《Recording an earthquake 记录地震》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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Recording an earthquake

记录地震

 
An earthquake comes like a thief in the night, without warning.
地震就像夜间的小偷,不打招呼就来了。
🎈不知不觉地,偷偷摸摸地like a thief in the night 
例句
The years, like a thief in the night, have stolen what you were.
岁月流逝,我们都不知不觉地发生了改变。
🎈(贬义)突然,突如其来地without warning
例句
He blazed up without warning.
他突然就发脾气。

 
It was necessary, therefore, to invent instruments that neither slumbered nor slept.
因此,有必要发明一种仪器,既不打盹儿,也不睡觉。
🎈如果句子强调因果关系,需把therefore置于句首,而此句强调的是句子主干,把however放在了句中。
🎈instrument 1. 乐器 2. 仪器,设备
instrument是[C],apparatus是[U]
🎈slumber v. (fml.) 睡眠(尤指睡得安稳而舒服)sleep, esp. peacefully and comfortably 
例句
The baby was slumbering peacefully.
这个婴儿睡得很香甜。

 
Some devices were quite simple. One, for instance, consisted of rods of various lengths and thicknesses which would stand up on end like ninepins.
有些装置非常简单。例如,有一种装置是由一些长短、粗细不同的木棒组成,就像九柱戏的木棒一样竖立着。
🎈devices是instruments的同义替换。
🎈on end 
1. upright 直立,竖着 
2. continuously 连续地
例句
He placed the box on end and sat on it. 
他把箱子竖放起来,坐了上去。
They argued for two hours on end.
他们连续争吵了2个小时。
🎈ninepins n. [U] 九柱戏
a game in which you roll a ball at nine bottle-shaped objects to try to hit them so that they fall 

 
When a shock came, it shook the rigid table upon which these stood. If it were gentle, only the more unstable rods fell. If it were severe, they all fell.
一旦有地震,就会震动竖立在坚硬的桌上的木棒。如果地震轻微,只有不稳定的木棒倒下;如果地震剧烈,它们都会倒下。
🎈If it were…fell是虚拟语气,表示假设。我们知道If + S. + did / were … , S. + would / should / could / might + do …表示一种与现在事实相反的假设,而这句中的were从语法上分析是对现在事实进行假设,因为“现在”是相对而言的关系,原句并未明确强调这个动作发生在某事之前。注意“相对而言的时间关系”即可,再看一个例子,Demographers expect it to take decades for China’s birth rate to recover ― by which time China may have become the first country in history to have grown old before growing rich.中become the first country in history 从现在看来本应是过去的事,但却用了may have become表示对未来的预测,这是因为在当时看来,become the first country in history还没发生,属于未来。同样,句子末尾的grow rich和grow old之间强调了明确的时间先后关系,即grow rich发生在grow old之前,所以用的是“have grown old”而不是grow old。

 
Thus the rods, by falling, and by the direction in which they fell, recorded for the slumbering scientist the strength of a shock that was too weak to waken him, and the direction from which it came.
地震强度太弱而未惊醒安睡的科学家时,木棒倒下的多少和倒下的方向记录下了地震的强度和地震方向。
🎈向…方向in … direction 
从…方向from … direction 
例句
There was a loud scream from the direction of the children’s pool.
从儿童泳池的方向传来了一声大的尖叫。

 
But instruments far more delicate than that were needed if any really serious advance was to be made.
但是,如果要取得真正重大的进展,需要有比这种装置精细得多的仪器。
🎈be to do (fml.) 的四种用法
1、打算,想要
例句
I’m to see her tomorrow.
2、命令
例句
You’re to be back by 10 o’clock.
3、能够
例句
How am I to pay such a debt?
我怎么能还起这么大一笔债?
4、应该
例句
Such men are to be pitied(同情) rather than despised(鄙视).

 
The ideal to be aimed at was to devise an instrument that could record with a pen on paper, the movements of the ground or of the table as the quake passed by.
理想的目标是设计出这样一种仪器:当地震发生时,它能用笔在纸上记录下大地和桌子运动情况。
🎈be aimed at … 1. 目的是… 2.针对…
例句
The regulations are aimed at the prevention of accidents at work.
这些规章制度是为了避免工作时发生事故。
The book is aimed at people with no specialized knowledge.
这本书是给那些没有专业知识的人读的。
🎈quake n. (infml.) 地震(通俗说法)earthquake 

 
While I write my pen moves, but the paper keeps still. With practice, no doubt, I could in time learn to write by holding the pen still while the paper moved.
我写字时,笔是移动的,纸是静止的。毫无疑问,经过练习,我最终能够学会笔不动而纸动来写字。
🎈While I write my pen moves是时间状从。no doubt是插入语,by holding the pen still while the paper moved是方式状语。
🎈no doubt 1.无疑,毫无疑问 2. 的确,诚然
例句
No doubt she’ll tell me everything when she’s ready. 
毫无疑问,她准备好了就会告诉我所有事的。
诚然…但是… no doubt …, but …(先让步,后转折)
例句
No doubt she’s very nice, but I just don’t like her.
虽然她人很好,但我就是不喜欢她。
🎈in time 1.及时 2. 逐渐地,慢慢地
及时做某事/做某事没有耽搁 be in time to do sth./for sth
例句
In time, all Sam’s money was paid back in this way.
慢慢地,山姆的钱都以这种方式被还回来了。

 
That sounds a silly suggestion, but that was precisely the idea adopted in some of the early instruments (seismometers) for recording earthquake waves.
这听起来似乎是一种愚蠢的想法,但是早期记录地震波的仪器(地震仪)正是采用了这种思路。
🎈for recording earthquake waves是instruments的后置定语。
🎈adopt v. 采纳,采取,采用take over and have or use sth. as one’s own
例句
采用一个名字/风俗/想法/穿衣风格
adopt a name / a custom / an idea / a style of dress

 
But when table, penholder and paper are all moving, how is it possible to write legibly?
可是,当桌子、夹笔装置、纸都在移动时,怎么能书写得清楚呢?
🎈 penholder n. 笔杆a holder or handle for a pen point 
legible adj. (印刷或字迹)清楚的,易读的(of print or handwriting) clear enough to be read easily 
legibly adv.
例句
The inscription was still legible.
刻的字太难辩认了。
Please write more legibly.
请把字写得更清楚些。
【反义词】
illegible   adj. 字迹模糊难以辨认的
difficult or impossible to read; not legible 
例句
His handwriting is illegible./He has a doctor’s handwriting.
他的字迹很难辨认。
His handwriting is neat./ He has a teacher’s handwriting. 
他的字迹很工整/容易辨认。

 
The key to a solution of that problem lay in an everyday observation.
可以从我们的日常生活观察中找到这个问题的答案。
🎈…的关键the key to …
在于…lie in …
…的关键在于… the key to … lies in …
例句
The key to success lies in diligence.
成功的关键在于要勤奋。
 

Why does a person standing in a bus or train tend to fall when a sudden start is made? It is because his feet move on, but his head stays still. A simple experiment will help us a little further.
—个站在公共汽车或火车上,当车突然开动时,他为什么会倾倒呢?这是因为他的脚动了,而他的头保持着静止。再做一个简单的实验可以帮助我们进一步理解这个问题。
🎈because his feet move on, but his head stays still是表语从句。

 
Tie a heavy weight at the end of a long piece of string.
把一个重物拴在一根长绳子的一端。
🎈string n. [U & C] 线绳 
一根绳子a piece of string
 

With the hand held high in the air, hold the string so that the weight nearly touches the ground.
把手高高举在空中握住绳子,让重物几乎接触地面。
🎈so that…是目的状从。
🎈hold v. 把身体摆成某种姿势to put a part of your body into a particular position
例句
She was holding her hand to her heart.
她把手放在心脏的位置。
🎈几组词:【adj./adv.物理意义→adv.抽象意义上的比喻】
①high →highly
例句
He climbed high up the mountain.
It is highly confidential(机密的).
②deep / deeply
例句
He pushed the stick deep into the mud.
He was deeply moved.
③wide / widely
例句
Open your mouth wide.
He seems to be widely known here.
④sharp / sharply
例句
We’re meeting at one-thirty sharp.
我们1点半准时见。
向左/右急转turn sharp left / right
例句
Interest rates(利率) have fallen sharply over the last few weeks.
The government has been sharply criticized for human rights violations(违反).
但要注意一组词:low→lowly(adj./adv.→adj.)
一个地位卑微的仆人 a lowly servant
例句
The plane flew low.
We were, however, worried about our nearest neighbours, whose farm was low lying and who were newcomers to the district.

 
Now move the hand to and fro and around but not up and down.
然后把手前后左右以及旋转摆动,但不要上下摆动。
🎈来来回回地to and fro/ back and forth/ from side to side
上上下下地up and down
例句
The curtains were swinging from side to side in the breeze.
窗帘在微风中来回摆动。
The boat was moving up and down on the sea. 
这艘小船在海面上上下颠簸。

 
It will be found that the weight moves but slightly or not at all. Imagine a pen attached to the weight in such a way that its point rests upon a piece of paper on the floor.
结果会发现,重物是动了,但动得很小,甚至没动。假定把一支笔拴在重物上,笔尖落在地板上的一张纸上。
🎈attached to the weight in such a way that its point rests upon a piece of paper on the floor是pen的后置定语。
🎈be attached to … 1. 与…连在一起 2. 依恋…
🎈rest on / upon sth. 1. 靠在…上面 2. 基于……
例句
His fame rests more on his plays than on his novels.
他的名声更多基于他的戏剧而非小说。

 
Imagine an earthquake shock shaking the floor, the paper, you and your hand.
假定地震发生了,地板、纸、你和你的手都会动。
🎈设想…做…  imagine sb. doing sth.
例句
She could imagine dark-robed figures moving silently along the stone corridors(走廊).

 
In the midst of all this movement, the weight and the pen would be still. 
在这些所有的运动中,重物和笔却不动。
🎈in the midst of … 
1. 在…发生期间/过程中 
2.在…之间[英义in the middle of a place or a group of things or people]
正处在衰退过程中的国家a country in the midst of a recession
在人群中 in the midst of the crowd

 
But as the paper moved from side to side under the pen point, its movement would be recorded in ink upon its surface.
由于纸在笔下来回运动,纸的表面就会用墨水记录下地板运动的情况。
🎈用钢笔/用墨水in ink
例句
Please write in ink, not in pencil.

 
It was upon this principle that the first instruments were made, but the paper was wrapped round a drum which rotated slowly.
根据这一原理,制造出了最初的地震仪器,但是纸是卷在缓慢旋转的圆筒上的。
🎈It was upon this principle that the first instruments were made是It was…that…强调句型。
🎈依照…理论或原则on / upon … principle 
例句
The country is run on socialist principles. 
这个国家是依照社会主义原则运作的。
in principle 
1. 原则上(但尚未考虑细节)
2. 理论上(但尚未发生)
例句
In principle, the new software should make the accounting system a lot simpler.
理论上讲,这个新软件可以简化会计系统。
🎈把…包裹/缠绕在…上 wrap sth. round / around sb. / sth.
例句
He wrapped a bandage(绷带) around my injured wrist.
🎈drum n. 鼓状物,鼓状零件sth. that looks like a drum, esp. part of a machine 
 

As long as all was still, the pen drew a straight line, but while the drum was being shaken, the line that the pen was drawing wriggled from side to side. The apparatus thus described, however, records only the horizontal component of the wave movement, which is, in fact, much more complicated.
只要一切都是静止的,笔就会划出一条直线;但是,当圆筒受到震动时,笔所画出的线就会就会左右摆动。然而,这里所说的仪器记录下来的只是地震波运动中的水平部份,地震波的运动实际比这要复杂得多。
🎈apparatus n. [U] 仪器,设备= equipment 
🎈thus adv. 以此方式,如此,这样[英义in this way, like this ]
计算这样形成的三角形的面积calculate the area of the triangle thus formed 
例句
Hold the wheel in both hands, thus. 
用双手握住方向盘,像这样。

 
If we could actually see the path described by a particle, such as a sand grain in the rock, it would be more like that of a bluebottle buzzing round the room; it would be up and down, to and fro and from side to side.
假如我们真能看到诸如岩石中一个沙粒那样的颗粒的运动轨迹,那就像一只嗡嗡叫的绿头苍蝇在屋内飞行的轨迹,呈现出上上下下、来来回回、左左右右3种性质的运动。
🎈path n. (人或事物移动的)路线,轨道line along which sb./sth. moves 
月亮环地球的运行轨迹the moon’s path round the earth
龙卷风的路径the path of a tornado
🎈grain n. [C] 小颗粒a single very small piece of a substance such as sand or salt 
盐粒/沙粒/一粒糖a grain of salt / sand / sugar
🎈bluebottle n. 青蝇large buzzing fly with a blue body 
🎈buzz v. 发出嗡嗡声to make a continuous sound, like the sound of a bee 

 
Instruments have been devised and can be so placed that all three elements can be recorded in different graphs.
已经设计出了一些仪器,它按照一定的安放方式就可测绘出这三种运动的曲线图。
🎈that与so连用,引导结果状从。
🎈 element   n. 要素,重要部分
 one part or feature of a whole system, plan, piece of work etc., esp. one that is basic or important 
例句
Honesty is a vital element of her success.
🎈graph n. 图,图表,曲线图a picture that uses lines or curves to show the relationship between numbers or measurements that change 

 
When the instrument is situated at more than 700 miles from the earthquake centre, the graphic record shows three waves arriving one after the other at short intervals.
如果把这种仪器安装在距震源700多英里远的地方,曲线记录就能显示出前后相同的这3种地震波。
🎈arriving one after the other at short intervals是waves的后置定语。
🎈一个接一个地one after the other = one after another [用法:used to talk about a series of similar things or events]
例句
Small businesses have been collapsing one after another.小公司一个接一个地倒闭了。
🎈interval n. 间隔的时间或空间
每隔…时间或空间at … intervals 
每周/每20分钟at weekly / 20 minute intervals
例句
The trees were planted at 20 meter intervals.
这些树的种植间距是20米。

 
The first records the arrival of longitudinal vibrations. The second marks the arrival of transverse vibrations which travel more slowly and arrive several minutes after the first. These two have travelled through the earth.
首先记录下的是纵向波的到达;然后记录下的是横向波的到达,横向波比纵向波传播得慢,在纵向波到过几分钟后能到达。这两种波都是穿过地球而来的。
🎈纵向波/振动longitudinal vibrations
横向波/振动transverse vibrations

 
It was from the study of these that so much was learnt about the interior of the earth.
正是从这两种波中的研究中,我们可以了解到地球内部的许多情况。
🎈interior n. 内部,里面the inner part or inside of something 
例句
The interior of the church was dark.

 
The third, or main wave is the slowest and has travelled round the earth through the surface rocks.
第三种波,即主波,是最慢的,是围绕地球通过表面岩石传来的。
🎈or conj. 表示一词语对另一词语的解释关系或为其同义词语) 即,亦即,或者说(introducing a word or phrase that explains, or means the same as, another[引出同位语]
a kilo, or two pounds
geology(地质学), or the science of the earth’s crust
例句
Cave exploration(洞穴探险), or pot-holing, as it has come to be known, is a relatively new sport.
 
🔥必背词汇
rigid      adj. 坚硬的,刚性的,僵化的,固执的
刚性塑料容器rigid plastic containers
关于学生行为的僵化制度rigid rules about student conduct
固执地坚持陈旧/迂腐/老掉牙的观念rigid adherence to old-fashioned ideas
rigidity n. [U] 坚硬,刚性,僵化,固执
在这个问题上法律的僵化the rigidity of the law on this issue
【反义词】flexible adj. 易弯曲的,柔韧的,可变通的,灵活的
→flexibility n. [U] 柔韧性,灵活性
有柔软橡胶鞋底的鞋shoes with flexible rubber soles
可以增强舞者身体柔韧性的运动/训练exercises to develop the flexibility of dancers’ bodies
 
delicate      ①adj.精密的,灵敏的 
例句
Weather-forecasters have extremely delicate equipment which helps them predict what the weather is going to be like.
天气预报员使用极其灵敏的设备来预测天气走向。
②adj.(颜色、气味、味道)淡的,柔和的
淡淡的香气/芬芳delicate fragrance
③adj. 细致的,娇嫩的;易损坏的;需谨慎处理的
她精致的五官her delicate features
婴儿娇嫩/细嫩的肌肤a baby’s delicate skin
易碎的瓷茶杯delicate china teacups
棘手的问题a delicate problem
delicacy n. ①[U] 精致,细致,娇嫩;谨慎处理 ②[C] 美味佳肴
雕刻的精致the delicacy of carving
五官精致the delicacy of her features
孩子肌肤的娇嫩the delicacy of a child’s skin
 
seismometer       n. 地震仪
【词根】“meter” / “metr” = measure
seismometer “seismo” = shake n. 地震仪
meter n. 仪器,仪表;米,公尺;v. 测量
metric adj. 米的;公制的
diameter “dia” = across n. 直径
thermometer “thermo” = heat n. 温度表,体温表
barometer “baro” = weight n. 气压计
voltmeter “volt” = 伏特 n. 电压表
speedometer “speed” = 速度 n. 速度表
milometer “mil” =mile n. 里程表
hygrometer “hygro” = wet n. 湿度计
perimeter “peri” = round n. 周长
geometry “geo” = earth n. 几何学
symmetry “sym” = together n. 对称
 
wriggle      v. 扭动,蠕动;扭动前进
例句
A large worm wriggled in the freshly dug earth.
一条大蠕虫在新挖出的泥土里扭动。
The tunnel was low and dark, but she managed to wriggle through to the other side.
隧道又低又暗,但她努力扭动着到达了另一端。
【近义词】waggle v. 扭动
wag v. 摆动 (常指狗摇尾巴,和人摆动手指)
例句
The dog wagged its tail excitedly.
“You shouldn’t have done that!” Mum said, wagging her finger at me.
 
longitudinal       adj. 纵向的
纵轴the longitudinal axis
纵向条纹longitudinal stripes
纵切/截面a longitudinal section
【词根】“long” = long(长的)
longevity “ev” = time n. 长寿
longitude “itude”(抽象名词字尾)n. 经度
longitudinal adj. 纵向的
elongate “e” = out v. 使变长,拉长
elongation n. 拉长,延长
prolong “pro” = forward v. 延长时间
prolonged adj. 长期的,持久的
 
transverse       adj. 横向的
横梁a transverse beam
横切/截面a transverse section
【词根】“ver” = turn
transverse “trans” = across adj. 横向的
versatile “tile”(形容词后缀) adj. 多才多艺的
vertical adj. 垂直的
adverse “ad” = to adj. 不利的,有害的
adversary n. 敌手,死对头
anniversary “anni” = year n. 周年纪念日
controversy “contro” = against n. 争论
controversial adj. 有争议的
converse “con” = together v. 交谈;adj. 相反的,逆的;n. 相反的事物
conversation n. 交谈
diverse “di” / “dis” = apart adj. 多种多样的
diversity n. 多样性;千变万化
diversion n. 偏离,转向;娱乐,消遣
extrovert “extro” = outside n. 外向的人
introvert “intro” = within n. 内向的人
inadvertent “in” = not “ad” = to adj. 无意的,非故意的
pervert “per” = thoroughly n. 性变态者;v. 滥用,误用;使堕落
reverse “re” = back adj. 相反的;v. 使反转;倒车;n. 相反的事物
subvert “sub” = under v. 颠覆,破坏
🔥重点表达
刚性塑料容器rigid plastic containers
关于学生行为的僵化制度rigid rules about student conduct
固执地坚持陈旧/迂腐/老掉牙的观念rigid adherence to old-fashioned ideas
有柔软橡胶鞋底的鞋shoes with flexible rubber soles
淡淡的香气/芬芳delicate fragrance
她精致的五官her delicate features
婴儿娇嫩/细嫩的肌肤a baby’s delicate skin
易碎的瓷茶杯delicate china teacups
棘手的问题a delicate problem
纵轴the longitudinal axis
纵向条纹longitudinal stripes
纵切/截面a longitudinal section
横梁a transverse beam
横切/截面a transverse section
(贬义)突然,突如其来地without warning
向…方向in … direction 
从…方向from … direction 
诚然…但是… no doubt …, but …
及时做某事/做某事没有耽搁 be in time to do sth./for sth
…的关键在于… the key to … lies in …
一根绳子a piece of string
向左/右急转turn sharp left / right
来来回回地to and fro/ back and forth/ from side to side
上上下下地up and down
设想…做…  imagine sb. doing sth.
正处在衰退过程中的国家a country in the midst of a recession
在人群中 in the midst of the crowd
用钢笔/用墨水in ink
依照…理论或原则on / upon … principle
把…包裹/缠绕在…上 wrap sth. round / around sb. / sth.
月亮环地球的运行轨迹the moon’s path round the earth
每隔…时间或空间at … intervals 
一个接一个地one after the other = one after another
纵向波/振动longitudinal vibrations
横向波/振动transverse vibrations
 
🔥复盘测试
刚性塑料容器
关于学生行为的僵化制度
固执地坚持陈旧/迂腐/老掉牙的观念
有柔软橡胶鞋底的鞋
淡淡的香气/芬芳
她精致的五官
婴儿娇嫩/细嫩的肌肤
易碎的瓷茶杯
棘手的问题
纵轴
纵向条纹
纵切/截面
横梁
横切/截面
(贬义)突然,突如其来地
向…方向 
从…方向 
诚然…但是… 
及时做某事/做某事没有耽搁 
…的关键在于… 
一根绳子
向左/右急转
来来回回地
上上下下地
设想…做…  
正处在衰退过程中的国家
在人群中
用钢笔/用墨水
依照…理论或原则
把…包裹/缠绕在…上 
月亮环地球的运行轨迹
每隔…时间或空间 
一个接一个地
纵向波/振动
横向波/振动

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《Recording an earthquake 记录地震》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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