《焦山读书寄四弟墨》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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僧人遍满天下,不是西域送来的。即吾中国之父兄子弟,穷而无归,入而难返者也。削去头发便是他,留起头发还是我。怒眉瞋目,叱为异端而深恶痛绝之,亦觉太过。

佛自周昭王时下生,迄于灭度,足迹未尝履中国土。后八百年而有汉明帝,说谎说梦,惹出这场事来,佛实不闻不晓。今不责明帝,而齐声骂佛,佛何辜乎?况自昌黎辟佛以来,孔道大明,佛焰渐息,帝王卿相,一遵《六经》《四子》之书,以为齐家治国平天下之道,此时而犹言辟佛,亦如同嚼蜡而已。

和尚是佛之罪人,杀盗淫妄,贪婪势利,无复明心见性之规。秀才亦是孔子罪人,不仁不智,无礼无义,无复守先待后之意。秀才骂和尚,和尚骂秀才。语云:“各人自扫阶前雪,莫管他家屋瓦霜。”老弟以为然否?

偶有所触,书以寄汝,并示无方师一笑也。

 

焦山读书寄四弟墨

To Fourth Brother Mo, Written While Reading At Chiaoshan

 

🎈背景知识

本文选自《郑板桥集家书》。写于乾隆十三年(1735)。信是寄给堂弟郑墨的。信中对那些“穷而无归”,削发为僧的广大僧侣寄予了同情,而对那些“杀盗淫妄,贪婪势利”的和尚和“不仁不智,无礼无义”的秀才们作了痛快淋漓的嘲讽。文章观点鲜明,直率真切,放言无忌,如见其人。

 


僧人遍满天下,不是西域送来的。即吾中国之父兄子弟,穷而无归,入而难返者也。

The world is filled with monks. But they are not sent here from Tibet, but are fathers and brothers of China who have no home to go to or who have entered the faith and would not be converted.

🎈“遍满”be filled with/ be full of,此时中英文中的主语对调。

🎈“西域”自汉代以来,西域狭义上指玉门关、阳关以西,葱岭以东,巴尔喀什湖东、南及新疆广大地区。最终为新疆及更远的地方。而广义的西域则是指凡是通过狭义西域所能到达的地区,包有今之中亚、西亚及印度。

🎈“穷而无归,入而难返者也”指的是不改变信仰,convert有“改变信仰”的意思。

🎈Would not此处是虚拟语气。


 

削去头发便是他,留起头发还是我。

We shave, we become monks, and when they let their hair grow again, they become ourselves.

🎈“他”结合上文指“和尚”。


 

怒眉瞋目,叱为异端而深恶痛绝之,亦觉太过。

It would be a mistake to look at them with anger, call them heretics and treat them with hatred and disgust.

🎈“亦觉太过”表示态度,置于句首。

🎈“异端”即非正统,与之相关词汇包括heresy,heretic,后者指人。


 

佛自周昭王时下生,迄于灭度,足迹未尝履中国土。

From the time Buddha was born in the reign of Emperor Chao of Chou’ until he passed away, he never set foot on Chinese soil.

🎈佛:指佛教的创始者释迦牟尼。其生年推断不一,或说约前565年,则为周灵王七年。或说约前624年,则为襄王二十八年。这里说周昭王时,又把年代提前了四百多年。

🎈“履”为动词,踏上,译为set foot on。


 

后八百年而有汉明帝,说谎说梦,惹出这场事来,佛实不闻不晓。

Eight hundred years later, Emperor Han Mingti brought on all this trouble through his wild fancies and dreams. Buddha himself had nothing to do with it.

🎈注意“汉明帝”译法。

🎈“佛不闻不晓”指上文汉明帝的行为与佛无关。网络流行语“雨女无瓜”也可译作have nothing to do with sb。


 

今不责明帝,而齐声骂佛,佛何辜乎?

Now instead of blaming Emperor Han Mingti, we are all blaming Buddha, who is perfectly innocent.

🎈“责”和“骂”为一个意思,统一译为blame。

🎈“何辜”为反问句表肯定,加强语气。

🎈Perfectly此处修饰innocent,表强调。


 

况自昌黎辟佛以来,孔道大明,佛焰渐息,帝王卿相,一遵《六经》《四子》之书,以为齐家治国平天下之道,此时而犹言辟佛,亦如同嚼蜡而已。

Besides,since Ts’angli(Han Yü) exposed the Buddhist doctrines, Confucianism has come back into its own, and the Buddhist religion is gradually on the wane. The rulers have followed the Six Classics and Four Books as the means of regulating family life and governing the empire. To denounce Buddhism at this late hour would be as meaningless as chewing candle wax.

🎈昌黎辟佛:昌黎,指韩愈,他有著名的排佛表章《论佛骨表》

🎈孔道:孔子之道。

🎈《六经》:指《诗》、《书》、《礼》、《乐》、《易》、《春秋》。《乐》早亡,这里泛指儒家经典。

🎈《四子》:指《大学》、《中庸》、《论语》、《孟子》,为科举考试的必读书。

🎈齐家治国平天下:《大学》:“身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平。”

🎈“如同嚼蜡”比喻手法,表示meaningless。


 

和尚是佛之罪人,杀盗淫妄,贪婪势利,无复明心见性之规。

The monks are sinners against Buddha. They rob and kill and seek after women and are greedy and snobbish, for they have not followed the doctrines of purifying their hearts and seeking their original nature.

🎈明心见性:佛教禅宗的修持方法。

🎈理解原文:僧侣们都是反对佛陀的罪人。他们抢劫,杀人好色,贪婪和势利,因为他们没有遵循净化自己的心和寻求他们原来的本性的教义。

🎈For引导原因状语从句。


 

秀才亦是孔子罪人,不仁不智,无礼无义,无复守先待后之意。

The government graduates are also sinners against Confucius, for they are neither kind nor wise, and devoid of courtesy or justice. They are no longer concerned with the keeping of the ancient tradition and of Confucian teachings.

🎈“秀才亦是孔子罪人”和“和尚是佛之罪人”并列,二者句式结构尽量保持一致。

🎈“无礼无义”即缺乏礼貌和正义感,所以用be devoid of。

🎈Teachings表示教诲、学说。


 

秀才骂和尚,和尚骂秀才。

The government graduates love to abuse the monks and the monks love to abuse the government graduates.

🎈“骂”即侮辱。

🎈两个句子之间要有连接词and。


 

语云:“各人自扫阶前雪,莫管他家屋瓦霜。”

The proverb says , “Let each one sweep off the snow at his door-step, and not interfere with the frost on the neighbors’ roof. ”

🎈俗语翻译要注意积累,如果考场上实在不会,就根据自身理解paraphrase,例如mind your own business。


 

老弟以为然否?偶有所触,书以寄汝,并示无方师一笑也。

What do you think of this? The idea has just occurred to me, and I am putting it down and sending it for you to read. I have also shown this to Monk Wufang and it gave him a good laugh.

🎈“书以寄汝”也可译为write them down。

🎈无方师:僧人,与郑燮交游颇密,郑燮有赠诗、赠画诗等。

 

🔥重点词汇

Convert

v. (使)转变;改造;换算;(使)改变信仰;使…迷上

n. 皈依者;改变宗教信仰者;刚迷上…的人

例句

a convert to the cause

一位转而支持这项事业的人

a convert to Islam

改信伊斯兰教的人

converts from other faiths

来自其他宗教信仰的皈依者

 

doctrine

n. 信条,教义,学说;正式声明

例句

traditional doctrines of divine power

传统的神力教义

Marxist doctrine

马克思主义学说

the announcement of the Truman Doctrine

杜鲁门主义的宣言

 

heretic

n. 异教徒;异端分子

例句

Cranmer was put to death as a heretic.

克兰默被当成异教徒处死。

heretical beliefs

异端信仰

 

wax

n. 蜡;耳屎

v. 给…上蜡;用蜡给(皮肤)除毛;渐圆,渐满;畅谈

例句

wax crayons

蜡笔

Interest in the show has waxed and waned.

人们对这个节目曾经非常痴迷,现已热情不再。

styling wax for the hair

定型发蜡

 

devoid

adj. 缺乏,没有

例句

His face was devoid of any warmth or humour.

他的脸冷若冰霜,没有一丝幽默的表情。

The letter was devoid of warmth and feeling.

这封信既无热情又无感情。

I have never looked on a face that was so devoid of feeling…

我从来没有见过一张如此面无表情的脸。

 

🔥重点表达

怒眉瞋目look at them with anger

《六经》the Six Classics

《四子》the Four Books

齐家治国平天下

regulating family life and governing the empire

如同嚼蜡

as meaningless as chewing candle wax

杀盗淫妄,贪婪势利

rob and kill and seek after women and are greedy and snobbish

不仁不智,无礼无义

be neither kind nor wise, and devoid of courtesy or justice

各人自扫阶前雪,莫管他家屋瓦霜。

Let each one sweep off the snow at his door-step, and not interfere with the frost on the neighbors’ roof.

 

🔥对比表达

「各人自扫阶前雪,莫管他家屋瓦霜」多样表达

本意是莫要多管闲事

 

各人自扫阶前雪,莫管他家屋瓦霜。

Let each one sweep off the snow at his door-step, and not interfere with the frost on the neighbors’ roof.

我不是要多管闲事,但是他什么时候要离开呢?

I don’t mean to stickybeak, but when is he going to leave?

但这个锁并不只是为了阻止多管闲事的人靠近。

But that lock didn’t just keep busybodies at bay.

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