主人特别关念我的衣服,表示十分抱歉的样子,要亲自给我揩拭。

The host, looking rather apologetic about my clothes, insisted on doing it himself.

🎈rather表示程度,起强调作用

例句

spent rather a lot of money 花了一大笔钱

it’s rather warm 天气超暖和


 

我心中很懊恼,但脸上只得强装笑容,连说“不要紧,没有甚么”;其实是“有甚么”的!我的新制的淡青灰哔机长衫上又染上了芭蕉扇大的一块茶渍!

I felt annoyed, but had to put on a smile on my face. “No big deal! It doesn’t matter!” I assured him. In fact, it mattered very much to me. My new coat had acquired a huge tea stain the size of a plantain fan!

🎈没什么大不了,无所谓,没关系no big deal

🎈茶渍 tea stain

油渍 oil stain

🎈the size of…

1)the size of sth 作表语表示主语的大小时,形式上是名词作表语,但实际上起的是形容词的作用。等于about the size of sth.

例句

The bug is (about) the size of a dime.

这个臭虫足有10美分硬币那么大。

2)英语的后置定语本质上是定语从句的一种简略

例句

These animals have brains the size of a football. = These animals have brains that are (about) the size of a football. 所以,the size of a football 为brains的后置定语,等于about the size of a football.


 

主人以这事件为前车,以后添茶时逢到伸手遮住茶杯的客人,便用开诚布公似的语调说:“不要客气,大家老实来得好!”客人都会意,便改用指头敲击桌子:“答,答,答,答。”

The host learned his lesson from my example and from then on, whenever a guest tried to cover his cup, the host would repeat in all sincerity and frankness, “Don’t worry. My home is your home!” All the guests acknowledged and switched to tapping on the table with their fingers.

🎈学到教训 learn lessons/a lesson

上课 take a lesson

给…一个教训;给…一点颜色 take sb. a lesson


 

这办法的确较好,除了不妨碍视线的好处外,又是有声有色,郑重得多。

Indeed, tapping on the table was a lot better, for the hand would not obscure the host’s view and could make a respectful sound.

 


况且手的样子活像一个小形的人:中指象头,食指和无名指像手,大指和小指像足,手掌像身躯,口称“叩头”而用中指“答,答,答,答”地敲击起来,俨然是“五体投地”而“捣蒜”一般叩头的模样。

Besides, the cupped hand resembles a miniature person: the middle finger is like the head; the forefinger and ring finger like his hands; the thumb and little finger like his feet; and the palm like the body. With the guests saying “thanks” and the middle fingers tapping on the table, the miniature person seems to prostrate himself on the ground, knocking his head as fast and mechanically as he could.

🎈表示相似:be similar to …/ resemble/ bear a resemblance to …

🎈复习(《费利西娅的旅行》)

远方桥上的行人正心无旁骛大踏步地向前走着,那些小人儿细细点点的,看上去影影绰绰、似真似幻。

Figures stride purposefully on a distant bridge, figures in miniature, creatures that could be unreal.

其中in miniature意为「微型的,缩微的」

🎈 he middle finger is like the head… and the palm like the body涉及并列句的省略:并列句中,后面分句中与前面分句相同的部分常常省去,以免重复。


主人分送香烟,座中吸烟的人,连主人共有五六人,我也在内。

The host offered cigarettes to the smokers. There were five or six of them at the table, including the host and me.

🎈at作介词,指「在…旁边,靠近」

在桌边,在桌旁 at the table

孤零零一个人坐在桌前sit all by yourself at the table


 

主人划一根自来火,先给我的香烟点火。自来火在我眼前烧得正猛,匆促之间我真想不出谦让的方法来,便应了一声,把香烟凑上去点着了。

The host struck a match and motioned to light my cigarette first, and with the match flaming up before me I panicked and could not for the life of me think of a way to decline his offer. So I assented and moved the cigarette closer to the flame.

🎈无论如何;无论怎样努力 for the life of me/you

例句

I cannot for the life of me imagine why they want to leave.

我怎么也想象不出他们为什么要走。


 

主人忙把已经烧了三分之一的自来火给坐在我右面的客人的香烟点火。这客人正在咬瓜子,便伸手推主人的臂,口里连叫“自来,自来”。

After my cigarette was lit, the host hurriedly turned the match, which had already burned one third down, towards the guest on my right side. As the guest was cracking seeds, he stretched out his hand to block the host’s arm, saying “I’ll do it myself!”


 

“自来”者,并非“自来火”的略语,是表示谦让,请主人“自”己先“来”(就是点香烟)的意思。主人坚不肯“自来”,口中连喊“请,请,请”,定要隔着一张八仙桌,拿着已剩二分之一弱的火柴杆来给这客人点香烟。

He was actually being polite, suggesting the host light his own cigarette first, but the host would not let it go and repeated “Please! Please! Please!” With the match now half gone, the host insisted on lighting the cigarette for the guest across the table.

🎈suggesting the host (should) light his own cigarette first:在表示命令、建议或要求等动词后的宾语从句中要求用虚拟语气,谓语形式为“(should)+动词原形”。这类动词有:ask, advice, suggest, request, commend, decide, determine, insist, intend, prefer, propose, order, recommend, imagine等。

例句

I suggested that you (should) try to understand him.

我曾建议你试着去理解他。

🎈不再多说(或多做);就到此为止 let it go (at sth)

例句

I don’t entirely agree, but I’ll let it go at that.

我不完全同意,但也就这样吧。

I thought she was hinting at something, but I let it go.

我想她在暗示什么,然而我也没再多问。

🎈 With the match now half gone

gone作形容词,表示「离开的,过去的,不复存在」

例句

By morning the smoke will be all gone.

这些烟到了早上就会散尽。


 

我坐在两人中间,眼看那根不知趣的火柴杆越烧越短,而两人的交涉尽不解决,心中替他们异常着急。

Sitting between the guest and the host, I watched the untactful match glowing increasingly shorter and still they had not come to an agreement. I became extremely anxious about them. u达成协议 come to/reach an agreement


 

主人又似乎不大懂得燃烧的物理,一味把火头向下,因此火柴杆烧得很快。

To make things worse, the host kept the match pointing downward, which only made it burn faster, apparently not knowing much about the law of combustion.

🎈To make things worse(让事情更糟糕)的添加成份让语意间衔接更加流畅。

🎈丛林法则(弱肉强食)the law of the jungle

自然法则 the laws of Nature


 

幸而那客人不久就表示屈服,丢去正咬的瓜子,手忙脚乱地向茶杯旁边捡起他那支香烟,站起来,弯下身子,就火上去吸。

Fortunately, the guest soon yielded and put aside the seed he was cracking. He hastily picked up the cigarette lying beside the cup, stood up, and then bent over the flame to light it.

🎈yield to … /bow to …可指弯向…,同时可引申为屈服于。

 


这时候主人手中的火柴杆只剩三分之一弱,火头离开他的指爪只有一粒瓜子的地位了。

By this time, the host’s match stick had two-thirds gone, and the licking flame was only one tiny seed away from his fingers.

🎈have sth. done结构中,have是使役动词 意为使…让…,比如have my bicycle repaired意思是使我的自行车被修理,其实就是说修我的自行车。又,此处“半透明”译作了“transparent(透明的)”,而非translucent(半透明的),是因为专门找此种性质的瓶子就是为了观察蟋蟀,故不选用translucent(指光能投过去,但影像不一定清晰)

 


出乎我意外的,是主人还要撮着这一粒火柴杆,去给第三个客人点香烟。第三个客人似乎也没有防到这一点,不曾预先取烟在手。

Much to my amazement, the host was still holding the last bit of the match and tried to light a cigarette for a third guest, who hadn’t predicted the host’s action either and so had not picked up his cigarette.

🎈for a third guest:the third指“第三次”,a third指“又一次,再一次”,不知道到底是第几次。


 

他看见主人有“燃指之急”,特地不取香烟,摇手喊道:“我自来,我自来。”主人依然强硬,不肯让他自来。

Seeing the flame was about to singe the host’s fingers, he decided not to take up the cigarette, and tried to waved him away. “Let me do it myself!” he said loudly. Refusing to yield, the stubborn host persisted.

🎈接受(建议或能得到的东西) take up

例句

to take up a challenge

接受挑战

She took up his offer of a drink.

他请她喝一杯,她接受了。

🎈对…置之不理;不理会 wave …aside/away

例句

My objections to the plan were waved aside.

我对这项计划的反对意见未被理会。


 

这第三个客人的香烟的点火,终于像救火一般惶急万状地成就了。他在匆忙之中带翻了一只茶杯,幸而杯中盛茶不多,不曾作再度的泛滥。我屏息静观,几乎发呆了,到这时候才抽一口气。

Finally, the cigarette was lit as a prelude to the chaos to come. In his haste, the host knocked over a cup. Luckily there wasn’t much tea in it, so there was not much spill this time. I watched this episode quietly, holding my breath, almost dumbfounded.

🎈 “这第三个客人的香烟的点火,终于像救火一般惶急万状地成就了”难的不是该怎么译成译入语,而是对原文的理解,根据下文具体描述,此句意为“造成场面一度混乱”。考试中碰见不明白的地方,大胆猜测/合理推测也是有效的方法之一。

🎈吃瓜/看戏 watch an episode

🎈屏息 hold one’s breath

令人震撼的阿尔卑斯山风景breathtaking alpine scenery

咽气,断气breathe one’s last

喘不过气out of breath

(大口)喘气 gasp for breath

急促的号子a breathless chant

倒抽一口冷气draw a cold breath

🎈in the same breath和at the same time都表达「同时」的意思,前者同时的双方是对立的关系,更多表达否定、不可放在一起比较的意思。

下面是来自《经济学人》的例句:

He hailed this week’s arms agreement but in the same breath expressed suspicion about the motivations of the United States.

他为本周达成的武器协议而欢呼,但同时又对美国的动机表示怀疑。

in the same breath还有一个意思:主要强调的是在同一个水平,同一个地位,但A和B不能相提并论,不可同日而语。


主人把拿自来火的手指用力地搓了几搓,再划起一根自来火来,为第四个客人的香烟点火。

The host rubbed his fingers several times and struck another match, this time, to light a cigarette for the fourth guest.


 

在这事件中,我顾怜主人的手指烫痛,又同情于客人的举动的仓皇。觉得这种主客真难做:吸烟,原是一件悠闲畅适的事;但在这里变成救火一般惶急万状了。

As the drama went on, I felt sympathy for the host’s burnt fingers and compassion for his guest’s frantic responses. It seemed both the host and guests were in a pickle. Smoking should be a matter of ease and comfort, but on this day it became an act of panic and commotion.

🎈同情… feel sympathy/compassion for…

 


这一天,我和别的几位客人在主人家里吃一餐饭,据我统计,席上一共闹了三回事:第一次闹事,是为了争座位。

I then had a meal with the other guests at the host’s place. By my count, there were three commotions during the meal. The first one happened when people scrambled for seats.

🎈 “闹”(区分积极的闹和消极的闹)

1)①commotion 喧闹,混乱

②(叶紫《长江轮上》)但是,天刚刚一发白,茶房们就哇啦哇啦地闹了起来!“汉生!你起来!他们要将她打死哩!……”母亲急急地跺着脚,扯着我的耳朵。

Then, when it was dawning, the stewards kicked up a row. “Han Sheng! Get up! They’re beating her to death …” Mother stamped her feet with anxiety and pulled me by the ear.

「就哇啦哇啦地闹了起来」译作kicked up a row,该表达意为「开始喧闹」。其中kick up表示「开始大吵大闹」

2)There was a hubbub of excited conversation from over a thousand people.

有一千多人在兴高采烈地大声谈话,场面无比喧闹。


 

所争的是朝里的位置。这位置的确最好:别的三面都是两人坐一面的,朝里可以独坐一面;别的位置都很幽暗,朝里的位置最亮。

What we fought for was a seat facing the ancestral shrine. This seat was indeed ideal. The other three sides of the table were each occupied by two guests, but the side facing the shrine could be taken only by one person. The other seats were all in the shadow while this particular seat was in the light.

🎈近义词辨析

optimal 最高效的

ideal 最理想的,最合适的


 

且在我更有可取之点,我患着羞明的眼疾,不耐对着光源久坐,最喜欢背光而坐。

It was most desirable for me, as I have photophobia and cannot bear to face the light for long. I prefer to sit in the light, not facing the light.

🎈photophobia n.畏光,恐光症

hydrophobia n.恐水症,狂犬病


 

我最初看中这好位置,曾经一度占据;但主人立刻将我一把拖开,拖到左边的里面的位置上,硬把我的身体装进在椅子里去。这位置最黑暗,又很狭窄,但我只得忍受。

At first I settled on this good seat and had it to myself for a while, but soon the host dragged me over to the seat facing the gate, and then crammed my body into the chair on the left. There was not much light here and the seat was cramped, but I had to put up with it.

🎈使…(只)属于自己,独享某物 have sth./sb. to oneself

例句

I’m happy to have you to myself tonight; it will give us a chance to talk privately.

🎈把…塞进… cram… into…

梁实秋《时间即生命》

我父亲买了一套同文石印的前四史,塞满了我的行箧的一半空间。Chinese history books are equally important. When I was leaving China to study abroad, father bought a set of the Tong Wen lithographic edition of the First Four Books of History, and crammed them into my travelling box, taking up half of its space.

🎈put up with 忍受,容忍

同义词:tolerate, bear

例句

I can’t put up with their smoking any longer.

我再也无法忍受他们抽烟了。


 

因为我知道这座位叫做“东北角”,是最大的客位;而今天我是远客,别的客人都是主人请来陪我的。

I knew that the seat in this corner, what they called the “Northeast”, was always reserved for the most honored guest. Today I was a visitor from afar, and the other guests were all invited by the host to keep me company.

🎈客位:宾客的位置﹑席位。


 

主人把我驱逐到“东北”之后,又和别的客人大闹一场:坐下去,拖起来;装进去,逃出来;约莫闹了五分钟,方才坐定。“请,请,请”,大家“请酒”“用菜”。

After the host had sent me to the “Northeast”, he exercised his muscles with each of the others. The moment they sat down, he pulled them up; after he crammed them in, they all got out. Only after five minutes of clamour did they all find their places. Then, everyone got down to the meal, proposing toasts and helping each other to food.

🎈“驱逐”不宜选用expel, banish等词,此处主人是好意的行为,而不是野蛮粗鲁的行为(常指放逐,流放等)

🎈敬酒,干杯 propose a toast/toasts


 

第二次闹事,是为了灌酒。主人好像是开着义务酿造厂的,多多益善地劝客人饮酒。他有时用强迫的手段,有时用欺诈的手段。

The second commotion was for drinking. It was as if the host ran a private brewery! He urged the guests to drink on and on. His principle was the more the guests drank, the happier he would be. To this end, he would use both compulsion and tricks.

🎈连续不停地;持续地 on and on

例句

She went on and on about her trip.

她没完没了地谈她的旅行。

🎈为了这个目的,怀着这一目的 to this end

🎈威逼利诱

compulsion and tricks

carrot and stick

coercion and bribery

to threaten and bribe

其中Carrot and Stick policy,翻译为「胡萝卜和大棒政策」,是奖励(胡萝卜)与 惩罚(大棒)并行的怀柔政策,它来源于一则古老的故事,即要使驴子前进,就在它前面放一个胡萝卜诱惑、奖励它,但同时又要用一根棒子在后面赶它,当它做得不好的时候,惩罚它。后来这个说法沿用到政治和经济领域。现在很多公司,对员工进行激励的时候,也是施行这种怀柔政策,一方面给予蜜糖,一方面用惩罚措施让员工不敢怠惰。


 

客人中有的把酒杯藏到桌子底下,有的拿了酒杯逃开去。结果有一人被他灌醉,伏在痰盂上呕吐了。主人一面照料他,一面劝别人再饮。好象已经“做脱”了一人,希望再麻翻几个似的。

As a result, some guests hid their cups under the table while others ran away from the table with their cups. Soon one guest was drunk and vomited over the spittoon. The host went over to look after him, but at the same time urged the other guests to drink on. It was as if he hoped to “drug” a few more!

🎈look after= take care of

1.照顾,照料

2负责处理…

照顾孩子们look after the kids

处理生意look after the business

🎈drug作名词时在不同语境下可分别指“药品”或“毒品”,作动词时根据后接对象也有不同释义:

1)drug+ sb./animals 给…服麻醉剂,把…麻醉

例句

They drugged the guard dog with doped meatballs.

他们用掺了麻醉药的肉丸子麻醉了看门狗。

2)drug + sth. 往(食物或饮料)…中投放麻醉药

例句

Anyone could have drugged that wine.

指不定谁在那酒里下了药。


 

我幸而以不喝酒著名,当时以茶代酒,没有卷入这风潮的旋涡中,没有被麻翻的恐慌。

Luckily, I was an acknowledged teetotaler, so I was allowed to have tea instead. As a result, I was able to stay out of it and did not feel the panic of being “drugged”.

🎈teetotaler专指禁酒主义者a person who does not drink alcohol


 

但久作壁上观,也觉得厌倦了,便首先要求吃饭。后来别的客人也都吃饭了。

With the passage of time, I became bored from watching this spectacle, so I asked the host for a bowl of rice. Later on, the other guests all followed suit.

🎈作壁上观:人家交战,自己站在营垒上观看。比喻坐观成败,不给予帮助。spectacle指a strange or interesting sight.

🎈对…感到厌倦 be bored with/from

be feed up with

be (sick and) tired of

tire of

🎈follow suit

1) (在纸牌游戏中)跟牌(跟着别人出同花色的牌)

2)跟着某人做;仿效某人;照着做


 

第三次闹事,便是为了吃饭问题。但这与现今世间到处闹着的吃饭问题性质完全相反。这是一方强迫对方吃饭,而对方不肯吃。

The third fight was over food, but it was a totally different fight, not for food, although there was prevalent hunger and famine in the outside world. In this case, the host was trying to get his guests to eat more, but they refused to do so.

🎈现今世间到处闹着的吃饭问题:饥荒(the famine years)

🎈给某人某物get sb. sth. / get sth. to sb.

为某人取得某物 get sb. for sth.

让某人做某事 get sb. to do sth.


 

起初两方各提出理由来互相辩论;后来是夺饭碗 方硬要给他添饭,对方决不肯再添;或者一方硬要他吃一满碗,对方定要减少半碗。

At first, both sides came up with all kinds of excuses before they began to “grab” the bowls—the host tried to force food into the guests’ bowls while the guests refused to accept more; or the host insisted on serving one more bowl while the guests bargained to accept only half a bowl.

🎈几个up with相关的短语:

提出、相处(计划、想法等)come up with

以……结尾/结束end up with

忍受,容忍put up with

厌倦,厌恶… be feed up with


 

粒粒皆辛苦的珍珠一般的白米,在这社会里全然失却其价值,几乎变成狗子也不要吃的东西了。

For a moment, the precious white rice, which was grown by farmers in the sweat of their brows, seemed to have become worthless things that even the dog would not eat willingly.

u悯农(其二)

李坤

锄禾日当午,

汗滴禾下土。

谁知盘中餐,

粒粒皆辛苦。

The Peasants

Li Shen (II)

At noon they weed with hoes;

Their sweat drips on the soil.

Each bowl of rice, who knows?

Is the fruit of hard toil.


 

我没有吃酒,肚子饿着,照常吃两碗半饭。在这里可说是最肯负责吃饭的人,没有受主人责备。因此我对于他们的争执,依旧可作壁上观。

Since I did not drink with the guests, I was by then so hungry that I had two and a half bowls of rice. I was, as it were, the most earnest eater at the table and so the host spared me. This in turn left me free to watch the guests arguing with the host.

🎈 吃:英语中除了eat之处,就要数 have 用得最多了哈,还有 take。用法与 eat 一样,直接接食物、饮料名词。

have强调在时间、日程、消费品种等语境下安排的吃喝,不具体强吃的内容,如have three meals a day 一日三餐、have a buffet吃自助餐

eat强调在健康、保健、饮食语境里的吃、享用,且和具体食物名称搭配,如eat a piece of bread吃块面包。但实际使用中,两者常混用。

🎈像,仿佛,可谓是,可以说是so to speak =as it were

例句

He is, so to speak, a walking dictionary.

他可谓是一本活字典。

🎈…得以幸免(伤害或灾难等)(a person/place)is spared

例句

Not a man was spared.

无人得以幸免。

Northern Somalia was largely spared from the famine.

索马里北部的大部分地区逃过了这场饥荒。


 

我觉得这争执状态真是珍奇;尤其是在到处闹着没饭吃的中国社会里,映成强烈的对比。

I was amazed at what was happening in this room, especially at a time when famine is such a common occurrence in China. What a stark contrast!

🎈鲜明对比 a sharp/stark contrast

鲜明对比下 By (sharp/stark) contrast, …


 

可惜这种状态的出现,只限于我们这主人的客厅上,又只限于这一餐的时间。若得因今天的提倡与励行而普遍于全人类,永远地流行,我们这主人定将在世界到处的城市被设立生祠,死后还要在世界到处的城市中被设立铜像呢。

Sadly, this was happening only in the host’s parlor. If this abundance could be found at tables around the world, temples would soon be set up and bronze statues erected everywhere in his memory after his death.

🎈普遍于全人类=流行,所以合并翻译为be found around the world

🎈末尾的两处“在世界到处的城市”是中文中惯用的重复,译时要将表达习惯转为译入语语言习惯,译一处即可,避免重复赘余。


 

我又因此想起了以前在你这里看见过的日本人描写乌托邦的几幅漫画:在那漫画的世界里,金银和钞票是过多而没有人要的,到处被弃掷在垃圾桶里。

The experience reminded me of the cartoons I had seen at your place. In the Utopian world depicted by a Japanese cartoonist, there was more than enough gold and banknotes for everyone, and the extra wealth was dumped into the garbage can.

🎈乌托邦世界 the Utopian world

乌托邦(Utopia)本意是“没有的地方”或者“好地方”。延伸为还有理想,不可能完成的好事情,其中文翻译也可以理解为“乌”是没有,“托”是寄托,“邦”是国家,“乌托邦”三个字合起来的意思即为“空想的国家”。乌托邦是人类思想意识中最美好的社会,如同西方早期“空想社会主义”,和东方所说的“世外桃源”。

🎈近义词辨析describe/depict

describe重在用文字来形容,陈述一些事物

depict用文字和图片来形容。

🎈…绰绰有余 more than enough…


 

清道夫满满地装了一车子钞票,推到海边去烧毁。半路里还有人开了后门,捧出一畚箕金镑来,硬要倒进他的垃圾车中去,却被清道夫拒绝了。

As the cleaner was pushing a cartload of banknotes to have them destroyed at the seaside, he was stopped halfway by someone who slipped through the back door with a basket of pounds sterling and asked to empty them into the cart, but the cleaner flatly refused.

🎈一把… a handful of

一口…a mouthful of

一束…a bundle of

一皮箱…a suitcaseful of

一院子… a courtyard of

一车子… a cartload of

🎈断然,直截了当,斩钉截铁地flatly

断然否认/拒绝/反对某事flatly deny/reject /refuse /oppose sth.


 

马路边的水门汀上站着的乞丐,都提着一大筐子的钞票,在那里哀求苦告地分送给行人,行人个个远而避之。

Even the beggars in the street carried big baskets of banknotes, and tried to give them away to passers-by, although no one would take them.

🎈水门汀:即水泥,有时也指混凝土。叶圣陶的《没有秋虫的地方》、丰子恺的《竹影》、张爱玲的《落叶的爱》、夏丏尊的《白马湖之冬》中均有提及。


 

我看今天座上为拒绝吃饭而起争执的主人和客人们,足有列入那种漫画人物中的资格。请他们侨居到乌托邦去,再好没有了。

To me, both the host and guests seemed good candidates to replace the cartoon characters. Utopia is the perfect place for them!

🎈替代,代替,充当

1) replace

2) have … replaced by…

3) as a substitute for

4) supersede

5) eliminate a need for…


 

我负责地吃了两碗半白米饭,虽然没有受主人责备,但把胃吃坏,积滞了。

I dutifully ate two and a half bowls of rice, so I was not reproached by the host, but my appetite was ruined and I later developed indigestion.

🎈积食,不消化 develop indigestion

患感冒 have/catch/get a cold

头疼 have a headache;


 

因为我是席上第一个吃饭的人,主人命一仆人站在我身旁,伺候添饭。

Since I was the first to eat, the host instructed a servant to stand by my side to fill my bowl.

🎈站在某人身旁 stand by one’s side

继续支持(尤指身处困境的人) stand by sb.

袖手旁观 stand by sth.


 

这仆人大概受过主人的训练,伺候异常忠实:当我吃到半碗饭的时候,他就开始鞠躬如也地立在我近旁,监督我的一举一动,注视我的饭碗,静候我的吃完。

The servant, who might have been well trained by the host to wait at table, performed his duty extremely well. When my bowl was half empty, he stood by respectfully with his head lowered, watching my every move, and gazing at my bowl.

🎈may/might have done是对过去情况的一种不太有把握的推测,表示“过去可能已做了某事”,其否定形式表示“过去可能还没有做某事”。

🎈履职 perform one’s duties /facilitate one’s work

签署履职协议 sign performance agreements


 

等到我吃剩三分之一的时候,他站立更近,督视更严,他的手跃跃欲试地想来夺我的饭碗。在这样的监督之下,我吃饭不得不快。

As my bowl reached the two-thirds empty mark, he moved in, watched more closely, and prepared to “grab” my bowl. Under his watchful eyes there was no choice but to rush my meal.

🎈分数的表达:

1/80 an / one eightieth

2/80 two eightieths

百分比 (Br. E.) per cent / (Am. E.) percent

多/少百分之多少 … per cent / percent less / more

例句

How about ten-percent less?打九折怎么样?

做A比B要多/少…it … less / more … to … than …

例句

It costs 60 per cent less money to travel from Beijing to Shanghai by train than by plane.

从北京到上海坐火车比坐飞机要少花60%的钱。


 

吃到还剩两三口的时候,他的手早已搭在我的饭碗边上,我只得两三口并作一口地吞食了,让他把饭碗夺去。

When there were two or three mouthfuls of rice left, he had already placed his hands on the edge of the bowl, so I gulped down the remainder of the food and let him “snatch” the bowl.

🎈狼吞虎咽gulp down

萧红《当铺》

十个包子吃去一大半,他才细问……

It was not until he had gulped down more than half of the buns that he began to question me closely…


 

这样急急忙忙地装进了两碗半白米饭,我的胃就积滞,隐隐地作痛,连茶也喝不下去。但又说不出来。忍痛坐了一会,又勉强装了几次笑颜,才得告辞。

I ate two and a half bowls of rice in such haste that indigestion soon struck. A dull pain grew in my stomach, and I was in no mood for tea, but I could not tell the others of my discomfort. So I sat suffering in silence for a while, and put a smile on my face before I made my departure.

🎈the indigestion strikes

(疾病、灾难等)侵袭,爆发an illness/disaster+ strike

🎈没心情做某事… be in no mood for


 

我坐船回到家中,已是上灯时分,胃的积滞还没有消,吃不进夜饭。跑到药房里去买些苏打片来代夜饭吃了,便倒身在床上。

By the time the boat got me home, it was already dusk. My indigestion had not eased, so I had no appetite for dinner. Instead, I bought some soda biscuits from the drug store and then tumbled into bed.

🎈上灯时分/点灯时分:下午五点左右。

中世纪修道院的一天大概划分了八个祷告时辰(各修道院各有时间,但时段划分大概差不多)

Matins(夜祷,子夜时分)

Lauds (晨曦祷,清晨三至五时)

Prime(第一时辰,早上六时)

Terce(第三时辰,早上九时)

Sext(第六时辰,中午)

Nones(第九时辰,下午三时)

Vespers(晚祷,点灯时分或下午四至六时 )

Compline(睡前祷,睡前或晚间六至九时)

🎈没胃口吃… have no appetite for

🎈药店 drug store


 

直到黄昏,胃里稍觉松动些,就勉强起身,跑到你这里来抽一口气。但是我的身体、四肢还是很疲劳,连脸上的筋肉,也因为装了一天的笑,酸痛得很呢。我但愿以后不再受人这种优礼的招待!

In the evening, I felt slightly better. So, I gathered some strength and pulled myself out of bed, and headed here to your place for a chat. However, my body and limbs are still fatigued, and even my facial muscles are still sore from a whole day of forced smiling. I hope I will never receive this kind of courteous treatment again!

🎈(表程度)稍微 a little/ a bit/ a little bit/ somewhat/ slightly

🎈pulled oneself out of bed特别适合描述一个赖床的人强行起床的场景。

🎈朝某地走去head to +地点

去某地常说to+地点,如去上学go to school,但如果时地点副词,则其前一般不加介词,如 go there、come there。

 


他说罢,又躺在藤床上了。我把香烟和火柴送到他手里,对他说:“好,待我把你所讲的一番话记录出来。倘能卖得稿费,去买许多饼干、牛奶、巧格力和枇杷来给你开慰劳会罢。”

After he finished talking, the young man lay down on the rattan bed again. As I handed him a cigarette and the match, I announced, “Well, I will write out what you have said. If I can get paid for writing the essay, I will buy you a lot of biscuits, milk, chocolates, and loquats as a reward for your story.”

🎈write out

1)把…(以长篇幅)写出来

例句

The application form is important. Sit down and write it out properly.

申请表十分重要,坐下来好好填写。

2)(把角色)写死或写出局

例句

Maybe soon the scriptwriters will have to write her out of the series.

也许很快剧作家就得结束掉她在该系列剧中的戏份,不再让她露面。

 

🔥重点表达

受到款待 be well treated

强颜欢笑 (名词词组)a forced smile/(动词词组)force a smile

对…不敬 be disrespectful to sb./sth.

理由,原因,缘故,来龙去脉 the whys and (the) wherefores

把…搁置一边;忽视 push sth. aside

点一支烟 light up (a cigarette)

望了望,看了看 cast a glance at sb.

长话短说 make/cut a long story short

说来话长 It is a long story.

密切注意某人keep a wary eye on sb.

目不转睛,盯着,凝视 feast/fix sb.’s eyes on sth.

上下打量某人 look sb. up and down

泛指某某人、某某事so-and-so

香炉 incense burner

走进某人身边 come close to sb.

拱手join one’s hands in salute

请坐 Sit down/ Have a seat, please!

为了……for…’s sake/for the sake of

更是如此 be more so

侵入,闯入 intrude into

冲入 dart into

丢掉,处理 dispose of

弹烟灰 flick the ash from the cigarette / flick the butt

上座 the seat of honour

换句话说 in other words/ put another way /to put it another way

作为回应 in response

绷紧每一寸肌肉 strain every muscle

显示,表现(出)… put up

使劲儿/竭力让…去做… will sb./sth. to do

面上欢笑 put on a smiling face

心里叫苦 be inwardly groaning

胡乱猜想;大胆猜测 make/have/take a wild guess

作种种猜想 make wild guesses

使某人恐慌/心里发毛 give sb. the creeps 或make someone’s flesh creep/crawl

…大杂烩 a collage of…

把某事讲述给某人 relate sth. to sb.

面部肌肉 facial muscle

喋喋不休地讲;滔滔不绝地说 rattle on (about something)

从远处 from afar

拼尽力气,费心思… take the trouble to do

反之on the contrary

相比之下 by comparison

神贯注,非常专注于某事 be engrossed in sth.

百家姓Book of China’s Family

与…协调/一致/融洽 be in of tune with…

与…不协调/不一致/不融洽;不合群 be out of tune with…

双重意义 due meanings

双标/双重标准 double standards

拼命地; 全力以赴地;热情高涨地 for all sb. be worth (如for all you are worth)

没什么大不了;无所谓;没关系no big deal

茶渍 tea stain

达成协议 come to/reach an agreement

对…置之不理;不理会 wave …aside/away

屏息 hold one’s breath

同情… feel sympathy/compassion for…

敬酒,干杯 propose a toast/toasts

连续不停地;持续地 on and on

为了这个目的,怀着这一目的 to this end

威逼利诱 compulsion and tricks/ carrot and stick/ coercion and bribery/ to threaten and bribe

像,仿佛,可谓是,可以说是so to speak =as it were

…得以幸免(伤害或灾难等)(a person/place)is spared

乌托邦世界 the Utopian world

…绰绰有余 more than enough…

积食,不消化 develop indigestion

履职 perform one’s duties /facilitate one’s work

狼吞虎咽gulp down

(疾病、灾难等)侵袭,爆发an illness/disaster+ strike

没心情做某事… be in no mood for

没胃口吃… have no appetite for

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 丰子恺《作客者言》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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