《潍县寄舍弟墨第三书》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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潍县寄舍弟墨第三书

Third Letter To Brother Mo, From Weihsien
富贵人家延师傅教子弟,至勤至切,而立学有成者,多出于附从贫贱之家,而已之子弟不与焉。不数年间,变富贵为贫贱:有寄人门下者、有饿莩乞丐者。或仅守厥家,不失温饱,而目不识丁。或百中之一亦有发达者,其为文章,必不能沉着痛快,刻骨镂心,为世所传诵。岂非富贵足以愚人,而贫贱足以立志而浚慧乎!我虽微官,吾儿便是富贵子弟,其成其败,吾已置之不论;但得附从佳子弟有成,亦吾所大愿也。至于延师傅,待同学,不可不慎。吾儿六岁,年最小,其同学长者当称为某先生,次亦称为某兄,不得直呼其名。纸笔墨砚,吾家所有,宜不时散给诸众同学。每见贫家之子,寡妇之儿,求十数钱,买川连纸钉仿字簿,而十日不得者,当察其故而无意中与之。至阴雨不能即归,辄留饭;薄暮,以旧鞋与穿而去。彼父母之爱子,虽无佳好衣服,必制新鞋袜来上学堂,一遭泥泞,复制为难矣。夫择师为难,敬师为要。择师不得不审,既择定矣,便当尊之敬之,何得复寻其短?吾人一涉宦途,既不能自课其子弟。其所延师,不过一方之秀,未必海内名流。或暗笔其非,或明指其误,为师者既不自安,而教法不能尽心;子弟复持藐忽心而不力于学,此最是受病处。不如就师之所长,且训吾子弟不逮。如必不可从,少待来年,更请他师;而年内之礼节尊崇,必不可废。 
 
🎈背景知识:本文选自《板桥家书》。郑燮(1693~1765),字克柔,号板桥,江苏兴化人,清朝书法家、文学家。潍县署,当时郑燮供职于此。潍县,今属山东省。舍弟,称自己的弟弟。名燮,别名郑板桥。汉族,康熙秀才、雍正举人、乾隆元年进士。“扬州八怪”之一。历官河南范县、山东潍县知县,有惠政。以请臻饥民忤大吏,乞疾归。诗书画均旷世独立,人称三绝。有《板桥全集》。郑板桥所做家书十分有名,在治家、做人、处事等方面均有极大成就。
 

富贵人家延师傅教子弟,至勤至切,而立学有成者,多出于附从贫贱之家,而己之子弟不与焉。
The wealthy families usually do their best to secure the best teachers for their children, but the successful scholars usually are the poor children who are invited to study at their schools, and not from their own children.
🎈“延”聘请;邀请:~聘。~师。~医。~至其家。
🎈富贵人家聘请老师教育孩子,最诚挚最恳切,但是学业有成的,多数从跟从学习的贫贱家庭的孩子中产生,而自己家的孩子不在其中。
🎈secure the best teachers,secure作动词,努力争取。

 
不数年间,变富贵为贫贱:有寄人门下者,有饿莩乞丐者。或仅守厥家,不失温饱,而目不识丁。
In a few years, the wealthy families go down; some depend upon others for a living; some become beggars, and some are barely able to carry on without fear of want, but are illiterate.
🎈没过几年,由富贵变得贫贱:有寄人篱下的,有饿死的和乞讨度日的。有的仅仅守住他的家业,不失去温饱,但是目不识丁。
🎈目不识丁,意思是连最普通的“丁”字也不认识。形容一个字也不认得。出自《旧唐书·张弘靖传》

 
或百中之一亦有发达者,其为文章,必不能沉著痛快,刻骨镂心,为世所传诵。
Sometimes one out of a hundred such rich children will become a successful scholar, but his writings will lack depth and true feelings and not leave much impression on the minds of the readers, or live in posterity.
🎈或许一百个中也有一个发达的,他们写文章,一定不能够坚劲而流利,遒劲而酣畅,铭刻在人心灵深处,被世人所传诵。
🎈刻骨镂心,意思是形容记忆深刻,永远不忘。出自唐·李白《上安州李长史书》
🎈此段可积累下来,用于文学评判。比如,文章具有深度,流露真情实感,另读者印象深刻,为世人传诵。

 
岂非富贵足以愚人,而贫贱足以立志而浚慧乎!
Is it not true therefore that wealth can make a man stupid and poverty can strengthen a man’s ambition and enlighten his mind?
🎈难道不是富贵足以使人愚笨,贫贱足以使人树立志向疏通智慧吗?
🎈“浚”疏通,“立志浚慧”使人雄心壮志,变得聪慧strengthen a man’s ambition and enlighten his mind。
 

我虽微官,吾儿便是富贵子弟,其成其败,吾已置之不论;但得附从佳子弟有成,亦吾所大愿也。
Although I am a humble official, my son may be already considered heir of an official family. I do not know whether he will make good or fail, but if the children who are studying with him in our home can become successful, I shall be quite happy and contented. 
🎈我虽然只是一个小官,我的儿子也算是富贵人家的孩子,他的成败,我已放在一边不做谈论;只是能够让跟从学习的品学优秀的的孩子有所成就,也算是我最大的心愿。
🎈成败make good or fail/ be successful or not

 
至于延师傅,待同学,不可不慎。
We should be most careful in regard to his relationships with his teacher and schoolmates.
🎈至于如何聘请老师,对待同学,不可不慎重。
🎈“至于”in regard to/in terms of/regarding/as for/when it comes to
 

吾儿六岁,年最小,其同学长者当称为某先生,次亦称为某兄,不得直呼其名。
My son is only six and is the youngest at school. The eldest among his schoolmates should be addressed as hsiensheng, and the next eldest should be addressed as“elder brothers”. He should not be permitted to call them directly by their names.
🎈我的儿子现在六岁,在同学中年龄最小,对同学中年龄较大的当教他称某先生,稍小一点的也要称为某兄,不得直呼其名。
🎈先生,字面的意思表示出生比自己早,年龄比自己大的人;另有先接触陌生的事物的意思,引申为先接触陌生事物的人。因此古代称别人先生有向别人学习的意思,正所谓“达者为先,师者之意”。

 
纸笔墨砚,吾家所有,宜不时散给诸众同学。
We have plenty of writing brushes and ink and paper at our home and should distribute them to the school children. 
🎈笔墨纸砚一类文具,只要我家所有,便应不时分发给别的同学。
🎈不时,意思为有的时候会,有的时候不会,或时时、经常的意思。

 
每见贫家之子,寡妇之儿,求十数钱,买川连纸钉仿字簿,而十日不得者,当察其故而无意中与之。
I have often observed how a son of a poor widow tried for ten days to get money for buying writing paper to make a writing pad and failed. We should keep an eye on such a boy and give it to him casually.
🎈每当看到贫寒家庭或寡妇的子弟,索要十几个钱,用来买川连纸钉做写字本,十天都没能做到的,应当仔细观察这件事的缘故并在他们不知道的情况下帮助他们。
🎈for ten days to get money for buying writing paper to make a writing pad and failed, 介词for和不定式表目的。

 
至阴雨不能即归,辄留饭;薄暮,以旧鞋与穿而去。
And when it rains, and a poor boy is not able to go home, we should ask him to stay for supper, and at dusk send him home with an old pair of shoes. 
🎈如果遇到雨天不能马上回家,就挽留他们吃饭;如果已到傍晚,要把家中旧鞋拿出来让他们穿上回家。
🎈辄,文言副词。就;总是: 浅尝~止。 动~得咎。

 
彼父母之爱子,虽无佳好衣服,必制新鞋袜来上学堂,一遭泥泞,复制为难矣。
His parents love him, and though they may not be able to make good clothes for him, they generally provide a good pair of shoes and socks for him to come to school. Once that pair gets wet with mud, it will be difficult for them to get another pair.
🎈因为他们的父母疼爱孩子,虽然穿不起好衣服,但一定做了新鞋新袜让他们穿上上学,遇到雨天,道路泥泞不堪,鞋袜弄脏,再做新的就非常困难了。选择老师比较困难,而尊敬老师则更加重要。
🎈once adv. 一次;每一次;每隔…一次;曾经conj. 一…就 作副词,例句如下,I met Wilma once, briefly…我曾经和威尔玛有过短短的一面之缘。Once在文章作连词。

 
夫择师为难,敬师为要。择师不得不审,既择定矣,便当尊之敬之,何得复寻其短?
It is difficult to get a good teacher, but it is more important to respect him. One should be careful in selecting a teacher for the school, but once he is chosen, he must be treated with due respect and not found fault with. 
🎈选择老师不能不审慎,一旦确定了,就应当尊敬他,怎么能再挑他的毛病呢?
🎈“寻其短”寻人短处,挑毛病,find fault with/carp about/be picky/be critical
🎈be treated with due respect,due,应当的,be due to,Our thanks are due to the whole team.我们要向全队致谢。

 
吾人一涉宦途,既不能自课其子弟。
Once in officialdom, it is impossible for us to stay at home to coach the children.
🎈像我们这些人,一进官场,就不能亲自教授自己的孩子读书。
🎈officialdom官场,官僚作风。Officialdom has been against us from the start. 大小官僚从一开始就是我们的阻碍。

 
其所延师,不过一方之秀,未必海内名流。
The teacher one invites is usually just a better scholar of the village, but by no means a famous writer. 
🎈为孩子聘请的老师,不过是某一地方的优秀人才,未必是国内知名人士。
🎈by no means 绝不,一点也不;并不;决不
This proposal is by no means a sure thing.
这个提议绝不会理所当然地获得通过。

 
或暗笔其非,或明指其误,为师者既不自安,而教法不能尽心;子弟复持藐忽心而不力于学,此最是受病处。
It is easy to laugh secretly at his mistakes or openly point out his errors. The teacher will become ill at ease and will not be able to devote his mind to teaching, while the pupils will lose respect for him and not work hard at their lessons. This would be a matter of regret.
🎈如果学生有的暗中书写老师的过错,有的当众指责老师所讲有错误,这样会使老师内心惶惶不安,自然不会尽心尽力地教育学生;孩子们如果再有蔑视老师的想法而不努力学习,这就是最令人头痛的事了。
🎈“不自安”不自在,be not ease with 

 
不如就师之所长,且训吾子弟不逮。如必不可从,少待来年,更请他师;而年内之礼节尊崇,必不可废。
It would be far better to make use of what the teacher excels in and make the pupils profit by it. If he is really not qualified, we should wait till the next year and employ another teacher, but meanwhile there should be no decrease in our courtesy toward him.
🎈与其如此,不如以老师的长处,姑且来教育弥补孩子们的不足。如果是一定不能让孩子跟从学习的老师,也要稍作等待,到来年再聘请别的老师;而在老师任期之内的一切礼节待遇,一定不可随意废弃。
🎈不逮,不足之处;过错。《书·冏命》:“懋乃后德,交修不逮。”孔 传:“勉汝君为德,更代修进其所不及。”
🎈少,暂时;稍微:~候。~待。
 
🔥重点词汇
illiterate
adj. 目不识丁的,文盲的
n. 目不识丁者;文盲;无知
例句
It was an illiterate letter, full of mistakes.
这封信文笔拙劣,错误连篇。
 
enlighten
v. 启发,教化;阐明
例句
She didn’t enlighten him about her background.
她未向他讲明自己的出身背景。
 
contented
adj. 满意的,满足的
v. 使满足(content的过去式和过去分词)
例句
I felt warm, cosy, and contented.
我感到暖和﹑舒适和满意。
 
officialdom
n. 官场,官僚作风
例句
During the Norman Conquest British officialdom took on French as their official language.
诺曼人征服英国期间,英国官场采用法语作为官方语言.
 
courtesy
n. 礼貌;客气话;尊称
adj. (服务)免费的;礼节性的
例句
photographs supplied courtesy of Blenheim Palace
承蒙布莱尼姆宫提供的照片
 
🔥重点表达
有寄人门下者,有饿莩乞丐者
some depend upon others for a living; some become beggars
沉著痛快,刻骨镂心,为世所传诵 
leave much impression on the minds of the readers, and live in posterity
纸笔墨砚 writing brushes and ink and paper
夫择师为难,敬师为要
It is difficult to get a good teacher, but it is more important to respect him. 
不如就师之所长,且训吾子弟不逮
It would be far better to make use of what the teacher excels in and make the pupils profit by it. 
 
🔥表达对比
「师傅」对比表达
有时指teacher, 有时只是对某个行业从业者的敬称,比如的士司机、油漆工、维修工人
 
富贵人家延师傅教子弟。
The wealthy families usually do their best to secure the best teachers for their children.
 
他的职业是油漆匠和装潢师傅。
He works as a painter and decorator.
 
王师傅主修这台磨床.
Master Worker Wang is responsible for the overhaul of this grinder.
 
他是我的入门师傅.
He is the master who initiated me into the craft.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《潍县寄舍弟墨第三书》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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