欧阳修《醉翁亭记》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

朗读这篇文章

醉翁亭记

欧阳修

THE PAVILION OF THE DRUNKEN OLD MAN

OUYANG XIU

《醉翁亭记》写得格调清丽,富有诗情画意。这篇散文写了两部分内容:第一部分,重点是写亭;第二部分,重点是写游。而贯穿全篇的却是一个「乐」字。文中描写滁州山间的朝暮变化和四时景色,以及作者和滁人的游乐,表现出他「乐民之乐」的胸怀,充满了士大夫悠闲自适的情调,并从侧面显示了作者自己治理滁州的政绩。


 

环滁皆山也。

Chuzhou is surrounded with mountains.

🎈被包围be surrounded with/by


 

其西南诸峰,林壑尤美,望之蔚然而深秀者,琅琊也。

The forests and valleys on the southwest ridge are especially beautiful. Lying in the distance, where the trees grow luxuriantly and gracefully, is the Langya Mountain.

🎈「其西南诸峰,林壑尤美」是说「西南诸峰」上的「林壑」尤其美丽,主语应是「forests and valleys」

🍒「蔚然而深秀者,琅琊也」意思是「树木茂盛,又幽深又秀丽的,是琅琊山。」「蔚然」:草木茂盛的样子。


 

山行六七里,渐闻水声潺潺,而泻出于两峰之间者,酿泉也。

Six or seven li up the mountain path, a gurgling sound grows clearer and clearer. It is from a spring that falls between two mountains. The spring is called the Wine Making Spring.

🎈「山行六七里」意思是「沿着山路走六七里」,在句中属于次要结构,处理做了名词结构作状语。

🎈「水声潺潺」译作了「a gurgling sound」,除此之外在《丰乐亭记》中有关「淙淙/潺潺」也有相关的表达,原文和译文如下:

既得斯泉于山谷之间,乃日与滁人仰而望山,俯而听(泉)。

Since I had found this clear spring, I used to come here with the people of Chuzhou. We would look up at the mountain and look down to listen to (the murmuring of the spring).

 


峰回路转,有亭翼然临于泉上者,醉翁亭也。

The path turns and twists along the mountain ridge, and above the spring rests a pavilion perching aloft like a bird with wings outstretched. This is the Pavilion of the Drunken Old Man.

🎈「翼然」:像鸟张开翅膀一样。译文将比喻意义保留,译作了「perching aloft like a bird with wings outstretched」,其中「perch」原意指鸟栖息在树枝上,还可用于(某人)坐在…/(某物)置于…

🎈翻译和地点有关的信息时常将和位置相关的介词短语放句首,句子用倒装句,如这句话中的「above the spring rests a pavilion…」


 

作亭者谁?山之僧智仙也。

Who built this pavilion? Monk Zhixian, who lived in the mountain.

🎈「作」:建造。

🎈前一句问的是「who」,后一句用名词来回答,「山之」这个信息处理在了定语从句中。


 

名之者谁?太守自谓也。

And who furnished it with that name? It was the prefect, who named it after his own alias.

🎈文言词汇:「名」:名词作动词,命名。「自谓」:自称,用自己的别号来命名。

🎈「furnish sb/sth with」相当于「to supply or provide sb/sth with sth」

🎈太守prefect

🎈给…命名name sb/sth (after sb)

🎈「alias」是「化名/别名」之意。


 

太守与客来饮于此,饮少辄醉,而年又最高,故自号曰醉翁也。

The prefect often comes here to drink wine with his friends and he easily gets tipsy after a few cups. Being oldest in age among his companions, he calls himself 「the drunken old man」.

🎈「饮少辄醉」意思是「只喝一点儿就醉了」,意在讲太守已醉,译作了「he easily gets tipsy after a few cups」。其中「tipsy」释义为「slightly drunk 微醉的;略有醉意的」,例句如下:

He is a bit tipsy.

他已经有几分醉意了。


 

醉翁之意不在酒,在乎山水之间也。

The drinker’s heart is not in the cup, but in the mountains and waters.

🎈「意」意思是情趣/兴致,译作了「heart」,还可译作「interest」

 


山水之乐,得之心而寓之酒也。

The joy he gets from them is treasured in the heart, and now and then he will express it through wine-drinking.

🎈文言词汇:「得」:领会。「寓」:寄托。

🎈「山水」在上一句末刚刚提到,所以此处用了代词「them」指代,避免重复。


 

若夫日出而林霏开,云归而岩穴暝,晦明变化者,山间之朝暮也。

In the morning, the rising sun disperses the forest mists, and in the evening, the gathering clouds darken the caves and valleys. This shifting from light to darkness is morning and evening in the mountains.

🎈文言词汇:「林霏」:树林中的雾气。「霏」,原指雨、雾纷飞,此处指雾气。「开」:消散,散开。「归」:聚拢。「暝」:昏暗。「晦明」:指天气阴晴明暗。

🎈在「日出而林霏开」这一小句中,「日出」与「林霏开」之间有因果关系,可用「无灵主语+有灵谓语」结构,译作了「the rising sun disperses the forest mists」,简洁地道。其中「disperse

释义为「to move apart and go away in different directions; to make sb/sth do this (使)分散,散开;疏散;驱散」,例句如下:

Police used tear gas to disperse the crowds.

警察使用催泪瓦斯驱散人群。


 

野芳发而幽香,佳木秀而繁阴,风霜高洁,水落而石出者,山间之四时也。

In spring, blooming flowers send forth a delicate fragrance; in summer, the flourishing trees afford deep shades; in autumn, the sky is high and crisp, and the frost, snowy white; in winter, the water of the creek recedes and the bare bedrock emerges. These are the mountain scenes in the four seasons.

🎈由「山间之四时也」可知这句话描绘的是山中四季之景,所以要将前文的内容与具体四个季节对应,分别补出春夏秋冬四个季节。

🎈香味/芬芳fragrance

🎈「风霜高洁」就是风高霜洁之意,天高气爽,霜色洁白。「天高气爽」译作了「sky is high and crisp」,其中「crisp」是「pleasantly dry and cold 凉爽的;清新的;干燥寒冷让人舒畅的」之意,属于熟词生义,注意表达积累。

🎈「山间之四时也」翻译时要进行具体化,指的是「山间四季的景色」,否则译文就有中式英语之嫌。


 

朝而往,暮而归,四时之景不同,而乐亦无穷也。

Going to the mountain in the morning and returning home in the evening and enjoying the beauties of the mountain in different seasons is a delight beyond description!

🎈「往」是前往山中去,「归」是从山中归来,这个地点要译出。

🎈结构分析:作者「乐」在「朝而往,暮而归,赏四时之景」这件事中,这件事是一件乐事「delight」,而且乐趣无穷。


 

至于负者歌于途,行者休于树,前者呼,后者应,

Carriers are singing all along the way, and pedestrians are taking a rest beneath the trees. Some are shouting from the fore and are answered by others from behind.

🎈行人pedestrian

🎈「前者呼,后者应」这两个小句有两个不同的主语。这是中文的特色,英文句中要保持主语一致,所以译文的后半句用了被动语态。

🎈与「fore」相关的表达:

be/come to the fore变得重要(或突出);起重要作用

bring sth to the fore使处于显要地位;使突出


 

伛偻提携,往来而不绝者,滁人游也。

There are hunchbacked old folks, and children led by their elders. They are people from Chuzhou who have come here in an endless stream.

🎈文言词汇:「伛偻」:腰弯背曲的样子,这里指老年人。「提携」:指搀扶着走的小孩子。

🎈「伛偻提携」译作了「hunchbacked old folks, and children led by their elders」不仅译出了原文的指代义,还增加定语描绘出他们神态动作,增添了译文的光彩。

🎈络绎不绝in an endless stream


 

临溪而渔,溪深而鱼肥。

Some are fishing by the creek where the water is deep and the fish are big.

🎈「溪深而鱼肥」处理做了where引导的定语从句,与前一小句衔接,层次清晰。


 

酿泉为酒,泉香而酒洌;山肴野蔌,杂然而前陈者,太守宴也。

The water itself is faintly scented and the wine brewed from it is crystal clear. Upon the prefect’s banquet table is a sundry layer of dishes, including the meat of wild beasts and the flavorings of edible mountain herbs.

🎈文言词汇:「洌」:水(酒)清。「山肴」:野味。「野蔌」:野菜。「杂然」:众多而杂乱的样子。陈:摆放,摆设。

🎈「brew」是「酿制」之意。

🎈野味the meat of wild beasts


 

宴酣之乐,非丝非竹,射者中,弈者胜,

The joy of the feast lies not in the musical accompaniment of strings or flutes, but in winning the games, such as throwing arrows into the vessel, or chess playing.

🎈文言词汇:「非丝非竹」:不在于琴弦管箫。「射」:这里指投壶,宴饮时的一种游戏,把箭向壶里投,投中多的为胜,负者照规定的杯数喝酒。「弈」:下棋。这里用做动词,下围棋。

🎈在于lie in

🎈strings弦乐器;flute长笛


 

觥筹交错,起坐而喧哗者,众宾欢也。

Wine cups and gambling chips lay scattered in blithe disarray. The revelers, now sitting, now standing, cavort madly among themselves.

🎈文言词汇:「觥」:酒杯。「筹」:酒筹,用来计算饮酒数量的筹子,译作「gambling chip」

🎈「reveler」是「欢宴者/狂欢者」之意。

🎈now…now…时而…时而…

🎈「cavort」释义为「to jump or move around in a noisy, excited and often sexual way 欢跃;欢蹦乱跳;嬉戏;放荡地玩乐」,例句如下:

You can enjoy a quick snack while your children cavort in the sand.

当孩子们在沙子里嬉闹时,你就能快快享用一份小吃了。


 

苍颜白发,颓然乎其间者,太守醉也。

These are the prefect’s guests, and the old man with a wizened face and white hair among them, who is half drunk, is none other than the prefect himself.

🎈文言词汇:「颓然」,原意是精神不振的样子,这里形容醉态。

🎈上句描述的是宴会上的宾客,这句话中的「其间」指的也是「众宾客之中」,所以这句话先将「其」还原为「prefect’s guests」,实现了与上文更好的衔接。

🎈这句话原文是个判断句,这要结构是「…者,太守也」。原文的「苍颜白发」、「颓然」、「醉」都是对太守的修饰词,翻译时要处理成不同的结构。

🎈「wizened」释义为「looking smaller and having many folds and lines in the skin, because of being old (由于年老)干瘪的,多皱的,干枯的」,例句如下:

That wizened and grotesque little old man is a notorious miser.

那个干瘪难看的小老头是个臭名远扬的吝啬鬼。

🎈不是…正是none other than


 

已而夕阳在山,人影散乱,太守归而宾客从也。

As dusk falls, one sees shifting shadows scattering in all directions. The prefect is leaving for home, and his guests are following him.

🎈「人影散乱」也就是说人们的影子在夕阳下向各个方向散开,译作了「shifting shadows scattering in all directions」

🎈 leave for动身去


 

树林阴翳,鸣声上下,游人去而禽鸟乐也。

The shadows of the trees are deepening, and birds are chirping high and low. The people are going home, leaving the birds free to enjoy themselves.

🎈(鸟儿)啁啾chirp

🎈「leaving the birds free to enjoy themselves」的逻辑主语是「the people」,分词短语作状语。


 

然而禽鸟知山林之乐,而不知人之乐;人知从太守游而乐,而不知太守之乐其乐也。

The birds only know their joy in the wooded mountains, but are unaware of what makes the people joyful. The people only know that they are joyful on their excursion with the prefect, but are unaware that the prefect finds his joy in seeing them joyful.

🎈分词前后原文的结构相同,译文也采用了相同的结构,翻译相同结构时要注意译文的对称性。

🎈「excursion」释义为「a short journey made for pleasure, especially one that has been organized for a group of people (尤指集体)远足,短途旅行」,例句如下:

They’ve gone on an excursion to York.

他们到约克旅游去了。


 

醉能同其乐,醒能述以文者,太守也。

He, who enjoys himself with the people when drunk, and records this excursion in writing when sober, is the prefect himself.

🎈这句话也是一个判断句,译文将「醉能同其乐,醒能述以文」处理做了插入语,使得译文层次清晰,而且具有英文的节奏感。

🎈「述以文」中「述」的是与众人出游一事,「excursion」,译文中要体现出来。


 

太守谓谁?庐陵欧阳修也。

And who is the prefect? He is Ouyang Xiu of Luling.

🎈「谓」:为,是。

🔥重点词汇

perch     v.栖息;停留

英义

( of a bird 鸟 ) to land and stay on a branch, etc.

例句

A robin was perching on the fence.

一只知更鸟落在篱笆上。

 

tipsy     adj.微醉的;略有醉意的

英义

slightly drunk

例句

He is a bit tipsy.

他已经有几分醉意了。

 

disperse      v.(使)分散,散开;疏散;驱散

英义

to move apart and go away in different directions; to make sb/sth do this

例句

Police used tear gas to disperse the crowds.

警察使用催泪瓦斯驱散人群。

 

crisp    adj.凉爽的;清新的;干燥寒冷让人舒畅的

英义

pleasantly dry and cold

例句

The air was crisp and clear and the sky was blue.

空气清新,天空碧蓝。

 

brew     v.酿制(啤酒)

英义

to make beer

例句

The beer is brewed in the Czech Republic.

这种啤酒是在捷克共和国酿造的。

 

blithe      adj.不在意的;漫不经心的

英义

( disapproving ) showing you do not care or are not anxious about what you are doing

例句

He drove with blithe disregard for the rules of the road.

他开车时全然不顾交通法规。

 

cavort     v.欢跃;欢蹦乱跳;嬉戏;放荡地玩乐

英义

to jump or move around in a noisy, excited and often sexual way

例句

You can enjoy a quick snack while your children cavort in the sand.

当孩子们在沙子里嬉闹时,你就能快快享用一份小吃了。

 

wizened      adj.(由于年老)干瘪的,多皱的,干枯的

英义

looking smaller and having many folds and lines in the skin, because of being old

例句

That wizened and grotesque little old man is a notorious miser.

那个干瘪难看的小老头是个臭名远扬的吝啬鬼。

 

excursion    n.(尤指集体)远足,短途旅行

英义

a short journey made for pleasure, especially one that has been organized for a group of people」

例句

They’ve gone on an excursion to York.

他们到约克旅游去了。

🔥重点表达

提供furnish /supply/provide sb/sth with sth」。

太守prefect

给…命名name sb/sth (after sb)

香味/芬芳fragrance

行人pedestrian

变得重要(或突出);起重要作用be/come to the fore

使处于显要地位;使突出bring sth to the fore

络绎不绝in an endless stream

野味the meat of wild beasts

在于lie in

欢宴者/狂欢者reveler

时而…时而…now…now…

不是…正是none other than

leave for动身去

(鸟儿)啁啾chirp

🔥表达对比

无穷/无尽有几种表达方式?

 

1.朝而往,暮而归,四时之景不同,而乐亦(无穷)也。

Going to the mountain in the morning and returning home in the evening and enjoying the beauties of the mountain in different seasons is a delight beyond description.

 

2.伛偻提携,往来而(不绝)者,滁人游也。

There are hunchbacked old folks, and children led by their elders. They are people from Chuzhou who have come here in an endless stream.

 

3.在1933年间,巴本的办公室接到的投诉案件(层出不穷)。

During 1933, Papen’s office was deluged with complaints.

 

4.随着经济的复苏,对于有抱负的领导者来说,机会(无所不在)。

As the economy pick up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 欧阳修《醉翁亭记》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

赞 (0)