​​《论语·第十七章》阳货篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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阳货欲见孔子,孔子不见,归孔子豚。孔子时其亡也而往拜之,遇诸涂。谓孔子曰:“来,予与尔言。”曰:“怀其宝而迷其邦,可谓仁乎?”曰:“不可。”“好从事而亟失时,可谓知乎?”曰:“不可!”“日月逝矣,岁不我与!”孔子曰:“诺,吾将仕矣。”

Yang Huo in power wished Confucius to call on him, but Confucius would not, so he sent a sucking pig to Confucius, and Confucius paid him a visit when he was not at home. But unexpectedly they met on the way. Yang Huo said to Confucius, “Come, I have something to tell you. Is it good for a talent to leave his state in chaos? No. Is it wise for a candidate to lose an opportunity? No, The days and months pass by. The years will wait for no man.” Confucius said ironically, “Yes, how could I not serve!”

🎈遇诸涂,unexpectedly they met on the way。这句话在翻译时增译了unexpectedly,贴合语境。

🎈曰:“怀其宝而迷其邦,可谓仁乎?”曰:“不可。”“好从事而亟失时,可谓知乎?”曰:“不可!”“日月逝矣,岁不我与!”这里原文虽然有多处引号,但实际上都是阳货在自言自语,孔子并未应答,因此许译全部处理为一个直接引语。

🎈孔子曰:“诺,吾将仕矣。这句话在翻译时增译了ironically,更明显地体现语气。

子曰:“性相近也,习相远也。”

Men are born, said the Master, nearly alike by nature, but become different by practice.

🎈性相近,习相远。许译以隐含主语「人」为主语,将「性」「习」处理为状语,表示两个不同的因素,译作by nature, by practice

子曰:“唯上知与下愚不移。”

Only the wisest man and the most foolish, said the Master, cannot be changed.

子之武城,闻弦歌之声。夫子莞尔而笑,曰:“割鸡焉用牛刀?”子游对曰:“昔者偃也闻诸夫子曰:‘君子学道则爱人,小人学道则易使也。’”子曰:“二三子,偃之言是也!前言戏之耳。”

The Master came to the small town of Wu where Zi You was the ruler. When he heard sacred songs and stringed music, he said with a smile, “Is it necessary to kill a chicken with an ox-knife?” Zi You said, “Formerly, I heard you say that a cultured man well-bred in music would do good to the people, and an uncultured man well-bred in music would be easy to employ.” The Master said to two or three disciples, “Zi You is right. I have just said that for fun.”

🎈首句在译「武城」时增译了where Zi You was the ruler,为下文孔夫子与子游的对话交代地点背景。

🎈君子学道则爱人,小人学道则易使也。注意这句话在翻译时,将“学道”译为后置定语well-bred in music来修饰“君子”/“小人”。大家在做汉英翻译时要善用非谓语。

公山弗扰以费畔,召,子欲往。子路不说,曰:“末之也已,何必公山氏之之也?”子曰:“夫召我者而岂徒哉?如有用我者,吾其为东周乎!”

Gongshan Furao, holding the fief of Fei in revolt, sent for the Master who was inclined to go. Displeased, Zi Lu said, “Why would you like to go to him of all people?” The Master said, “Could he send for me without reason? If anyone were to employ me, I would make ritual and music prosper in his state as in the Eastern Zhou.”

🎈公山弗扰以费畔,召,子欲往。注意这句话译文的衔接手法,“以费畔”处理为非谓语作伴随状语,“召”处理为主干谓语,“子欲往”处理为定语从句,跟在the Master后。这句话通过非谓语动词、定语从句,巧妙地将三个小分句译为一整句,结构完整。

🎈子路不说,曰:…… 译文中,“不说”处理为displeased形容词做状语。这个用法我们在前几章的讲解中已经多次提及。

子张问仁于孔子,孔子曰:“能行五者于天下为仁矣。”请问之,曰:“恭、宽、信、敏、惠。恭则不侮,宽则得众,信则人任焉,敏则有功,惠则足以使人。”

Zi Zhang asked Confucius,“What is a good ruler?” Confucius said, “One who can develp the five qualities in the world could be a good ruler.” When Zi Lu begged to know which five, the Master said,“Reverence, lenience, confidence, diligence and benevolence. Reverent, he would not hurt; lenient, he would win support; confident, he would be trusted; diligent, he would succeed; and benevolent, he could employ people.”

🎈恭则不侮。Reverent, he would not hurt,这里reverent形容词作状语,相当于if he is reverent。后面的“宽则得众,信则人任焉,敏则有功,惠则足以使人”在翻译时也是同理。

佛肸召,子欲往。子路曰:“昔者由也闻诸夫子曰。亲于其身为不善者,君子不入也。佛肸以中牟畔,子之往也,如之何?"子曰:“然。有是言也。不曰坚乎,磨而不磷?不曰白乎,涅而不缁。吾岂匏瓜也哉?焉能系而不食?”

When the Master was inclined to visit Bi Xi who sent for him, Zi Lu said, “I have heard you say that a cultured man would not enter the house of an evil-doer. Now Bi Xi holds the fief of Zhongmiou in rebellion. How could you think of visiting him?” The Master said, “Yes, I have told you that. But, do you not know that a really hard thing cannot be thinned by grinding? A really white thing cannot be blackened even in black dye? Am I a bitter gourd only fit to be hung up and not fit to eat?”

🎈佛肸召,子欲往。注意这句话许译的语序,先译“子欲往”,再译“佛肸召”(处理为定语从句),即the Master was inclined to visit Bi Xi who sent for him

🎈亲于其身为不善者,君子不入也。调整语序即为:君子不入身为不善者。但“入”和“……者”其实不搭配,那么“入”的是什么呢?应当是身为不善者的居所,因此译文处理为enter the house of an evil-doer。在翻译古汉语时,常常需要先调整语序。并且,对于一些原文中动宾不搭的情况,我们可以多加斟酌,这样可以译出原文真正的意思。

子曰:“由也,女闻六言六蔽矣乎?”对曰:“未也。”“居!吾语女。好仁不好学,其蔽也愚;好知不好学,其蔽也荡;好信不好学,其蔽也贼;好直不好学,其蔽也绞;好勇不好学,其蔽也乱;好刚不好学,其蔽也狂。”

The Master said to Zi Lu,“Have you heard of six virtues may lead to six defects?” Zi Lu replied“No.” The Master said, “Come, I will tell you. Without the love of knowledge, a lover of virtue may become a fool, a lover of wisdom may become wanton, a faithful man may be cheated, a frank man may become rash, a brave man may make a riot, and a strong man may become arrogant.”

🎈好仁不好学,其蔽也愚;好知不好学,其蔽也荡;好信不好学,其蔽也贼;… … 在翻译时,这几个分句要合并同类项“不好学”,通过without the love of knowledge译出,放于句首做条件状语。并且,“好仁”译为a lover of virtue,“好知”译为a lover of wisdom,这里将动词“好”处理为lover(名词形式)。我们之前也讲过汉英翻译时这一手法的应用,如:他唱歌很好,译为He is a good singer

子曰:“小子何莫学夫诗!诗,可以兴,可以观,可以群,可以怨:迩之事父,远之事君.多识于鸟兽草木之名。”

My dear disciples, said the Master, why do you not like to study poetry? Poetry may serve to inspire, to reflect, to communicate and to complain. It may help you to serve your father at home and your prince at court. Moreover, it may tell you names of birds, beasts, plants and trees.

🎈迩之事父,远之事君.多识于鸟兽草木之名。根据前文,可以推断出这句话是在阐述《诗》的作用,因此译文处理为it may help you to …,其中it表示的是《诗》

子谓伯鱼曰:“女为《周南》、《召南》矣乎?人而不为《周南》、《召南》,其犹正墙面而立也与?”

Have you studied, said the Master to his son Bo Yu, the Songs on Man and Wife? If not, you would be like a man standing in face of a wall without seeing anything beyond it.

🎈女为《周南》、《召南》矣乎?人而不为《周南》、《召南》,……。第二次重复出现《周南》、《召南》时,译文直接省略避免重复,处理为if not

🎈其犹正墙面而立也与?这里「正墙面而立」处理为非谓语做后置定语修饰a man,即a man standing in face of a wall without seeing anything beyond it

子曰:“色厉而内荏,譬诸小人,其犹穿窬之盗也与?”

If an inwardly weak man, said the Master, pretends to look strong outwardly, is he not like a thief who bores a hole or climbs over a wall?

🎈色厉而内荏。这句话原文“色厉”、“内荏”结构并列,但许译将“内荏”处理为主语a man的前置定语,通过【adv.+adj.】译出,要学习这种处理方法/表达方式,如身体心理健康,译为physically and mentally healthy。即:将某个方面用adv.译出(如:内-inwardly;身体-physically;心理-mentally)

🎈譬诸小人,其犹穿窬之盗也与。这两个分句在翻译时通过who引导的定语从句进行连接,在汉英翻译时善用定语从句将分句进行连接,可以使分句译出来后不至于太过破碎。

子曰:“道听而涂说,德之弃也。”

To spread the rumor you have heard on the way, said the Master, is to neglect your duty.

🎈道听而涂说。即涂说你所道听到的,因此译为To spread the rumor you have heard on the way/To spread what you have heard on the way

子曰:“鄙夫可与事君也与哉?其未得之也,患得之;既得之,患失之。苟患失之,无所不至矣。”

Could we serve the prince, said the Master, together with such pitiable people as are anxious to get what they have not and afraid to lose what they have? What would not they do if they are afraid to lose what they have got?

🎈其未得之也,what they have not;既得之,what they have。汉英翻译时注意善用what引导的名词性从句

子曰:“古者民有三疾,今也或是之亡也。古之狂也肆,今之狂也荡;古之矜也廉,今之矜也忿戾;古之愚也直,今之愚也诈而已矣。”

In old days, said the Master, people had three faults which are perhaps not to be found now. Then arrogance showed little consideration for others; now it goes beyond bounds. Then pride was formal; now it is quarrelsome. Then stupidity was straightforward; now it is deceitful.

🎈古者民有三疾,今也或是之亡也。「今也或是之亡也」处理为定语从句修饰「三疾」

子曰:“巧言令色,鲜矣仁。”

A good man, said the Master, would rarely say what he does not believe, or pretend to appear better than he is.

🎈巧言令色,鲜矣仁。换个说法,即:仁者很少会巧言令色。A good man would rarely…

子曰:“恶紫之夺朱也,恶郑声之乱雅乐也,恶利口之覆邦家者。”

I hate, said the Master, to see the royal red usurped by the ducal purple, to hear the imperial music corrupted by licentious local songs, and to know a state or a kingdom overturned by sharp tongues.

🎈紫之夺朱,the royal red usurped by the ducal purple;郑声之乱雅乐,the imperial music corrupted by licentious local songs;利口之覆邦家,a kingdom overturned by sharp tongues。这里都处理为【中心语+过去分词做后置定语】的结构,学习这种译法。

子曰:“予欲无言。”子贡曰:“子如不言,则小子何述焉?”子曰:“天何言哉?四时行焉,百物生焉,天何言哉?”

The Master said,“I would prefer to say nothing.” Zi Gong said,“If you, dear Master, say nothing, what could we disciples record?” The Master said, “What has Heaven said? Yet the four seasons follow their courses and all things come into being. What has Heaven said?”

🎈天何言哉?(然而)四时行焉,百物生焉。这里分句间有轻微转折之意,因此翻译时需增译衔接词yet。

孺悲欲见孔子,孔子辞以疾。将命者出户,取瑟而歌,使之闻之。

Ru Bei sent a messenger to see Confucius, who declined to see him under the pretext of ill health. When the messenger was out, Confucius took his lute and sang so that the messenger might hear him.

🎈孺悲欲见孔子,孔子辞以疾。顶真,翻译时可用定语从句进行连接。

🎈将命者出户,取瑟而歌,使之闻之。“将命者出户”即“当将命者出户时”,表示一种情境,因此译文用when引出

宰我问:“三年之丧,期已久矣!君子三年不为礼,礼必坏;三年不为乐,乐必崩。旧谷既没,新谷既升,钻燧改火,期可已矣。”子曰:“食夫稻,衣夫锦,于女安乎?”曰:“安!”“女安则为之!夫君子之居丧,食旨不甘,闻乐不乐,居处不安,故不为也。今女安,则为之!”宰我出,子曰:“予之不仁也!子生三年,然后免于父母之怀。夫三年之丧,天下之通丧也,予也有三年之爱于其父母乎!”

Asking about the three years’ mourning for parents, Zai Wo said, “One year would be long enough, for ritual and music would be lost if a cultured man did not put them into practice for three years. In one year the old grain would be exhausted and the new would spring up. So would fire be made from spring to winter. Therefore, I think the mourning may stop at the end of one year.” The Master said, “Would you feel at ease to eat good rice and wear silk dress after one year of mourning?” Zai Wo said “Yes.” “If you feel at ease, you may stop mourning at the end of one year. A cultured man in mourning would not enjoy nice food, sweet music and comfortable bed. If you could feel at ease, you might enjoy them.” When Zai Wo was out, the Master said, “Zai Wo is not a good son. A child would not leave its parents’ arms until three years old. So three years’ mourning is a universal practice. How could Zai Wo belie the three years’ affection of his parents?”

🎈君子三年不为礼,礼必坏;三年不为乐,乐必崩。旧谷既没,新谷既升,钻燧改火,期可已矣。这句话在翻译时,在句首增译了One year would be long enough,符合文意,同时也符合英语先评价后事实的语序,在这里具体体现为先果后因,即先阐述结论再说明原因。

🎈三年之丧,期已久矣!/君子三年不为礼,礼必坏;……后面几句是在解释首句提出的“三年之丧,期已久矣!”这一观点的原因,因此翻译时需添加衔接词for

🎈君子三年不为礼,礼必坏。“君子三年不为礼”是“礼必坏”的假设,即:如果君子三年不为礼,那么礼必坏。因此翻译时通过if引导的从句引出。古汉语中,一个句子中常常有很多分句,但又没有明显的逻辑衔接词,这时我们可以尝试想想可能可以用哪些关联词(如:如果……那么……;因为……所以……)将分句连接起来,理出其中的逻辑关系,这样译出来的句子就不会太破碎。

子曰:“饱食终日,无所用心,难矣哉!不有博弈者乎?为之犹贤乎已。”

Difficult are those, said the Master, who cram themselves with food all the day long without applying their mind to anything good. Are there not gamesters and chess-players? It would be better to play chess or games than to do nothing at all.

🎈不有博弈者乎?反问句,Are there not…?回顾一下我们之前讲解过的反问句翻译,如:不亦乐乎?Is it not…?

🎈为之犹贤乎已。这句话中文先事实(为之)后评价(犹贤乎),英文先评价(It would be better)后事实(to play chess or games than to do nothing at all)

子路曰:“君子尚勇乎?”子曰:“君子义以为上。君子有勇而无义为乱,小人有勇而无义为盗。”

Zi Lu asked whether a cultured man valued valour. The Master said, “A cultured man values virtue above valour. Valiant without virtue, a cultured man would rise in revolt and an uncultured man would commit robbery.”

🎈君子有勇而无义为乱。这里许译将“有勇而无义”提取出来,译为形容词短语,作状语。

🎈君子有勇而无义为乱,小人有勇而无义为盗。注意这两句中的“有勇而无义”重复,合并翻译。

子贡曰:“君子亦有恶乎?”子曰:“有恶。恶称人之恶者,恶居下流而讪上者,恶勇而无礼者,恶果敢而窒者。”曰:“赐也亦有恶乎?”“恶徼以为知者,恶不孙以为勇者,恶讦以为直者。”

Zi Gong asked whether a cultured man had dislikes. The Master said,“Yes, a cultured man dislikes those who speak ill of others, those inferior men who slander their superiors, those who are bold beyond what is right, those who take obstination for resolution.” Then the Master asked Zi Gong whether he also had his dislikes. Zi Gong replied, “I dislike those who take cunning for wisdom, immodesty for bravery, and indiscretion for honesty.”

🎈称人之恶者。这里翻译时可用套用我们之前讲过的句型,即“……者”译为those+who引导的定语从句

🎈I dislike those who take cunning for wisdom, (take) immodesty for bravery, and (take) indiscretion for honesty. 注意后面两个小分句都省略了take,翻译或写作时可用学习这种省略手法,使译文或写作更地道精简。

子曰:“唯女子与小人为难养也,近之则不孙,远之则怨。”

It is difficult, said the Master, to deal with women and servants. If you are familiar with them, they will be immodest; if you keep your distance, they will complain.

🎈唯女子与小人为难养也。这句话中文先事实后评价,英文先评价后事实,注意中英这点差异在语言转换时的应用。

🎈近之则不孙,远之则怨。这句话没有主语,翻译时需补出主语,不孙、「怨」的主语是「女子与小人」,为了避免与前文重复,使用代词they译出。

子曰:“年四十而见恶焉,其终也已。”

If a man is disliked at the age of forty, said the Master, he would not change for the better till the end of his life.

🎈见恶,这里的“见”表被,是古汉语中常见的被动语态。理解原文时注意甄别隐藏的被动语态,这样在翻译时才能恰当处理

🎈原文为无主语句,翻译时补出泛指主语a man

🎈重点表达

岁不我与The years will wait for no man

性相近习相远Men are born nearly alike by nature but become different by practice

恭、宽、信、敏、惠reverence, lenience, confidence, diligence, benevolence

恭则不侮Reverent, he will not be hurt

身为不善者an evil doer

以中牟畔hold the fief of Zhongmou in rebellion

好仁a lover of virtue

诗可以兴Poetry may serve to inspire

色厉内荏an inwardly weak man pretends to appear strong

道听而涂说to spread rumors you have heard on the way

比起勇,更重视义love virtue over valour

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » ​​《论语·第十七章》阳货篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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