《就像人每天必须吃饭一样》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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就像人每天必须吃饭一样

Libraries Are Indispensable Like Food
季羡林
Ji Xianlin
 
🔥背景知识:《就像人每天必须吃饭一样》是我国著名教授、学者、散文家、翻译家季羡林(1911—2009)写于1996年的一篇散文。
 
🎈题目「就像人每天必须吃饭一样」可译为Libraries Are Indispensable Like Food 或 Libraries Are Essential Like Our Daily Meals。也可考虑译之为 Libraries Are to the Mind What Food Is to the Body,只是用字过多,有些偏离原文。
 

我们念书人都一样,嗜书如命。
All intellectuals love books.
🎈「我们念书人」按「所有念书人/知识分子」之意译为All intellectuals。又,「嗜书如命」是对爱书程度的描述,如果有人觉得仅用love一词传达的语气不够强烈,可以增添表程度的副词。
 

我小学的时候,当时学校还没有图书馆。
The primary school where I studied didn’t have a library. 
🎈这句话再说直白点就是「我就读的小学没有图书馆」,故译作The primary school where I studied didn’t have a library。其中where引导定语从句,也可写成in which。
 

打念中学开始,一直到出国深造,我几乎一天也没离开过图书馆。
But, all the way from middle school to university abroad, I never let a day pass without consulting a library.
🎈自始自终、一路上all the way
例句
He stays all the way in the game.
他自始至终参加比赛。
🎈「我几乎一天也没离开过图书馆」译作I never let a day pass without consulting a library。其中,大部分人看到「离开」条件反射是leave,很可能直译为I never/hardly leave a library.等。从语法上看没有错误,在不犯词汇语法等低级错误时,翻译没有所谓正确/标准答案,却有优劣之分。leave仅表示空间上的离开,作者要强调的不仅是待在图书馆这个动作,而是待在图书馆里面查询书籍。又,为什么用consult呢?看其第三条英英释义:to look in or at sth to get information. 或者用其它与「查阅」相关的词语也可以,意境上比leave好得多。
 

如离开图书馆,将一事无成,这不是我一个人的意见,
I believe I would have achieved nothing without the help of libraries. I am not the one and only one holding such a view. 
🎈此句话按(我认为)如……将一事无成,(但)这不是我一个人的意见……理解。
🎈一事无成achieved nothing
🎈without介词短语表示虚拟条件,其虚拟形式与if引导的非真实条件状语从句类似。
🎈the one and only指「独一无二的」,用于强调「唯一」的含义。the one and only one就是表示「唯一的一个」
 

大凡搞学问的都有这种体会。
Generally speaking, all men of learning would agree with me on this point.
🎈此处,「大凡搞学问的」和前文提到的「我们念书人」的处理有相通之处,其实都是指「所有…的人」,故处理为all…。又,of learning(of+抽象名词,可表示对应的形容词含义)是men的后置定语。
🎈「都有这种体会」按「都认同此种观点」之意译为agree with me on this point。
 

我大学是在清华念的。清华图书馆,大家都知道,是相当不错的,我与它打了四年交道。
I obtained higher education at Tsinghua University, Beijing, where I had four-year dealings with its prestigious library.
🎈「……大家都知道,是相当不错的」仅用prestigious(有声望的)一词表达,意思基本一致,取其简洁。
 

后来,我出国到德国哥廷根大学留学,在欧洲待了十年多。
Later, I went abroad to study at Gottingen University, Germany, and stayed in Europe for altogether eleven years.
🎈出国 go abroad
🎈for altogether eleven years也可写作for eleven years in total。
 

哥廷根虽然是个小城,但图书馆的藏书极其丰富。
Gottingen is a small town, but Gottingen University Library boasts a rich collection of books.
🎈藏书极其丰富boasts a rich collection of books。又见boast一词。
🎈中文的「有」很多情况下不直接翻译成have,经济学人中经常用boast,比如说:「深圳有大量高速增长的科技公司」英文可以说:Shenzhen boasts a large number of fast growing technology companies. 根据boast的本意「吹嘘」可以知道,一般情况下这种「有」是好的东西,boast的英英解释有一条是:(a person, place, or thing) possess (a feature that is a source of pride)。政府工作报告中夸中国地大物博、物产丰富之类的也常用boast。
 

我研究的是古代印度语言,应该说这是一门偏僻的学问。
I specialized in the ancient language of India, obviously a little-known branch of learning.
🎈「一门偏僻的学问」意即「一个冷门」,故译a little-known branch of learning。千万不可直接翻译成「偏僻」的单词remote之类的,读者会一头雾水。
 

在那十年中,我写了不少文章,需要用大量资料,可哥廷根大学图书馆几乎都能满足我,借不到书的时候非常少。
During the eleven years, I wrote many articles thanks to the University Library providing me with whatever materials I needed. Seldom did they fail to supply my wants. 
Q:这个句子中有好几个动词,怎么处理把信息点连接起来呢?
🎈涉及到「谓语动词的层次性」。武峰老师的《十二天突破英汉翻译》中将动词分为四个层次,按照重要性排列为:核心谓语、非谓语动词/从句、介词、省略/不译。//这句话里的动词有「写、需要、满足」,显然「写」是核心动词,其他的动词就可以处理为「介词、非谓语动词、从句」等。其中thanks to 是复合介词,后面加名词,在句中充当原因状语。providing是现在分词作后置定语修饰Library,其功能相当于定语从句,但比定从更简洁。完全符合「谓语动词的层次性」处理手法。

 
若借不到,他们会到别的地方去帮你借。
Otherwise they would help me out by borrowing from other sources.
🎈「若借不到」译作otherwise,简洁明了,值得学习。
 

1946年,在落叶铺满长安街的深秋季节,我回到了北京,到北大工作。
In the late autumn of 1946, when Chang’an Street in Beijing was strewn with fallen leaves, I returned to China to work at Peking University.
🎈深秋In the late autumn,这几段和上篇文章有很多类似的表达,不过多赘述。
 

北大图书馆藏书甲全国大学。
Of all university libraries in China, Peking University Library has the largest collection of books.
🎈「藏书甲全国大学」按「藏书量甲全国」理解,译作as the largest collection of books。
🎈Of all university libraries in China(of+……)表示限定范围。
 

当时图书馆领导对我格外开恩,在图书馆里给了我一间研究室,并允许我从书库中提一部分必要的书,拿回我的研究室,供我随时查用和研读。
The curator was thoughtful enough to assign me a research room in the library building and allow me to equip it with necessary books for ready reference taken direct from the stack rooms.
🎈「图书馆领导对我格外开恩,在图书馆里给了我一间研究室」可按「图书馆馆长对我特别照顾,在图书馆里给了我一间研究室」译为The cursor was thoughtful enough to assign me a research room in the library building, 其中把「图书馆领导」按「图书馆馆长」译为curator或the chief librarian;「对我格外开恩」意即「对我照顾有加」,可用thoughtful一词表达。
 

我一有空闲,便潜入我的研究室,“躲进小楼成一统”,潜心默读,坐拥书城。
So I would withdraw at the first opportunity to my research room to enjoy the privacy of the small place and sit among my roomful of books reading avidly. 
🎈这句和上篇文章(季羡林)《我和北大图书馆》里的一句简直是胞兄胞弟: 可是我一有机会,就遁入我的研究室去,“躲进小楼成一统”,这地方是我的天下。In spite of that, I would withdraw at the first opportunity to my research room to enjoy the privacy of having a place all to myself, a place where I was my own master. 其中,at the first(或earliest) opportunity 是成语,意同as soon as possible,用来表达「一有机会」
🎈 a roomful of一屋子的
a suitcaseful of一皮箱的
a handful of少量的 
a mouthful of一口
🎈「躲进小楼成一统」可按「享受幽然独处小屋的乐趣」译为to enjoy the privacy of the small place。
🎈「潜心默读,坐拥书城」可按「坐在书籍满目的小屋里专心读书」译为and sit among my roomful of books reading avidly。
 

在那个动荡的岁月,能觅到一处可以安身立命的清静世界且有书读,简直是太令人兴奋了。
How happy I was to have, in time of turmoil, this quiet haven plus books so that I could settle down and get on with my pursuit of learning!
🎈How happy I was to have…
how引导的感叹句类型:
①How+形容词+主语+谓语!
②How+副词+主语+谓语!
③How+主语+动词!
④How+ many/much/few/little+ 名词+主语+谓语!
🎈能觅到一处可以安身立命的清静世界且有书读译作so that I could settle down and get on with my pursuit of learning。这里的「有书读」按「搞学问」理解,就是「我」平时的工作。
季羡林《我和北大图书馆》
安身立命 settle down to a tranquil life and get on with one’s work
 

我与北京图书馆有很深的历史渊源。
I’ve long been connected with Beijing Public Library.
🎈「有很深的历史渊源」按「早就有所联系」之意译作have long been connected with即可。「历史渊源」一般是形容文明、习俗、古迹等等,这里不宜直译出现history的影子。
 

我回国时,当时的北图馆长是袁同礼。那时,我受袁同礼的聘请,任务是把北图有关梵文的藏书检查一下,看看全不全,这个我工作我做了。
At the time when I returned from Europe, Mr. Yuan Tongli, then its curator, engaged me to check up its collection of books on Sanskrit and see if it was incomplete. I fulfilled the job accordingly.
🎈以后看到「聘请」,除了employ,也可以用engage,十分地道。

 
解放后,王重民先生代北图馆长。
On the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Mr. Wang Chongmin became deputy curator of Beijing Public Library.
🎈注意对「解放后」的翻译,对于中国读者而言,「解放」一词指代的时代背景是非常清晰的,但文章翻成了英文,读者群就变成了外国读者,需要考虑到国外读者对中国相关背景知识的缺失。故译作On the founding of the People’s Republic of China。
 

郑振铎是文化部文物局局长。郑先生是我的老师,在清华我曾听过他的课,
And, Mr. Zheng Zhenduo, one of my former teachers at Tsinghua University, was Director of the State Bureau for the Preservation of Cultural and Historical Relics.
🎈「郑先生是我的老师,在清华我曾听过他的课」按「郑先生是我的老师,在清华大学任教」之意译为one of my former teachers at Tsinghua University。可以看到,「我曾听过他的课」并未翻译出来,但「是我的老师」在某种程度上不正说明「教过我课(即我上过他的课)」吗?故不专门译出。
 

郑先生很有魄力,我当时曾向他建议,若要在中国建立东方学,仅靠当时图书馆的一点点藏书是远远不够的,解决的方法是“腰缠千万贯,骑鹤下欧洲”。
He was a man with great drive, so I offered him the following suggestion: Our libraries have too few books on orientalism to initiate its study in China. The only way out is to buy books from Europe.
🎈欣赏so的增译处理:「我」折服于郑先生的魄力,愿能对其有所帮助或提醒,所以才向其提出建议。so补充出了逻辑关系。大家可以对比一下,如果把so换做and或者点个句号另起一句,此处读起来是有些突兀费解的。
 

据说,日本明治维新后,很重视文化事业,特意派人到欧洲、美国等地,专找旧书店,不管什么书,也不管当时有没有用,文理法工等什么都买,就这样,日本搜罗了大量的典籍。
They say the Japanese paid great attention to cultural undertakings after the Meiji Restoration. They sent people to Europe and America to visit exclusively second-hand bookstores to buy books on any subjects, useful or not, ranging from liberal arts, science, law to engineering. Consequently, they collected a huge number of ancient books and records.
🎈几个「着重/重视」的替换表达
attach importance to…
pay attention to…
give priority to…
focus on…
emphasize…
🎈「专门」译作exclusively,注意积累。
🎈列举某个东西ABCD,可以用such as A,B,C and D也可以用range from A,B,C to D表达。
 

单就东方学来讲,日本图书馆的藏书比我们强多了。
In the matter of orientalism, Japan has now a far greater library collection than China.
🎈-ism(用于构成不可数名词)表示…主义,…学说,…信仰,…运动。如:佛教Buddhism、民族主义nationalism。
🎈「比我们强多了」中,「比……强」是一个比较级,「…多了」是对比较级程度的修饰,现译作a far greater…than…。far、much、even、still等可修饰比较级,表示程度「…(的)多」
 

郑先生虽有雄才大略,但囿于当时客观条件,最终也没干成。
But, talented and far-sighted as he was, Mr. Zheng was nevertheless incapable of bringing the matter to fruition due to the constraint of objective conditions.
🎈「囿于」就是「因为」的意思,一般后面跟不好的东西,用 due to, because of 等中性连接词可以,不能用thanks to。
🎈此处中文也省略了一部分,我们习惯说成「客观条件的限制」,所以这里的(的限制)在翻译时应该补充上去,更能体现出逻辑关系。
🎈be incapable of doing sth.无法胜任某事
bring to fruition完成计划,取得成果
 

当然,现在北图的藏书,有些方面还是相当不错的,像善本就堪称世界第一。
Of course, Beijing Public Library has merits of its own too. For instance, it is world-famous for its unique collection of rare books. 
🎈「有些方面还是相当不错的」按「还是有自己的可称道之处的」译作has merits of its own too。
🎈像(善本就堪称世界第一)后跟举例的内容,使用for example或for instance均可。
🎈善本:精刻、精印、精抄、精校的难得的古书/珍贵的手稿、孤本,罕见的革命文献,也有称之为善本的。现译作rare books。
 

但专从东方学而言,北图的藏书还不如我多。
But, as far as orientalism is concerned, its collection is even smaller than mine.
🎈就…..而言 as far as … be concerned
表示个人观点的常用表达之一就是As far as I am concerned(就我而言)
 

图书馆是人类知识的宝库,是普及科学文化知识、传播信息的重要基地。
Libraries are the treasure-house of knowledge, the important base for popularizing science and culture and transmitting information.
🎈treasure-house:将两个或两个以上的单词合在一起而构成新词。合成词的形式有三种:
①两个词放在一起合成一个词
如class+ room= classroom
②形式上是两个词,但是是一个整体意思
如waiting room
③两个词用连字符连接
如pencil-box
treasure-house属于第三种情形
 

不仅搞科研的人离不开它,一般的老百姓也离不开。
They are indispensable to all common people as well as scientific researchers.
🎈as well as、both A and B等等都可以用。
 

随着社会的发展,人们对图书馆的需求会越来越大。
Alongside the social development, people’s need for the library is getting bigger and bigger.

 
我一生直到今天,可以说是极少离开过图书馆,就如人每天必须吃饭一样,经常而必须。
I personally have seldom been separated from the library all my life. It is as essential to me as my regular daily meals.
🎈It is as essential to me as my regular daily meals:as…as…(像…一样…)结构的省略。此句相当于It is as essential to me as my regular daily meals to me,指对我而言,「去图书馆」就像「吃一日三餐」一样必要。
 

第62届国际图联大会能够在中国开是件好事,我们应抓住这一契机,大力发展图书馆事业。
It’s good that the 62nd World Conference on Library Science will be held in China. We should seize the good opportunity to develop with great strides our library undertakings.
🎈国际图联大会World Conference on Library Science
国际图联(IFLA)全称为国际图书馆协会与机构联合会(International federation of Library Associations and Institutions),是一个独立的、非政府性的国际组织,代表了全世界图书馆、情报服务机构、图书馆协会和情报协会的利益,是全世界图书馆与情报服务机构从业人员及读者的喉舌。国际图联的主要目的是推动国际间合作、理解、探讨、研究和发展,在国际事务中代表图书馆界的利益。Strategies,简称ICADS)。到目前为止,国际图联已成功举办过80余次国际图联大会,国际图联大会已成为世界各国图书馆界人士就彼此关心的话题开展交流,增进了解的论坛。国际图联大会通常由大会开幕式、全体会议、分会场、展览会、理事会、文艺晚会、图书馆参观、卫星会议和闭幕式等几部分组成。
🎈「大力发展」译作develop with great strides…。这里的stride本意是「大步」,这让我想起了阿姆斯特朗踏上月球说的第一句话:这是我迈出的一小步,却是人类迈出的一大步。One small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.。
 

北图的藏书量是世界第五,亚洲第一,
The richness of collection in the Beijing Public Library ranks 5th in the world and 1st in Asia. 
🎈关于「排名顺序」:推荐翻译《二级笔译配套训练》第八单元第二篇《英国教育系统》,全篇多处有关排名的翻译。摘选第一段:根据培生教育公司公布的全球教育排行榜,英国教育系统在发达国家中排第六位。第一名和第二名被芬兰和韩国占据。The UK’s education system is ranked sixth best in the developed world, according to a global league table published by education firm Pearson. The first and second places are taken by Finland and South Korea.
 

若以我国的国际地位及北图的地位而论,大会也许早就该在中国开了。
Considering its good standing as well as the international prestige of this country, China should have been a venue for the said Conference earlier.
🎈Considering考虑到、鉴于
例句
He must be hoping, but considering the situation in June he may hoping for too much too soon.
他一定心存希望,但是考虑到6月份的情形,他可能期望得过多过快了。
🎈should have done或ought to have done意为「本应该……」,表示本应该做某事,而实际没有做。
 

近两年,受商潮的冲击,不少人忽视了自己形而上的精神世界的滋养与丰富,而一味地钻进了孔方兄的网络里难以抽身。
In recent years, due to the impact of commercialism, many have gone in for money-making and ignore the development and enrichment of their spiritual world.
🎈「钻进了孔方兄的网络里难以抽身」意即「只为赚钱」「一心为财富」等,have gone in for money-making,其中to go in for 作「追求」解。
 

这种现象在学术界也有。如果说我国学术界后继乏人,那是太绝对了,但确实走了好多人,北大也有。
The same is true of the academic circles, including Peking University, where many have dropped their occupation to go in for business.
🎈the same is true of sth.是固定搭配,表示:某物也是如此。
🎈「如果说我国学术界后继乏人,那是太绝对了」省译,这是考虑到这部分表达的意思和下一句有所重复。当然,译出来也是完全正确的,而且考场上译出来是最优解。
🎈学术界可译作the academic circles,也可译作the academic community。community除去「社区/团体」之意,还有「界」的意思,比如气象界the meteorological community。

 
不过,仍有一部分人,不为外面的高工资所动,孜孜以求,皓首穷经,进出于图书馆。
But, some, however, rather than succumb to the temptation of high pay in business, stick to their academic work. They study hard and frequent libraries though they are getting on in years.
🎈「孜孜以求,皓首穷经」的意思就是「多年来一直在不断学习」。《二级笔译实务配套训练》第八单元句子练习有句翻译:学无止境,一生的时间都嫌太短。所以古人皓首穷经,头发白了还在继续研究。Art is long, but life is short. That is why some of our ancients continued to study even when they were hoary-headed. 这里也一样,可以翻译为:They study hard and frequent libraries even when they were hoary-headed. 我们学习《张培基散文翻译》的目的一是训练翻译技巧,知道如何说人话,处理句子之间的逻辑关系。二就是借鉴学习大师的表达,然后背诵内化为自己的知识储备,别无他法,唯能熟尔。
 

他们才是我国未来的希望与脊梁。
They are the hope and backbone of our nation. 
🎈脊梁backbone
🎈nation具有民族性,强调语言、风俗、甚至是宗教的文化性要素;country侧重地理;State侧重政治。
 

只是,这类人并不多,这是颇令人担忧的。
But, to our great disturbance, they are in the minority!
🎈令人担忧的to our great disturbance
举一反三:令我们失望的是to our disappointment
 
🔥必背词汇
consult       v.查阅,查询(书、地图等)
英义
If you consult a book or a map, you look in it or look at it in order to find some information.
例句
Consult the chart on page 44 for the correct cooking times.
翻到44页的图表,查一下正确的烹饪时间。
 
prestigious      adj.有威望的,有声望的,有威信的,受尊敬的
英义
A prestigious institution, job, or activity is respected and admired by people.
例句
It’s one of the best equipped and most prestigious schools in the country.
这是国内设备最先进、最有威望的学校之一。
collection        n. (一批)收藏品,收集物
英义
A collection of things is a group of similar things that you have deliberately acquired, usually over a period of time.
例句
Robert’s collection of prints and paintings has been bought over the years.
这些年来,罗伯特逐渐收藏了一批版画和绘画作品。
 
🔥重点表达
与……打交道 have dealing with sth.
专攻…… specialize in
偏僻的学问  a little-known branch of learning
解放后 On the founding of the People’s Republic of China
很有魄力 with great drive
解决方法是 The only way out is to do sth.
重视 pay great attention to
文化事业 cultural undertakings 
明治维新 Meiji Restoration
雄才大略 talented and far-sighted
无法胜任某事 be incapable of doing sth.
完成计划,取得成果 bring to fruition 
就…..而言 as far as sth. is concerned
知识的宝库  treasure-house of knowledge
普及科学文化知识 popularize science and culture 
传播信息 transmit information
离不开某物/某物是不可或缺的 sth be indispensable to sb.
抓住机遇/契机 seize the good opportunity
商潮的冲击  the impact of commercialism
追求 go in for
抵挡不住诱惑 succumb to the temptation of sth.
民族的脊梁 the backbone of our nation
颇令人担忧的  to our great disturbance
  
🔥复盘测试
与……打交道
专攻…… 
偏僻的学问
解放后
很有魄力
解决方法是
重视
文化事业
明治维新
雄才大略
无法胜任某事
完成计划,取得成果
就…..而言
知识的宝库
普及科学文化知识
传播信息
离不开某物/某物是不可或缺的
抓住机遇/契机
商潮的冲击
追求
抵挡不住诱惑
民族的脊梁
颇令人担忧的
  
🔥表达对比
「大力发展」有几种表达?
我们应抓住这一契机,(大力发展)图书馆事业。
We should seize the good opportunity to develop with great strides our library undertakings.
We should vigorously develop our library undertakings. 
We should strive to develop our library undertakings. 
We should step up effort to develop our library undertakings. 
We should work hard on developing our library undertakings. 
We should take great efforts to develop our library undertakings.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《就像人每天必须吃饭一样》 -英语技巧与实例-英汉互译实用教程

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