王禹偁《黄冈竹楼记》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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黄冈竹楼记

王禹偁
The Bamboo Pavilion in Huanggang
Wang Yucheng
本文是作者著名的抒情小品,艺术上很有特色,结构严谨,构思巧妙,层次分明,多用排比,寓情于景,轻快自然,既抒写了作者随遇而安、贬谪不惧的心态,也含蓄地表现了其愤懑不平之情。文章清幽潇洒,可以与欧阳修的《醉翁亭记》相媲美。

 
黄冈之地多竹,大者如椽。
Huanggang abounds with bamboos. The bigger ones are as thick as rafters.
🎈盛产abound with
🎈“椽”:椽子,架在屋顶承受屋瓦的木条。“如椽”是说“粗如椽子”,这里不仅要译出比喻,还要译出为什么这样比喻,“thick”这一特点要译出。

 

竹工破之,刳去其节,用代陶瓦。
Workers split the bamboo stems into two, chop off the joints and use them to substitute earthen tiles.
🎈文言词汇:“刳”:削剔,挖空。“陶瓦”:用泥烧制的瓦。
🎈砍掉chop off
🎈用…代替…substitute … with/by …;replace … with/by …
 

比屋皆然,以其价廉而工省也。
Bamboo tiled houses are built everywhere, for they are inexpensive and labor saving.
🎈“比屋”:挨家挨户。比,紧挨,靠近。
🎈“然”指代的是上文“用代陶瓦”一事,这句话结构分析如下:“家家户户都用竹瓦搭建屋顶, 这是因为竹瓦价格低廉又节约人力。” 

 

子城西北阴,雉墚记毁,秦莽荒秽,因作小楼二间,与月波楼通。
At the northwest corner of the outer city, the parapets have collapsed and wild grass grows profusely. Making use of the open space there, I have built a two-roomed bamboo pavilion, which adjoins the Moonlight Pavilion.
🎈文言词汇:“子城”:城门外用于防护的半圆形城墙。“雉堞圮毁”:城上矮墙倒塌毁坏。雉“堞”,城上的矮墙。“圮毁”,倒塌毁坏。“月波楼”:黄州的一座城楼。
🎈矮护墙parapet
🎈profusely是profuse的派生词,后者释义为produced in large amounts 大量的;众多的;丰富的
例句
Then the policeman recognized me, breaking into profuse apologies. 
然后警察认出了我,开始一再道歉。
🎈“因作小楼二间”处于前文是有因果关系的,这里要进行具体化,“因此(我)利用那里的空地”,译作“making use of the open space there”,分词短语做原因状语。
🎈毗连/临接adjoin

 

远吞山光,平把江濑,幽阒辽夐,不可具状。
It gives a panoramic view of the mountains in the distance and the shallow water that flows over the sands. The tranquil beauty and the wide-extending space are so impressive that it is impossible to describe them in detail.
🎈文言词汇:“吞”:容纳。“濑”:沙滩上的流水。“幽阒辽夐”:幽静辽阔。“幽阒”,清幽静寂。“夐”,远、辽阔。
🎈“远吞山光,平把江濑”描述了在竹楼上可以看到的景色,意思是“登上竹楼,远处的群山以及平视可以看到的江滩、碧波都尽收眼底”,“尽收眼底”译作了“gives a panoramic view of”。关于“尽收眼底”的表达之前在《永州韦使君新堂记》中也有出现,原文和译文如下:
迩延野绿,远混天碧,咸会于谯门之内。
The green fields stretch far into the distance in union with the blue sky. The watchtower of the hall commands a good view of this scenery.

 

夏宜急雨,有瀑布声;冬宜密雪,有碎玉声;
The bamboo pavilion is an ideal place to listen to the torrential rain in summer, which sounds like waterfalls, and to the heavy snow in winter, which sounds like tiny pieces of jade fling on the ground.
🎈这句话的主语是“竹楼”,翻译时要补出,译作“the bamboo pavilion”。
🎈“夏宜急雨”是因为“有瀑布声”,意即“在竹楼上可以听到瀑布一样的雨声”;“冬宜密雪”是因为“有碎玉声”,意即“在竹楼上可以听到碎石一样的雪声”。译文将两个原因都译作了定语从句,要学习这种方法。

宜鼓琴,琴调和畅;宜咏诗,诗韵清绝;
It is also an ideal place to play the qin, for its tune is soft and melodious. The same is true of reciting poems, for the chanting carries an extremely graceful appeal.
🎈“宜鼓琴”是说“这里适宜弹琴”,衔接上文,以“it”作主语,将“宜”译作了“an ideal place”。
🎈在“宜鼓琴,琴调和畅”中,后一小句是前一小句的原因,用for引导了原因状语从句。
🎈…亦是如此the same is true
🎈chanting是「诵经/诵唱」之意。

宜围棋,子声丁丁然;宜投壶,矢声铮铮然;
So are the games of chess playing and arrow throwing, for the former makes a “ding, ding” sound as the chess pieces touch the chessboard and the latter makes a “zheng, zheng” sound as the thuds of the arrows drop into the pot. 
🎈文言词汇:“丁丁”:形容棋子敲击棋盘时发出的清脆悠远之声。“投壶”:古人宴饮时的一种游戏。以矢投壶中,投中次数多者为胜。胜者斟酒使败者饮。
🎈在for引导的原因状语从句中,第一个as是“正如/如同”之意,译出了原文的比喻,第二个是“当…时”之意。 

皆竹楼之所助也。
For all the pleasant sounds mentioned above, credit should be given to the bamboo pavilion.
🎈这句话的意思是“这些都是竹楼所促成的”,翻译时要对“这些”具体化,指的是上文的各种声音,“所助”译成了“credit should be given to”,是“归功于”之意,除此之外在《梓人传》中也有相关的表达,原文和译文如下:
后之人循迹而慕曰:「彼相之才也。」
The future generations will follow their forefathers and say respectfully, “This is due to the ability of the Prime Minister!”

 

公退之暇,披鹤氅衣,戴华阳中,手执《周易》一卷,焚香默坐,消遭世虑。
Every day in my leisure time after work I would put on a gown made of birds’ feathers and a cap worn by the Taoist priest. With incense burning by my side and a copy of Yi Jing (The Book of Changes) in hand, I would sit in silence and forget all worldly affairs.
🎈文言词汇:“公退”:办完公事,退下休息。“鹤氅”衣:用鸟羽制的披风。“华阳巾”:道士所戴的头巾。
🎈这句话中有“披”“戴”“执”“焚”“坐”“消”多个动词,翻译时首先进行断句,在“戴华阳中”处断句,用了“put on”一个动词带了两个宾语,翻译出了“披”和“戴”两个动词。在后文中,选用“sit”和“forget”为谓语,其余动词处理成了介词短语,做了次要结构。
🎈《易经》The Book of Changes
🎈摆脱世俗灾难forget all worldly affairs

 

江山之外,第见风帆沙鸟,烟云竹树而已。
Within my field of vision besides the mountains and the river, there are nothing but sailing boats, shorebirds, mists, clouds, and stands of bamboo.
🎈“江山之外”译作了“Within my field of vision besides the mountains and the river”,意为“山水之外,我目光所能及之内”。
🎈“第见”是“只见”之意,译作了“there are nothing but”。
🎈🍒“mist”释义为“a cloud of very small drops of water in the air just above the ground, that make it difficult to see 薄雾;水汽”
例句
The hills were shrouded in mist. 
这些小山被笼罩在薄雾之中。

 

待其酒力醒,茶烟歇,送夕阳,迎素月,亦谪居之胜概也。
When I sober up, the fire lit for making tea has gone out. I send the setting sun off and welcome the bright moon. There is pleasure in being in exile!
🎈文言词汇:“胜概”:美好的生活状况。“胜”,美好的。“概”,状况,此指生活状况。
🎈酒醒sober up
🎈(火光)熄灭go out
🎈“素月”是指“皓月”,译作“the bright moon”

 

彼齐云,落星,高则高矣,井幹,丽谯,华则华矣。
The Qiyun Pavilions and the Luoxing Pavilion were lofty indeed. The Jinghan Pavilion and the Liqiao Pavilion were grandiose indeed.
🎈indeed在这里起强调作用。
🎈“grandiose”释义为“seeming very impressive but too large, complicated, expensive, etc. to be practical or possible 
华而不实的;浮夸的;不切实际的
例句
The grandiose scheme for a journey across the desert came to nothing. 
不切实际的穿越沙漠计划已成泡影。

 

止于贮妓女,藏歌舞,非骚人之事,吾所不取。
But they were built to keep courtesans and dancers. Men of letters do not like them and I disdain them.
🎈上文的“齐云,落星,井幹,丽谯”都是古代名楼。
🎈妓女courtesan;舞女dancer
🎈“骚人”指的是“风雅之士”,译作“men of letters”,除此之外还可译作erudite scholars /learned scholars/scholars。

 

吾闻竹工云:“竹之为瓦,仅十稔,若重覆之,得二十稔。”
I have heard from workers that one layer of the bamboo tiles lasts ten years and two layers of the bamboo tiles last twenty years.
🎈文言词汇:“稔”:谷子一熟叫作一稔,引申指一年。

 

噫!吾以至道乙未岁,自翰林出滁上,丙申移广陵,丁西又入西掖。
Alas! I was demoted from the position of hanlin and exiled to Chuzhou in the first year of Zhidao. In the following year I was transferred to Guangling. In the third year I was appointed as a member of Xiye.
🎈“至道”“丙申”和“丁西”都是年号名,翻译时如果全部音译会让读者没有时间概念,因此要体现出三者的关系。
🎈被降职be demoted
🎈被任命为be appointed as/be assigned as/ be promoted to be

戊戌岁除日,有齐安之命,已亥闰三月到郡。
On New Year’s Eve in the first year of Xianping I was assigned to be the prefectural governor of Huangzhou. In the leap month of March in the following year I arrived at my post.
🎈文言词汇:“戊戌岁除日”:戊戌年除夕。戊戌,998年(宋真宗咸平元年)。“齐安”:黄州。
🎈prefectural governor是“刺史”之意,相当于州长。

 

四年之间,奔走不暇,未知明年又在何处,岂俱竹楼之易朽乎!
In the past four years I moved non-stop from one place to another. I don’t know where I will be next year. Why should I worry about the Bamboo Pavilion?
🎈non-stop为副词,意为不停歇地。
🍒“岂俱竹楼之易朽乎”意为“我难道还怕竹楼容易败坏吗”,译作“Why should I worry about the Bamboo Pavilion”。

 

幸后之人与我同志,嗣而葺之,庶斯楼之不朽也!
If my successors are of the same mind as I, they will renovate it from time to time. Then the Bamboo Pavilion might survive.
🎈文言词汇:“志”:志趣。“嗣”,接续、继承。“葺”,修整。“庶”:表示期待或可能。
🎈翻新/修缮renovate
🎈might在这里表推测。
🎈继续存在survive/ sustain
🔥重点词汇
profuse    adj. 大量的;众多的;丰富的
英义
后者释义为produced in large amounts
例句
Then the policeman recognized me, breaking into profuse apologies. 
然后警察认出了我,开始一再道歉。
 
mist     n. 薄雾;水汽
英义
a cloud of very small drops of water in the air just above the ground, that make it difficult to see”
例句
The hills were shrouded in mist. 
这些小山被笼罩在薄雾之中。
 
grandiose     adj.华而不实的;浮夸的;不切实际的
英义
seeming very impressive but too large, complicated, expensive, etc. to be practical or possible”
例句
The grandiose scheme for a journey across the desert came to nothing. 
不切实际的穿越沙漠计划已成泡影。
 
incense    n. 香(尤指宗教礼仪用的)
英义
a substance that produces a pleasant smell when you burn it, used particularly in religious ceremonies 
例句
The air was sweet with incense. 
空气中弥漫着燃香的香气。
🔥重点表达
盛产abound with
砍掉chop off
用…代替…substitute … with/by …;replace … with/by …
矮护墙parapet
毗连/临接adjoin
尽收眼底gives a panoramic view of
…亦是如此the same is true
归功于credit should be given to/due to 
《易经》The Book of Changes
摆脱世俗灾难forget all worldly affairs
酒醒sober up
(火光)熄灭go out
风雅之士men of letters/erudite scholars /learned scholars/scholars。
被降职be demoted
被任命为be appointed as/be assigned as/ be promoted to be
刺史prefectural governor
翻新/修缮renovate
🔥表达对比
忘却烦恼有几种表达方式?
1. 公退之暇,披鹤氅衣,戴华阳中,手执《周易》一卷,焚香默坐,(消遭世虑)。
Every day in my leisure time after work I would put on a gown made of birds’ feathers and a cap worn by the Taoist priest. With incense burning by my side and a copy of Yi Jing (The Book of Changes) in hand, I would sit in silence and forget all worldly affairs.
 
2. 柯灵《巷》
只是一片澄明如水的气氛,净化一切,笼罩一切,(使人忘忧)。
The all-pervading and all-purifying atmosphere of water-like placidness makes one forget all cares and worries.
 
3. 他帮助她(摆脱烦恼)。
He helped disencumber her of her worries.
 
4. 练瑜伽是一种(摆脱压力和烦恼),寻找内心平和的一种很好的方式。
Practicing yoga is a good way for you to get rid of your stress and worries and find some inner peace.

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