鄢钢《内画壶《百子图》》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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内画壶《百子图》

Snuff Bottles with Pictures Inside
鄢钢
Yan Gang
 
🔥提示:这类文章的标题可以直译,不像有些文学作品必须反复阅读全文,绞尽脑汁去寻找一个既醒目又能达到画龙点睛效果的标题。标题译文和原文不同是常有的事,因为很漂亮的中文标题译成外文后可能平平淡淡,毫无特色。本文标题中的“内画壶”有些含糊,翻译时必须点明内画的是鼻烟壶Snuff Bottles with Pictures Inside。英文上看文字并不累赘,但要是中文也用“里面画着画的鼻烟壶”就很别扭。两种不同文字,即便直译,表达方法亦不必求同。“百子图”三字可省略,放上去太长,何况本文介绍的主要是内画壶。
 
内画壶是鼻烟壶的一种。内画技艺起源于北京。
The art of decorating snuff bottles from the inside originated in Beijing.
🎈文章一开头“内画壶是鼻烟壶的一种”这句话很重要,但译文里可省略,因为标题已点明这一点。

 
相传清朝道光年间 (1821-1850年),北京有一个破落文人,嗜好鼻烟,无钱购买时就用竹签刮烟壶壁上的烟油代替,
The story goes that in the Qing Dynasty during the reign of Dao Guang (1821—1850), an impoverished scholar was addicted to snuff. To relieve his craving for the powdered tobacco, he scraped his snuff bottle from the inside with a bamboo slip.
🎈 The story goes that…是分离式同位语从句。同位语从句在句中一般紧跟在名词之后,但也可以被主句的其他成分隔开。例如:The rumour spread that a new school would be built here.
夏衍《野草》
有这样一个故事 There is a story which goes like this:…
🎈“嗜好鼻烟”这里嗜好两字显然带有贬义,因此译成…was addicted to snuff,即吸鼻烟成瘾。
🎈craving是名词,后接for…或to do sth,表示“渴望……”

 
久而久之,烟壶壁上一道道纹痕纵横交错,俨然如画,引起了民间艺人的兴趣,他们开始在烟壶的内壁上作画。
Gradually the marks left on the inner wall of the bottle made a picture, catching the fancy of folk artists. The art of drawing pictures inside snuff bottles was thus created and popularized.
🎈“烟壶壁”指的是“烟壶内壁”,现译作the inner wall of…
🎈“引起了民间艺人的兴趣,他们开始在烟壶的内壁上作画”一句描述的是“内壁上作画”开始流行开来,后半句可以按字面直译,也可像参考译文一样,按“此种画法自成一派工艺,风靡一时”之意意译。

 
最早的内画壶,画面简单粗糙。
In the beginning the pictures were simple and roughly drawn.
🎈at the beginning后常接表示时间或事件等的名词(即~ of…);in the beginning通常单独用作时间状语。

 
到了光绪年间( 1875—1908年),技艺日趋成熟,烟壶的内壁先经过磨砂,然后再将竹签或毛笔伸入壶内,釆用反画技法,把图案画在壶壁上,奇异又雅致。
But by the reign of Guang Xu (1875—1908), the art had been perfected: Artists made delicate drawings with bamboo slips or calligraphy brushes on the bottles’ polished inner walls.
🎈翻译时常常会遇到中国的朝代更迭,原文并未如此处一般给出具体的年限,但在译时补充出来是非常重要的,国人对每朝每代的具体历年尚不清楚,更何况外国读者,他们更是没有时间上的概念。考场上不强求,毕竟具体时间属于背景知识,需要积累;但如果是线下时间充足的翻译工作,一定要勤查阅。
🎈“烟壶的内壁先经过磨砂,然后……”这句话很长,却没有主语。翻译时加上了主语artists并把原文提炼了一下(将“先经过磨砂”处理成了inner walls的前置定语polished;“反画技法”省略)

 
我国的内画技艺主要分为京派、冀派、鲁派三大派。
Today, snuff-bottle pictures fall into three different categories—the Jing (Beijing), Ji (Hebei) and Lu (Shandong).
🎈可以分为;能够分成fall into
例句
My talk falls naturally into three parts.
我的讲话可以自然分成三个部分。
 

工艺美术家王习三是冀派的代表人物。
Wang Xisan’s art is representative of the Ji school. 
🎈代表…be representative of…

 
1957年,他向著名内画艺术家叶晓峰和叶小三学艺,在师承的基础上,兼收各家之长,将传统的勾竹、木笔和勾毛笔结合并用,形成自己的风格。
In 1957 Wang studied under the famous artists Ye Xiaofeng and Ye Xiaosan. He further developed the art by absorbing the good points of different schools and using the traditional tools, bamboo and wood slips, as well as writing brushes. Finally he created a style of his own.
🎈师从某人study under sb;“在师承的基础上……”之意隐含在了further(“进一步”深化/发展)一词中。

 
他突破内画壶只表现传说故事中的人物和花草的局限,创作出《猫蝶图》,描绘一只小猫和落在尾巴上的蝴蝶嬉戏的逗人情景,形象自然,妙趣横生,
Traditionally, snuff-bottle themes were confined to characters from folktales or flowers and grasses. Wang Xisan made a breakthrough by portraying a kitten playing with a butterfly on its tail, a picture full of wit and humour.
🎈如果按照原文语序翻译,则是Wang Xisan made a breakthrough in snuff-bottle themes that used to be/were confined to…., and then created/portrayed…。考虑“themes”后接的that定从略长,不妨参考译文所采用的处理方式,将该句断成两句,先交代之前的局限性,以themes作主语;再另起一句,以Wang Xisan作主语,进行阐述。

 
他还把绘画和书法融为一体,打破了内画艺术的呆板形式。
Wang Xisan was also the first to use calligraphy on snuff bottle pictures.
🎈“他还把绘画和书法融为一体,打破了……”翻译时避开“融为一体”、“打破”这类较抽象的词,译成Wang Xisan was also the first to use calligraphy on snuff bottle pictures,即王习三第一个将书法艺术应用在内圆壶上。这里包含着“打破”和“融合”的意思,把抽象的东西具体化了。英译文中切忌用含糊不清的词句。

 
近年来,他又吸收西洋画法,运用油画技法在内画壶上创作人物肖像,达到相当完美的境界。他的作品赢得国内外的赞赏。
In recent years his bottle drawings, using techniques borrowed from Western oil painting, have been praised in China and abroad.
🎈 using techniques borrowed from Western oil painting:现代语法把这种对某个词、短语或句子作解释补充的成分,称为补充语(supplement)。补充语包括插入语在内,但不限于插入语。非限制性定语、非限制性同位语、分词作状语等都囊括在补充语的项下。其特征是有逗号与句子隔开,其功能是对句子中的某个词、短语或整个句子做补充解释。补充语本身可以是名词词组、形容词词组,也可以是一个分句。
🎈“国内外”也可译作at home and broad。
 

内画壶《双猿图》曾获1980年第12届国际烟壶协会优秀奖;《溥仪和婉容肖像》被第13届国际烟壶协会评为最优秀奖;《美国历届总统像》荣获1985年中国工艺美术珍品奖。
His picture Two Monkeys was awarded a prize for excellence by the 12th International Snuff Bottle Artists’ Association in 1980. Pu Yi and Wan Rong was appraised as the best work by the 13th International Snuff Bottle Artists’ Association and in 1985 American Presidents won recognition as a unique piece of Chinese art.
🎈积累句中出现的几种“获奖”的表达:be awarded a prize/be appraised as…/win recognition as…

 
内画壶《百子图》是王习三的代表作之一。作品以河北南皮县出土的清代水晶壶作胎,壶高八厘米,直径七厘米。
A Hundred Children, another masterpiece by Wang Xisan was painted on a bottle 8cm high and 7cm in diameter, which was modeled on a crystal bottle from the Qing Dynasty unearthed in Nanpi County, Hebei Province.
🎈…高/宽/直径(…)…high/wide/in diameter
🎈“(以)水晶壶作胎”译成…was modeled on a crystal bottle…既合乎英语习惯也贴近原文。

 
他运用彩墨画和油画技法,刻画100个天真活泼的儿童,在天高气爽的秋日,三五成群地聚集在屋前树下,或聚精会神地研究地震仪,或兴致勃勃地下棋,或神采飞扬地探讨诗艺画法,或攀树嬉闹。
By using a combination of Chinese ink styles and western oil, Wang vividly portrayed one hundred innocent and lively children, some clustered under a tree, others studying a seismograph or playing chess, and yet others discussing poems and painting or climbing trees. 
🎈using a combination of…指“同时运用”;vividly(生动逼真、栩栩如生)是增译成分。
🎈“some clustered under a tree, ……and yet others discussing poems and painting or climbing trees”可改写为some of whom clustered under a tree or were studying…while others were discussing…。但后者在“A,或B,或C”结构的表述上不如原译。

 
作品优美生动,细致入微,被国家列为工艺美术佳品珍藏。
This snuff bottle has been listed as one of the state’s best works of art.
🎈“优美生动,细致入微”已在上段描述中有所体现,不需要重复译出。
 
🔥必背词汇
tobacco        n.烟叶,烟草(制品)
英义
Tobacco is dried leaves which people smoke in pipes, cigars, and cigarettes. You can also refer to pipes, cigars, and cigarettes as a whole as tobacco .
例句
Try to do without tobacco and alcohol.
尽量不要抽烟喝酒。
 
slip       cn.片,条
英义
A slip of paper is a small piece of paper.
例句
little slips of paper he had torn from a notebook
他从笔记本上撕下来的一张张小纸片
 
fancy         cn. (尤指一时的)喜好,渴望
英义
A fancy is a liking or desire for someone or something, especially one that does not last long.
例句
She did not suspect that his interest was just a passing fancy.
她相信这不过是他一时兴起。
 
🔥重点表达
鼻烟壶snuff bottle
起源于originate in…
嗜好鼻烟was addicted to snuff
破落文人an impoverished scholar
竹签a bamboo slip
内壁the inner wall of…
引起了民间艺人的兴趣catching the fancy of folk artists
画面简单粗糙the pictures were simple and roughly drawn
到了光绪年间by the reign of Guang Xu (1875—1908)
可以分为;能够分成fall into
代表…be representative of…
师从某人study under sb
赢得国内外的赞赏have been praised in China and abroad
获奖be awarded a prize/be appraised as…/win recognition as…
…高/宽/直径(…)…high/wide/in diameter
地震仪a seismograph
下棋play chess
被国家列为…be listed as one of the state’s…
 
🔥复盘测试
鼻烟壶
起源于
嗜好鼻烟
破落文人
竹签
内壁
引起了民间艺人的兴趣
画面简单粗糙
到了光绪年间
可以分为;能够分成
代表…
师从某人
赢得国内外的赞赏
获奖
…高/宽/直径(…)
地震仪
下棋
被国家列为…
 
🔥表达对比
起源于
 
The art of decorating snuff bottles from the inside originated in Beijing.
内画壶是鼻烟壶的一种。内画技艺(起源于)北京。
 
Her interest in flowers stems from her childhood in the country.
她对花卉的兴趣(产生于)她在乡下度过的童年时代。
 
Chinese writing began thousands of years ago.
汉字(起源于)数千年前。
 
China is the homeland of tea.
茶(起源于)中国。
 
Greece was the cradle of Western culture.
希腊是西方文化的(发源地)。

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