柳宗元《种树郭橐驼传》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

朗读这篇文章

种树郭橐驼传

柳宗元

The Life of Camel Guo, the Tree Planter

Liu Zongyuan

这篇文章是柳宗元早年在长安任职时期的作品,此文是针对当时官吏繁政扰民的现象而为言的。中唐时期,豪强地主兼并掠夺土地日益严重,「富者兼地数万亩,贫者无容足之居」。仅有一点土地的农民,除了交纳正常的捐粟外,还要承受地方军政长官摊派下来的各种杂税。民不聊生。柳宗元在参加「永贞革新」前两年,曾任监察御史里行,可以到各地检查工作,民事、军事、财政都可以过问,品秩不高而权限较广。这篇文章,可能就是在此期间写的,是针对当时地方官吏扰民、伤民的现象而作的。

 

郭橐驼,不知始何名。

Camel Guo’s real name was unknown.

🎈结合后文可知「橐驼」是人们给他起的外号/代称,「不知始何名」也就是说人们不知道他本来叫什么名字,不知道他真名如何,译作「real name」


 

病偻,隆然伏行,有类橐驼者,故乡人号之「驼」。

He was called 「Camel”, because rickets caused him to resemble a camel when walking, with a hunched back and a bent body.

🎈结构分析:人们称其为「驼」,是因为他走路时很像骆驼,而他之所以如此是因为患了脊背弯曲的病,走起路时脊背突起而且弯着腰。

🎈主语统一:原文有两个主语,分别是「郭橐驼」和「乡人」,翻译时避免主语不统一,都用「郭橐驼」做了主语。


 

驼闻之曰:「甚善,名我固当。」

He was pleased with the name, for he said, 「I like it. It suits me well”.

🎈「名我固当」:这样称呼我确实恰当。名,称呼,名词作动词,意动用法。也就是说「这个名字非常适合我」,译文用「it」指代这个外号。


 

因舍其名,亦自谓「橐驼」云。

Therefore he gave up his own name and also called himself 「Camel Guo」.

🎈「云」:句末语气词,在这里相当于「了」,不用译出。

 


其乡曰丰乐乡,在长安西。驼业种树。

He lived in Fengle Village in western Chang’an, and made a living by planting trees.

🎈「其乡」与郭橐驼的关系是他居住于此地,以「he」作主语来体现这层关系使得行文衔接更紧密。

🎈「驼业种树」就是「郭橐驼以种树为职业」之意,译作「made a living by planting trees」,其中「以…为生」译为「make a living by doing sth」


 

凡长安豪家富人为观游及卖果者,皆争迎取养。

All the wealthy and influential people in Chang’an who took a liking for trees, and all the fruit vendors, spared no effort to employ him.

🎈文言词汇:「为观游」:经营园林游览。「为」,从事,经营。「争迎取养」:争着迎接雇用(郭橐驼),「取养」:雇用。

🎈翻译「为观游」时要注意与郭的所做的事结合起来(种树),否则译文就会让读者摸不着头脑,这里进行了具体化,译作了「took a liking for trees」,喜爱树木。

🎈「皆争迎取养」正说反译,译作「spared no effort to employ him」

🎈不遗余力做某事spare no effort to do sth


 

视驼所种树,或迁徒,无不活,且硕茂,早实以蕃。

AIl the trees planted or transplanted by him survived. They were tall, with exuberant foliage, and bore abundant fruits early in season.

🎈「硕茂」:高大茂盛。「早实」:早结果实。「以」:而且,连词,作用同「而」。「蕃」:多。

🎈「茂」字译作了介词短语,运用此转换词性的翻译方法,译作「with exuberant foliage」。其中「exuberant」释义为「strong and healthy; growing quickly and well 繁茂的;茂盛的;茁壮的」

🎈in season: ( of fruit or vegetables 水果、蔬菜 ) easily available and ready to eat because it is the right time of year for them 当令的;在旺季的。


 

他植者,虽窥伺效慕,莫能如也。

Other tree planters did not do so well as he, though they stealthily tried to imitate him.

🎈文言词汇:「窥伺」:偷偷地察看。「效慕」:仿效,慕也是「效」的意思。

🎈「as he」是个省略句,省略了谓语,用法如下:

在as引导的比较状语从句中,当不同的主语进行比较时,一般省略从句中的谓语。

🎈「虽窥伺效慕」是个让步状语从句,用「though」引导,放在主句之后。


 

有问之,对曰:「橐驼非能使木寿且孳也,能顺木之天,以致其性焉尔。

When asked what his secret was, he would reply, 「I do not have any special skills that make the trees live longer and bear more fruits other than that I comply with the nature of the tree and let its nature take its own course.

🎈文言词汇:「寿且孳」:活得长久而且繁殖茂盛。「孳」,繁殖。「天」:指自然生长规律。「致」,使达到。「焉尔」:罢了,句末语气词连用。

🎈「有问之」是说「人们询问他」,结合上文以及后文回答的内容可知人们询问的内容是他种树种得好的原因,这里要进行具体化,译作了「secret」

🎈「other than」在这里是「除了」之意。

🎈comply with顺从/服从

🎈「let its nature take its own course」意即「顺应树木的天性」,在英文中「顺其自然」译作「let nature take its own course」,注意表达积累。


 

凡植木之性,其本欲舒,其培欲平,其土欲故,其筑欲密。

The right way of tree planting is to allow the roots of a tree to spread out freely, to distribute the earth evenly while banking it up, to use mellow soil, and to pound the earth firmly over the roots.

🎈文言词汇:「植木之性」:按树木的本性种植。「性」,指树木固有的特点。「本」:树根。「培」:培土。「故」:旧。「筑」:捣土。「密」:结实。

🎈「植木之性」意思是按照树木的本性来种植,也就是「正确的种树方法」,译作了「the right way of tree planting」,翻译时进行了说法的转换。

🎈词性转换:原文的「舒」「平」「密」都是形容词,实则是种树时要满足这些条件,翻译时将这些词都译作了「v+adv」的结构,转换词性。

🎈bank sth (up): to form sth into piles 堆积(某物)


 

既然已,勿动勿虑,去不复顾。

Then leave it alone. Don’t touch or worry about it. Don’t come back to shower your concern over it.

🎈「shower your concern over it」就是「过度关注」之意。


 

其莳也若子,其置也若弃。

Treat it as your own child when you are transplanting it. Then leave it as something discarded.

🎈文言词汇:「莳」:栽种。「若子」:像对待子女一样精心。「置」:放在一边。


 

则其天者全,而其性得矣。

In this way its nature is well preserved, and its proper growth is ensured.

🎈「则」就是「那么」之意,译作了「in this way」来衔接上下文。中文中不总是有衔接词,但是衔接词在英文中非常重要,要注意衔接词的表达积累,中英翻译时也要有增加衔接词的意识。

🎈这里的「性」要进行具体化,也就是树木的正常生长,译作「its proper growth」


 

故我不害其长而已,非有能硕茂之也;不抑耗其实而已,非有能蚤而蕃之也。

I have no other skill to make it grow tall with exuberant foliage beyond that I don’t thwart its growth. I have no other skill to make it bear more fruits early in season except that I do nothing to restrain it from baring less fruits.

🎈文言词汇:「害其长」:妨碍它的生长。「硕茂」:使动用法,使高大茂盛。「抑耗其实」:不抑制、损耗它的果实(的成熟过程)。「早而蕃」:使动用法,使……(结实)早而且多。

🎈除了beyond that/ except that/other than that

🎈「thwart」释义为「to prevent sb from doing what they want to do 阻止;阻挠;对…构成阻力」,例句如下:

She was thwarted in her attempt to take control of the party.

她控制这个政党的企图受阻了。

🎈「害」与「抑耗」是近义词,翻译时分别译作了「thwart」和「restrain」,这是因为英文中同样的意思倾向于使用不同的表达,要有这种翻译意识。


 

他植者则不然,根拳而土易。其培之也,若不过焉则不及。

Other planters do things differently. The roots of their trees are curled up, the soil is immature and the earth used in banking up is either too much or not enough.

🎈文言词汇:「根拳」:树根蜷曲。「土易」:更换新土。「若不过焉则不及」:如果不是过多就是不够。若……则……,如果……那么(就),连接假设复句的固定结构。

🎈「土易」要结合上文的「其土欲故」来翻译,这里的意思也就是用了生土,译作了「the soil is immature」


 

苟有能反是者,则又爱之太殷,忧之太勤。

Though some planters make no such mistakes, they either take too much care of the tree or feel too much anxiety about it.

🎈「苟有能反是者」这句话在翻译时要注意引申,也就是「和他们做法不同(但也出问题)的人」,意即「没有犯这种错误的人」,译作了「some planters make no such mistakes」

🎈「太殷」和「太勤」都是程度词,在译文中用「too much」来体现。


 

旦视而暮抚,已去而复顾。

They come to see it in the morning and fondle it in the evening. They return soon after leaving it.

🎈「fondle」是「爱抚」之意。

 


甚者抓其肤以验其生枯,摇其本以观其疏密,而本之性日亦离矣。

The most intolerable mistake is to scratch off a piece of the bark to see whether it is still alive or shake its trunk to see whether it is stable. Thus the nature of the tree is spoiled.

🎈文言词汇:「爪其肤」:掐破树皮。「爪」,掐,作动词用。「生枯」:活着还是枯死。「疏密」:指土的松与紧。

🎈「甚者」结合上文「苟有能反是者」来翻译,就是「更让人难以忍受的(错误)」,译作「intolerable mistake」

🎈在「摇其本以观其疏密」一句中,土疏则树摇,土密则树稳,这里翻译时进行了具体化,译作「shake its trunk to see whether it is stable」,其中「its」和「it」都指的是树。


 

虽曰爱之,其实害之;虽曰忧之,其实仇之。

Though they say they love it, they are doing harm to it. Though they say they regard it with great anxiety, they are hostile towards it.

🎈do harm to损害/伤害

🎈be hostile to/towards对…有敌意


 

故不我若也。吾又何能为哉!」

This explains why they are not as successful in tree planting as I am. To be honest, I don’t have any special skills other than that!”

🎈「不我若」:不若我,比不上我。否定句中代词作宾语时一般要置于动词前。

 


问者曰:「以子之道,移之官理可乎?」驼曰:「我知种树而已,官理非吾业也。

When asked whether his way of planting trees could be applied to the governing of the people, he replied, 「I only know how to plant trees. I don’t know how to govern, since that is not my profession.

🎈做官治民the governing of the people

🎈「业」译作了「profession」,是「a type of job that needs special training or skill, especially one that needs a high level of education (需要专门技能,尤指需要较高教育水平的某一)行业,职业」之意。


 

然吾居乡,见长人者,好烦其令,若甚怜焉,而卒以祸。

But I live in the countryside and often see how officials are apt to issue orders. They seem to care for the people, but in fact they are bringing hardships on them.

🎈「长人者」:为人之长者,指当官治民的地方官。大县的长官称「令」,小县的长官称「长」。译作了「officials」

🎈「烦其令」:不断发号施令。

be apt to易于…/倾向于issue orders发号施令。

🎈「若甚怜」:好像很爱(百姓),并不是真的爱护百姓,译出seem to很重要。


 

旦暮吏来而呼曰:‘官命促尔耕,勖尔植,督尔获,早缫而绪,早织而缕,字而幼孩,遂而鸡豚。’

At any time of the day the errand man of the local government comes to the village and shouts, ‘The official urges you to till the land, sow seeds and harvest in time, to lose no time in reeling silk and weaving cloth, and to bring up your children and raise your livestock well.’

🎈文言词汇:「促尔耕」:催促你们耕田。「勖」:勉励。「植」:栽种。「督」:督促。「获」:收割。「缫」:煮茧抽丝。「而」:通「尔」,你们。「绪」:丝头。「早缫而绪」:早点缫好你们的丝。「早织而缕」:早点纺好你们的线。「字」:养育。「遂而鸡豚」:喂养好你们的鸡和猪。「遂」,顺利地成长。「豚」,猪。

🎈「旦暮」意即「在任何时候」,译作「at any time of the day」.

🎈和农业相关的表达:

耕地till the land

播种sow seeds

缫丝reel silk

织布weave cloth

饲养家畜raise livestock


 

鸣鼓而聚之,击木而召之。

Now beating a drum, now striking at a wooden clapper, he calls the village people to get together.

🎈now…now…时而…时而…


 

吾小人辍飧饔以劳吏者,且不得暇,又何以蕃吾生而安吾性耶?

We are so busy entertaining him that we don’t even have time for our meals. How can we support a thriving family and enjoy a peaceful life?

🎈文言词汇:「辍」,停止。「飧」,晚饭。「饔」,早饭。「劳吏者」:慰劳当差的。「且」:尚且。「何以」:以何,靠什么。「蕃吾生」:繁衍我们的生命,即使我们的人口兴旺。「安吾性」:安定我们的生活。

🎈be busy doing sth忙于…


 

故病且怠。

The village people are completely exhausted.

🎈「病且怠」意即「困苦又疲乏」,译作「completely exhausted」


 

若是,则与吾业者其亦有类乎?」

Isn’t this similar to what other tree planters are doing to their trees?”

🎈「与吾业者」:与我同行业的人,指「他植者」。这句话比较的是这二者的做法,this指代上文官吏的所作所为。


 

问者曰:「嘻,不亦善夫!吾问养树,得养人术。」

The man who asked the question responded to this with a smile, 「Isn’t it wonderful? I asked about tree planting with the result that I learned the way to govern the people.”

🎈「嘻」:感叹词,表示高兴,这里译在直接引语里不好处理,译作了状语「with a smile」跟在动词「respond」之后。


 

传其事以为官戒。

I record this event in writing to exhort government officials to improve their way of ruling.

🎈「exhort」是「规劝」「告诫」之意,要告诫他们的内容是「to improve their way of ruling」

🔥重点词汇

exuberant     adj. 精力充沛的;热情洋溢的;兴高采烈的

英义

full of energy, excitement and happiness

例句

She gave an exuberant performance.

她的表演热情洋溢。

 

thwart     v. 阻止;阻挠;对…构成阻力

英义

to prevent sb from doing what they want to do

例句

She was thwarted in her attempt to take control of the party.

她控制这个政党的企图受阻了。

 

errand     n.差使;差事

英义

a job that you do for sb that involves going somewhere to take a message, to buy sth, deliver goods, etc.

例句

He often runs errands for his grandmother.

他经常给他的祖母跑腿儿。

🔥重点表达

佝偻病rickets

以…为生」译为「make a living by doing sth

不遗余力做某事spare no effort to do sth

枝叶茂盛with exuberant foliage

当令的;在旺季的in season

除了other than

顺从/服从comply with

顺其自然let nature take its own course

堆积(某物)bank sth (up)

损害/伤害do harm to

损害/伤害do harm to

对…有敌意be hostile to/towards

耕地till the land

播种sow seeds

缫丝reel silk

织布weave cloth

饲养家畜raise livestock

🔥表达对比

安身立命有几种表达方式?

 

1.吾小人辍飧饔以劳吏者,且不得暇,又何以蕃吾生而(安吾性)耶?

We are so busy entertaining him that we don’t even have time for our meals. How can we support a thriving family and enjoy a peaceful life?

 

2. 老舍《我这一辈子》

在那个动荡的岁月,能觅到一处可以(安身立命)的清静世界且有书读,简直是太令人兴奋了。

How happy I was to have, in time of turmoil, this quiet haven plus books so that I could settle down and get on with my pursuit of learning!

 

3. 台湾同胞可(安居乐业),两岸各族人民可解骨肉分离之痛。

The compatriots in Taiwan will be able to live in peace and happiness; the people of all nationalities on both sides of the Taiwan straits will be relieved of the pains of separation from their own flesh and blood.

 

4. 我惊讶的是,任凭世界上当时发生了什么,白宫都在依序行事,他们告诉美国人民要做的就是——(安居乐业)。

I was struck by the fact that despite all that was going on in the world at the time, the White House was doing exactly what they were telling the American people to do –getting on with life.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 柳宗元《种树郭橐驼传》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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