荀子《劝学》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

朗读这篇文章

《劝学》是荀子的代表作品,也是《荀子》一书开宗明义的第一篇。全文共由两大部分组成:前一部分,论述学习的重要性;后一部分,论述学习的步骤、内容、途径等有关问题;而以“学不可以已”作为贯穿全文的中心思想。从《劝学》前面部分节选的几个片段,解放后一直被选为中学语文教材,是经得起时间考验的传统名篇之一。

劝学

荀子

君子曰:学不可以已。青、取之於蓝,而青於蓝;冰、水为之,而寒於水。木直中绳,輮以为轮,其曲中规,虽有槁暴,不复挺者,輮使之然也。故木受绳则直,金就砺则利,君子博学而日参省乎己,则知明而行无过矣。

 

故不登高山,不知天之高也;不临深溪,不知地之厚也;不闻先王之遗言,不知学问之大也。干、越、夷、貉之子,生而同声,长而异俗,教使之然也。诗曰:「嗟尔君子,无恒安息。靖共尔位,好是正直。神之听之,介尔景福。」神莫大於化道,福莫长於无祸。

 

吾尝终日而思矣,不如须臾之所学也。吾尝跂而望矣,不如登高之博见也。登高而招,臂非加长也,而见者远;顺风而呼,声非加疾也,而闻者彰。假舆马者,非利足也,而致千里;假舟楫者,非能水也,而绝江河。君子生非异也,善假於物也。

 

南方有鸟焉,名曰蒙鸠,以羽为巢,而编之以发,系之苇苕,风至苕折,卵破子死。巢非不完也,所系者然也。西方有木焉,名曰射干,茎长四寸,生於高山之上,而临百仞之渊,木茎非能长也,所立者然也。蓬生麻中,不扶而直;白沙在涅,与之俱黑。兰槐之根是为芷,其渐之滫,君子不近,庶人不服。其质非不美也,所渐者然也。故君子居必择乡,游必就士,所以防邪辟而近中正也。

 

积土成山,风雨兴焉;积水成渊,蛟龙生焉;积善成德,而神明自得,圣心备焉。故不积跬步,无以致千里;不积小流,无以成江海。骐骥一跃,不能十步;驽马十驾,功在不舍。锲而舍之,朽木不折;锲而不舍,金石可镂。蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强,上食埃土,下饮黄泉,用心一也。蟹八跪而二螯,非蛇鳝之穴,无可寄托者,用心躁也。

 

是故无冥冥之志者,无昭昭之明;无昏昏之事者,无赫赫之功。行衢道者不至,事两君者不容。目不能两视而明,耳不能两听而聪。螣蛇无足而飞,梧鼠五技而穷。诗曰:「尸鸠在桑,其子七兮。淑人君子,其仪一兮。其仪一兮,心如结兮。」故君子结於一也。

 

劝学

荀子

ENCOURAGING, LEARNING

Hsun-Tzu (Translated by Burton Wstson)

🎈Burton Watson是20世纪英译中国古典文学作品最多产的美国翻译家及汉学家,翻译出版了大量的中国和日本的文学、文化典籍。

在其六十多年的职业翻译中,Burton Watson翻译出版了大量的中国历史、哲学、宗教和诗歌典籍,其中包括有《论语》、《诗经》、《史记》、《庄子》、《荀子》、《墨子》、《韩非子》、《寒山诗选》、《苏东坡诗选》、《杜甫诗选》、《陆游诗选》、《白居易诗选》、《佛经》、《维摩经》、《莲华经》、《临济录》等中国古籍,为推动中国文化在西方世界的传播做出了重要贡献,是把中国古典文化介绍到西方的先驱之一。

Burton Watson翻译中国经典的主要目的不在于学术研究,而是为了向普通读者推广中国文化,这些不可避免地影响了他的翻译策略,其译文的基本特点是琉璃、通顺、可读性强、注释不多。


 

君子曰:学不可以已。青、取之於蓝,而青於蓝;冰、水为之,而寒於水。木直中绳,輮以为轮,其曲中规,虽有槁暴,不复挺者,輮使之然也。故木受绳则直,金就砺则利,君子博学而日参省乎己,则知明而行无过矣。

The gentleman says: Learning should never cease. Blue comes from the indigo plant but is bluer than the plant itself. Ice is made of water but is colder than water ever is. A piece of wood as straight as a plumb line may be bent into a circle as true as any drawn with a compass and, even after the wood has dried, it will not straighten out again. The bending process has made it that way. Thus, if wood is pressed against a straightening board, it can be made straight; if metal is put to the grindstone, it can be sharpened; if the gentleman studies widely and each day examines himself, his wisdom will become clear and his conduct be without fault.

🎈君子说:学习是不可以停止的。靛青是从蓝草里提取的,可是比蓝草的颜色更深;冰是水凝结而成的,却比水还要寒冷。木材直得符合拉直的墨线,用煣的工艺把它制成车轮,那么木材的弯度就合乎圆的标准了。即使又被风吹日晒而干枯了,木材也不会再挺直,是因为经过加工使它成为这样的。所以木材用墨线量过再经辅具加工就能取直,刀剑在磨刀石上磨过就能变得锋利,君子广博地学习并且每天检验反省自己,那么他就会智慧明达而且行为没有过失了。

🎈君子:指有学问有修养的人。

🎈青取之于蓝:靛青,从蓝草中取得。青,靛青,一种染料。蓝,蓼蓝。蓼(liǎo)蓝:一年生草本植物,茎红紫色,叶子长椭圆形,干时暗蓝色。花淡红色,穗状花序,结瘦果,黑褐色。叶子含蓝汁,可以做蓝色染料。

于:从

🎈青于蓝:比蓼蓝(更)深。

于:比。

🎈中绳:(木材)合乎拉直的墨线。木工用拉直的墨线来取直。

🎈车柔以为轮:车柔 :通“煣”,用火烤使木条弯曲(一种手工艺)

以:把

为:当作

🎈规:圆规,测圆的工具。

🎈虽有槁暴:即使又被风吹日晒而干枯了。有,通“又”。

槁,枯

暴,同“曝”,晒干

槁暴,枯干

🎈挺:直。

🎈受绳:用墨线量过。

🎈金:指金属制的刀剑等。

🎈就砺:拿到磨刀石上去磨。

砺,磨刀石。

就,动词,接近,靠近。

🎈君子博学而日参省乎己,则知明而行无过矣:

参省乎己:对自己检查、省察。

参,一译检验,检查;二译同“叁”,多次。

省,省察。

乎,介词,于。

博学:广泛地学习。

日:每天。

知:通“智”,智慧。

明:明达。

行无过:行动没有过错。

🎈由…所组成 be made of

be made from和be made of都表示「由……制成」,主语均为制成品。前者看不出原材料,后者能。

🎈A piece of wood as straight as a plumb line:as straight as a plumb line是形容词短语作定语,相当于定语从句that is as straight as a plumb line。

🎈自省 examine oneself

🎈行为准则 a code of conduct


 

故不登高山,不知天之高也;不临深溪,不知地之厚也;不闻先王之遗言,不知学问之大也。干、越、夷、貉之子,生而同声,长而异俗,教使之然也。诗曰:「嗟尔君子,无恒安息。靖共尔位,好是正直。神之听之,介尔景福。」神莫大於化道,福莫长於无祸。

If you do not climb a high mountain, you will not comprehend the highness of the heavens; if you do not look down into a deep valley, you will not know the depth of the earth; and if you do not hear the words handed down from the ancient kings, you will not understand the greatness of learning. Children born among the Han or Yüeh people of the south and among the Mo barbarians of the north cry with the same voice at birth, but as they grow older they follow different customs. Education causes them to differ. The Odes says: Oh, you gentlemen, Do not be constantly at ease and rest! Quietly respectful in your posts, Love those who are correct and upright, And the gods will hearken to you And aid you with great blessing. There is no greater godliness than to transform yourself with the Way, no greater blessing than to escape misfortune.

🎈因此,不登上高山,就不知天多么高;不面临深涧,就不知道地多么厚;不懂得先代帝王的遗教,就不知道学问的博大。干、越、夷、貉的孩子,刚生下来啼哭的声音是一样的,而长大后风俗习性却不相同,这是教育使之如此。《诗经》上说:“你这个君子啊,不要总是贪图安逸。恭谨对待你的本职,爱好正直的德行。神明听到这一切,就会赐给你洪福祥瑞。”精神修养没有比受道德熏陶感染更大了,福分没有比无灾无祸更长远了。

🎈天the heavens

旧时用法:The heavens are the sky.

地the earth (此时earth为单数名词)

🎈想尽一切办法,竭尽全力,千方百计

move heaven and earth to do sth.

例句

They would move heaven and earth to stop me if they could.

可能的话,他们会千方百计地阻止我。

🎈把…传下去,传给后代;正式宣布,公布决定 hand down

例句

The idea of handing down his knowledge from generation to generation is important to McLean.

把自己的知识一代代传下去的想法对麦克莱恩来说很重要。

🎈干(gàn)、越(yuè)、夷(yí)、貉(mò)

干越指春秋时的吴国和越国,吴越之地处于南方。干,亦作邗(hán),后为吴所灭,故用以称吴。

夷貉,即夷貊,是古代对东方和北方民族之称。亦泛指各少数民族。

🎈刚出生,生来 at birth

🎈放松 be/feel at ease

🎈静止,安息 at rest

例句

Always trying out new ideas, never satisfied, never at rest.

他们总是追求某种新东西,总是作新的尝试,永远不满意,永远不安定。

🎈倾听,聆听 hearken to sb.

🎈用…来帮助某人 aid sb with…

在…的帮助/援助下;借助于 with the aid of…

例句

Gently raise your upper body to a sitting position, without the aid of your hands.

在不用手扶的前提下,慢慢抬起上身直到坐起。


 

吾尝终日而思矣,不如须臾之所学也。吾尝跂而望矣,不如登高之博见也。登高而招,臂非加长也,而见者远;顺风而呼,声非加疾也,而闻者彰。假舆马者,非利足也,而致千里;假舟楫者,非能水也,而绝江河。君子生非异也,善假於物也。

I once tried spending the whole day in thought, but I found it of less value than a moment of study. I once tried standing on tiptoe and gazing into the distance, but I found I could see much farther by climbing to a high place. If you climb to a high place and wave to someone, it is not as though your arm were any longer than usual, and yet people can see. you from much farther away. If you shout down the wind, it is not as though your voice were any stronger than usual, and yet people can hear you much more clearly. Those who make use of carriages or horses may not be any faster walkers than anyone else, and yet they are able to travel a thousand li. Those who make use of boats may not know how to swim, and yet they manage to get across rivers. The gentleman is by birth no different from any other man; it is just that he is good at making use of things.

🎈我曾经整天思索,却不如片刻学到的知识多;我曾经踮起脚远望,却不如登到高处看得广阔。登到高处招手,胳膊没有加长,可是别人在远处也能看见;顺着风呼叫,声音没有变得洪亮,可是听的人在远处也能听得很清楚。借助车马的人,并不是脚走得快,却可以达到千里之外;借助舟船的人,并不善于游泳,却可以横渡江河。君子的资质秉性跟一般人没有不同,只是君子善于借助外物罢了。

🎈吾尝终日而思矣:而,表修饰

🎈须臾:片刻,一会儿。

🎈跂:踮起脚后跟站着。

🎈博见:看见的范围广,见得广。

🎈而见者远:意思是远处的人也能看见。而,表转折。

🎈疾:快,速,这里引申为“洪亮”,指声音宏大。

🎈彰:清楚。

🎈假:借助,利用。舆:车。

🎈利足:脚步快。致:达到。

🎈水:指游泳。名词,用作动词。

🎈绝:横渡。

🎈生非异:本性(同一般人)没有差别。生,通“性”天赋,资质。

🎈善假于物也:于:向。物:外物,指各种客观条件。

🎈found it of less value than a moment of study中涉及两个语法现象,一是find+宾语+宾补,二是of+抽象名词意同对应的形容词。

「find+宾语+宾语补足语」的结构中,宾补可以是:

①形容词

I found the text difficult to understand.

课文很难理解

②名词或代词

I find it a boring film.

是部无聊的片子

③副词

Mary hurried there, only to find them/all out.

发现他们都出去了

④介词短语

When he woke up, he found him in hospital.

在医院里

⑤不定式

They find the Chinese people to be happy and cheerful.

发现中国人很幸福快乐

⑥现在分词

We found him waiting to receive us.

发现他正等着迎接我们

⑦过去分词

The old man found his hometown much changed.

发现故乡变化很大

🎈踮脚站stand on tiptoe

🎈站得高,看得远;登高望远 stand high and gaze far

🎈向某人挥手 wave to sb

向某人挥手告别wave goodbye to sb

🎈it is not as though your arm were any longer than usual :

as if/as though引导的从句若表示完全不可能发生的事情,用虚拟语气;若表示可能会发生的事情,则用真实语气。也就是说,as if/as though从句不是必须用虚拟语气。

例句

Don’t act as if you were the only pebble on the beach.

不要太拿自己当回事。

you是不可能真的成为pebble的,所以用了虚拟语气

🎈…, and yet people can see

yet可以作连词,如The essay is good, yet it could be improved.,也可以作副词,如It is strange, and yet it is true.

🎈使用,运用,利用 make use of

🎈设法、努力(完成某事)manage to do sth.

例句

我那美丽的白蝴蝶呀!我那勇敢的白蝴蝶呀!它试了几次,终于一跃而起,展翅飞翔。(刘白羽《白蝴蝶之恋》)

O my beautiful white butterfly! O my courageous white butterfly! After trying several times, it finally managed to rise abruptly to its feet and spread its wings to fly.

🎈生来by birth

🎈同…一样;和…没有任何区别 be no different from…

例句

Scientists, not surprisingly, are no different from other people.

并不奇怪,科学家与其他人没有什么不同。


 

南方有鸟焉,名曰蒙鸠,以羽为巢,而编之以发,系之苇苕,风至苕折,卵破子死。巢非不完也,所系者然也。西方有木焉,名曰射干,茎长四寸,生於高山之上,而临百仞之渊,木茎非能长也,所立者然也。蓬生麻中,不扶而直;白沙在涅,与之俱黑。兰槐之根是为芷,其渐之滫,君子不近,庶人不服。其质非不美也,所渐者然也。故君子居必择乡,游必就士,所以防邪辟而近中正也。

In the south there is a bird called the meng dove. It makes a nest out of feathers woven together with hair and suspends it from the tips of the reeds. But when the wind comes, the reeds break, the eggs are smashed, and the baby birds killed. It is not that the nest itself is faulty; the fault is in the thing it is attached to. In the west there is a tree called the yeh-kan. Its trunk is no more than four inches tall and it grows on top of the high mountains, from whence it looks down into valleys a hundred fathoms deep. It is not a long trunk which afford the tree such a view, but simply the place where it stands. If pigweed grows up in the midst of hemp, it will stand up straight without propping. If white sand is mixed with mud, it too will turn black. The root of a certain orchid is the source of the perfume called chih; but if the root were to be soaked in urine, then no gentleman would go near it and no commoner would consent to wear it. It is not that the root itself is of an unpleasant quality; it is the fault of the thing it has been soaked in. Therefore,a gentleman will take care in selecting the community he intends to live in, and will choose men of breeding for his companions. In this way he wards off evil and meanness, and draws close to fairness and right.

🎈南方有一种叫“蒙鸠”的鸟,用羽毛作窝,还用毛发把窝编结起来,把窝系在嫩芦苇的花穗上,风一吹苇穗折断,鸟窝就坠落了,鸟蛋全部摔烂。不是窝没编好,而是不该系在芦苇上面。西方有种叫“射干”的草,生长在高山之上,只有四寸高,却能俯瞰百里之遥,不是草能长高,而是因为它长在了高山之巅。蓬草长在麻地里,不用扶持也能挺立住,白沙混进了黑土里,就再不能变白了,兰槐的根叫香艾,一旦浸入臭水里,君子下人都会避之不及,不是艾本身不香,而是被浸泡臭了。所以君子居住要选择好的环境,出游必定要接近有学问品行的人,才能够防微杜渐保其中庸正直。

🎈鸠(jiū):鸟类。外形像鸽子。常见的有斑鸠,身体灰褐色,颈后有白或黄褐斑点。常成群吃谷物。

🎈makes a nest out of feathers woven together with hair: woven together with hair是feathers的后置定语。

🎈…由…制造 make…out of…

🎈无事生非 make trouble out of nothing

🎈幼鸟;雏鸟 baby birds

小山羊 baby goat

小鹿 fawn /baby deer

calf 大型动物(尤指牛、象、海豚、鲸鱼等)的幼兽

foal 小马/驴/骡子

piglet小猪

lamb 小羊羔

kid 小孩子

cub 小熊

kitten /kitty小猫

puppy小狗

chicken 小鸡崽

duckling 小鸭子

gosling小鹅

larva 幼虫

🎈the eggs are smashed, and the baby birds (are) killed:并列句中的省略现象。在并列句中,后面分句中与前面分句相同的部分常常省去,以免重复。

🎈从那里from whence/thence

例句

When the party broke up, Lydia returned with Mrs. Forster to Meryton, from whence they were to set out early the next morning.

他们分手以后,丽迪雅便跟弗斯脱太太回到麦里屯去,他们打算明天一早从那儿动身。

🎈It is not a long trunk which afford the tree such a view, but simply the place where it stands是强调句型:it is / was … that / who …。一般而言,sb要用who,sth用that,但sth有时也用which。

🎈 it too will turn black

too和also均表示「也」,常见于肯定句、疑问句中,只是位置有点不同。too在句中位置,一般是主语和谓语之间,或者放在句末;also的位置可以放在句首,句中,一般不宜放在句末。

🎈平民commoner

a person who does not come from a royal or noble family

🎈愿意,同意,赞成,肯 consent to(do)sth

例句

Or do you consent to this marriage?

还是您应了这门亲事?

🎈有学问品行的人 men of breeding

🎈避开,躲开,防止(危险、疾病等) ward off

🎈接近,逼近 draw close to


 

积土成山,风雨兴焉;积水成渊,蛟龙生焉;积善成德,而神明自得,圣心备焉。故不积跬步,无以致千里;不积小流,无以成江海。骐骥一跃,不能十步;驽马十驾,功在不舍。锲而舍之,朽木不折;锲而不舍,金石可镂。蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强,上食埃土,下饮黄泉,用心一也。蟹八跪而二螯,非蛇鳝之穴,无可寄托者,用心躁也。

Pile up earth to make a mountain and wind and rain will rise up from it. Pile up water to make a deep pool and dragons will appear. Pile up good deeds to create virtue and godlike understanding will come of itself; there the mind of the sage will find completion. But unless you pile up little steps, you can never journey a thousand li; unless you pile up tiny streams, you can never make a river or a sea. The finest thoroughbred cannot travel ten paces in one leap, but the sorriest nag can go a ten days’journey. Achievement consists of never giving up. If you start carving and then give up, you cannot even cut through a piece of rotten wood; but if you persist without stopping, you can carve and inlay metal or stone. Earthworms have no sharp claws or teeth, no strong muscles or bones, and yet above ground they feast on the mud, and below they drink at the yellow springs. This is because they keep their minds on one thing. Crabs have six legs and two pincers, but unless they can find an empty hole dug by a snake or a water serpent, they have no place to lodge. This is because they allow their minds to go off in all directions.

🎈堆积土石成了高山,风雨从这里兴起;汇积水流成为深渊,蛟龙从这儿产生;积累善行养成高尚的道德,精神得到提升,圣人的心境由此具备。所以不积累一步半步的行程,就没有办法达到千里之远;不积累细小的流水,就没有办法汇成江河大海。骏马一跨跃,也不足十步远;劣马连走十天,它的成功在于不停止。如果刻几下就停下来了,那么腐朽的木头也刻不断。如果不停地刻下去,那么金石也能雕刻成功。蚯蚓没有锐利的爪子和牙齿,强健的筋骨,却能向上吃到泥土,向下喝到地下的泉水,这是由于它用心专一。螃蟹有六条腿,两个蟹钳,但是没有蛇、鳝的洞穴它就无处藏身,这是因为它用心浮躁。

🎈兴:起。

🎈焉:于之,在那里。

🎈渊:深水。

🎈蛟:一种似龙的生物。

🎈积善成德,而神明自得,圣心备焉:积累善行而养成品德,达到很高的境界,通明的思想(也就)具备了。得,获得。而,表因果关系。

🎈跬:古代的半步。古代称跨出一脚为“跬”,跨两脚为“步”。

🎈无以:没有用来……的(办法)

🎈骐骥:骏马,千里马。

🎈驽马十驾:劣马拉车连走十天,(也能走得很远。)驽马,劣马。驾,马拉车一天所走的路程叫“一驾”。

🎈功在不舍:(它的)成功在于不停止。舍,停。

🎈锲:用刀雕刻。

🎈金石可镂:金:金属。石:石头。镂:原指在金属上雕刻,泛指雕刻。

🎈用心一也:(这是)因为用心专一(的缘故)。用,以,因为。

🎈六跪:六条腿,蟹实际上是八条腿。跪,蟹脚。(一说,海蟹后面的两条腿只能划水,不能用来走路或自卫,所以不能算在“跪”里。另一说,“六”虚指。这两说高中课本中没有提到)

🎈螯:螃蟹的大钳子。

🎈躁:浮躁,不专心。

🎈堆置 pile up sth.

高高堆起、堆成小山piled(high)up

堆了一座沙丘 pile up a small sand-hill (郭沫若《墓》)

例句

在其他的摊子上,鸡蛋和鸭蛋堆得像小山,一个个闪着耀眼的白光。咸肉和成排挂在架子上,肥得仿佛就要滴下油来。(季羡林《上海菜市场》)

At some stalls, chicken and duck eggs of a glistening white were piled high up like small hills while rows of bacon and salted duck, seemingly dripping with fat, were hung out on racks.

🎈earth指土壤时为不可数名词。

🎈godlike understanding

Godlike指上帝般的 like God or a god in some quality

🎈纯种马 a thoroughbred

老马 a nag

汗血宝马Akhal-teke horses(学名阿哈尔捷金马,原产于土库曼斯坦。头细颈高,四肢修长,皮薄毛细,步伐轻盈,力量大、速度快、耐力强。德、俄、英等国的名马大都有阿哈尔捷金马的血统)

🎈尽情欣赏,尽情享受,大吃大喝 feast on

例句

Then the bird feasts on the honeycomb.

然后小鸟就在蜂巢上饱餐一顿。

例句

今后永远再也不要使歌乐山和箱根成为疏散地,要让热爱山水的人们常常登上山顶享受美丽的风光,不能再从自然的美中挤进黑暗的防空壕。(冰心《从重庆到箱根》)

Never again will the Gele Mountain or Hakone be a place for sheltering evacuees. They should be a place for sightseers to feast their eyes on the beautiful scenery at the mountaintop. Never again will gloomy air-raid dugouts tarnish a place of natural beauty.

其中Feast原意是盛宴,大餐,a feast of亦可指大量(赏心悦目的事情)。Feast someone’s eyes on sth.英文固定搭配,指欣赏某赏心悦目的事物(如风景等)。所以,享受美丽的风光译feast their eyes on the beautiful scenery。


 

是故无冥冥之志者,无昭昭之明;无昏昏之事者,无赫赫之功。行衢道者不至,事两君者不容。目不能两视而明,耳不能两听而聪。螣蛇无足而飞,梧鼠五技而穷。诗曰:「尸鸠在桑,其子七兮。淑人君子,其仪一兮。其仪一兮,心如结兮。」故君子结於一也。

Thus if there is no dark and dogged will, there will be no shining accomplishment; if there is no dull and determined effort, there will be no brilliant achievement. He who tries to travel two roads at once will arrive nowhere; he who serves two masters will please neither. The wingless dragon has no limbs and yet it can soar; the flying squirrel has many talents but finds itself hard pressed. The odes says: Ringdove in the mulberry, Its children are seven. The good man, the gentleman,His forms are one. His forms are one, His heart is as though bound. Thus does the gentleman bind himself to oneness.

🎈因此没有刻苦钻研的心志,学习上就不会有显著成绩;没有埋头苦干的实践,事业上就不会有巨大成就。在歧路上行走达不到目的地,同时事奉两个君主的人,两方都不会容忍他。眼睛不能同时看两样东西而看明白,耳朵不能同时听两种声音而听清楚。螣蛇没有脚但能飞,鼫鼠有五种本领却还是没有办法。《诗经》上说:“布谷鸟筑巢在桑树上,它的幼鸟儿有七只。善良的君子们,行为要专一不偏邪。行为专一不偏邪,意志才会如磐石坚。”所以君子的意志坚定专一。

🎈顽强的意志 dogged will

🎈He who tries to travel two roads at once :

立即,马上,同时at once

🎈一则寓言:梧鼠学技

田野里有一种老鼠,也叫五技鼠,因为它学会了五种本领:飞、走、游泳、爬树、掘土打洞,但一样也不精通,说它会飞吧,它还飞不到屋顶上;说它会游泳吧,连一条小河也渡不过去;会爬树,但爬不到树顶;走呢,还不如人走得快;掘土打洞,还不能把自己的身体掩盖起来。名义上学会了五种本领,但实际上却一样也不中用。

启发:梧鼠想样样都会,结果是一样都不会,告诫人们在学习和工作中要善于抓住重点,明确主攻方向,防止不分主次,“眉毛胡子一把抓”。

🎈ode n.颂诗,颂歌

济慈的《夜莺颂》Keats’s ‘Ode to a Nightingale’

odes 颂诗集

🎈尸鸠:又名鳲鸠、子规、杜鹃。上体灰褐色,下体白色而具暗色横斑,其显著特点是双音节叫声,并把卵产于别的鸟巢中为它孵化。(古代记载多认为尸鸠是布谷鸟,《中国古代动物学史》认为此鸟为斑鸠)

布谷鸟 cuckoo

斑鸠,斑尾林鸽(鸽子的一种)ringdove

🎈His forms are one中one仍为数词,同Its children are seven中的seven。

oneness n.一体,一致

🎈允诺(做)某事bind oneself to (do) sth

驱使某人… bind sb to (do) sth

例句

He had been bound to secrecy

= made to promise not to tell people about sth.

他被迫保守秘密。

 

🔥必背词汇

indigo 靛青色,靛蓝色

英义

Something that is indigo is dark purplish blue in colour.

例句

Indigo tattoos adorn her forehead.

她的前额纹着靛青色的刺青。

 

hearken 倾听;聆听

例句

” Yes, yes—that’s it. But, Timothy, hearken to me, ” said the Grandfer earnestly.

“没错,没错——正是这样。不过,蒂莫西,你听我讲,”坎特尔大爷认真地说。

 

🔥重点表达

由…所组成 be made of

挺直 straighten out

帮人解决问题;为人解除困惑straighten sb. ↔ out

理清;整顿straighten out sth.

自省 examine oneself

行为准则 a code of conduct

天the heavens

地the earth

想尽一切办法;竭尽全力;千方百计 move heaven and earth to do sth.

把…传下去,传给后代;正式宣布,公布决定 hand down

刚出生;生来 at birth

放松 be/feel at ease

静止;安息 at rest

倾听,聆听 hearken to sb.

用…来帮助某人 aid sb with…

在…的帮助/援助下;借助于 with the aid of…

踮脚站stand on tiptoe

站得高,看得远;登高望远 stand high and gaze far

向某人挥手 wave to sb

向某人挥手告别wave goodbye to sb

使用,运用,利用 make use of

设法、努力(完成某事)manage to do sth.

生来by birth

同…一样;和…没有任何区别 be no different from…

…由…制造 make…out of…

无事生非 make trouble out of nothing

幼鸟;雏鸟 baby birds

平民commoner

愿意;同意;赞成;肯consent to(do)sth

小心,当心take care that…/to do sth/in doing sth

照顾,照料;爱惜;负责,处理 take care of sb./sth.

有学问品行的人 men of breeding

避开,躲开,防止(危险、疾病等) ward off

接近,逼近 draw close to

堆置 pile up sth.

高高堆起、堆成小山piled(high)up

堆了一座沙丘 pile up a small sand-hill

纯种马 a thoroughbred

老马 a nag

汗血宝马Akhal-teke horses

尽情欣赏;尽情享受;大吃大喝feast on

欣赏某赏心悦目的事物(如风景等)feast someone’s eyes on sth.

顽强的意志 dogged will

立即,马上;同时at once

允诺(做)某事bind oneself to (do) sth

驱使某人… bind sb to (do) sth

 

🔥餐后甜点

三首「劝学」相关的古诗

金缕衣

杜秋娘[唐]

劝君莫惜金缕衣,

劝君惜取少年时;

花开堪折直须折,

莫待无花空折枝。

GOLDEN-THREAD GOWN

I urge you not to cherish that gold-thread gown,

For you shall seize your youthful days,

Gather your blossoms while you may,

Do not lay until only empty branches await.

🎈我劝你不要太注重追求功名利禄,要珍惜少年求学的最好时期。

花开可以折取的时候就要尽管去折,不要等到花谢时只折了个空枝。

🎈金缕衣:缀有金线的衣服,比喻荣华富贵。

🎈须惜:珍惜。

🎈堪:可以,能够。

🎈直须:尽管。直:直接,爽快。

🎈莫待:不要等到。


劝 学

颜真卿[唐]

三更灯火五更鸡,

正是男儿发愤时;

黑发不知勤学早,

白首方悔读书迟。

 

ADVICE TO STUDENTS

Midnight hours with a lamp,

Morning hours, when the rooster calls,

The best times for a boy to strive forward.

If he does not study hard while his hair is still dark,

it will be too late to regret when his hair turns grey.

🎈每天三更半夜到鸡啼叫的时候,是男孩子们读书的最好时间。

少年不知道早起勤奋学习,到老了后悔读书少就太迟了。

🎈更:古时夜间计算时间的单位,一夜分五更,每更为两小时。午夜11点到1点为三更。

🎈五更鸡:天快亮时,鸡啼叫。

🎈黑发:年少时期,指少年。

🎈白首:头发白了,这里指老年。方:才。


偶成

朱熹[宋]

少年易老学难成,

一寸光阴不可轻;

未觉池塘春草梦,

阶前梧叶已秋声。

RANDOM ACCOMPLISHMENT

For youth, old age comes readily, yet knowledge is difficult to acquire. Not having even awakened from a dream of spring grass beside the pond, The leaves of the phoenix tree out front are already shuffling the sounds of autumn.

🎈青春的日子容易逝去,学问却很难成功,所以每一寸光阴都要珍惜,不能轻易放过。还没从美丽的春色中一梦醒来,台阶前的梧桐树叶就已经在秋风里沙沙作响了。

🎈学:学问,学业、事业。

🎈一寸光阴:日影移动一寸的时间,形容时间短暂。

🎈轻:轻视,轻松放过。

🎈未觉:没有感觉、觉醒。

🎈阶:台阶。

🎈梧:梧桐,落叶乔木。

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 荀子《劝学》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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