《The past life of the earth 地球上的昔日生命》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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The past life of the earth

地球上的昔日生命

 
It is animals and plants which lived in or near water whose remains are most likely to be preserved, for one of the necessary conditions of preservation is quick burial, and it is only in the seas and rivers, and sometimes lakes, where mud and silt have been continuously deposited, that bodies and the like can be rapidly covered over and preserved. 
只有生活在水中或水边的动植物尸体最有可能被保存下来,因为保存的必要条件之一是迅速掩埋,所以只有在海洋和江河里,有时在湖泊里,在那里泥沙不停淤积尸体之类的东西才能被迅速地覆盖而保存下来。
🎈整体是and连接的两个强调句。for one of the necessary conditions of preservation is quick burial是原因状从。定语从句where mud and silt have been continuously deposited修饰the seas and rivers, and sometimes lakes。
🎈强调句型:it is / was … that / who …。一般而言,sb要用who,sth用that。但在科技文体中,sth有时也用which。此句中用的是it is / was … whose …,因为强调的成分是属格。It is animals and plants which lived in or near water whose remains are most likely to be preserved.相当于The remains of animals and plants which lived in or near water are most likely to be preserved.
🎈remains n. 
1. [pl.] 残余物,遗址,废墟 
2. [pl.] [fml.] 尸体,遗骸
例句
His mortal remains are buried in the churchyard.
他的尸身埋在了教堂墓地内。
🎈可能…  be likely / unlikely to do sth.
例句
It is refugees who live in or near Syria whose applications are most likely to be approved. 
住在叙利亚 (Syria) 及附近的难民的申请最有可能获得批准。
🎈quick burial——名词结构在英文中的应用,我们再多看几个例子。
例句
警察及时<到来>阻止了局面进一步恶化。
The timely arrival of the police prevented the situation from becoming worse.
他<在他妻子不知道的情况下>卖掉了房子。
He sold the house without his wife’s knowledge.
🎈silt n. 淤泥sand, mud, etc carried by flowing water and left at the mouth of a river, in a harbour, etc. 
🎈continuously ad.一刻不停地[强调无中断,无停顿]
continually ad.发生频率高地[可以中断]
例句
They’re continually arguing.
他们总是吵架。
睡觉的时候肯定不能吵,也就是有中断,所以用continually
🎈deposit v. 沉积to leave a layer of a substance on the surface of something, especially gradually 
沉积在海底的层层沉淀物layers of sediment that were deposited on the ocean floor
🎈等等,诸如此类and the like / and such like
and what not [infml.]
and so on
and so forth
etc. (et cetera)
 

But even in the most favourable circumstances only a small fraction of the creatures that die are preserved in this way before decay sets in or, even more likely, before scavengers eat them.
即使是在最有利的环境中,死去的生物中也只有一小部分能在开始腐烂前,或更可能在被食腐动物吃掉之前,被这样保存下来。
🎈有利条件favourable circumstances
逆境/不利条件adverse / unfavorable circumstances
例外的/特殊的情况exceptional / special / unusual circumstances
无法避免/无法预测的情况unavoidable / unforeseen circumstances
经济/财政/政治/社会状况(环境)economic / financial / political / social circumstances
在…情况/条件下in / under … circumstances
由于…情况 due to … circumstances
例句
It is almost always due to some very special circumstances that traces of land animals survive, …
Under no circumstances should you leave the door unlocked.
无论怎样你也不应该不锁门。
🎈……的一小部分a fraction of …
……极小的一部分a small / tiny / mere fraction of …
例句
A mere fraction of available wind energy is currently utilized. 
仅有一小部分的风能被使用。
🎈(不愉快的事物)开始并可能继续下去set in
例句
Further economic decline set in during the 1930s. 
20世纪30年代期间,进一步的经济衰退出现了。

 
After all, all living creatures live by feeding on something else, whether it be plant or animal, dead or alive, and it is only by chance that such a fate is avoided.
因为一切生物都是靠吃别的东西来活命的,不管这种东西是植物还是动物,死的还是活的,因此,生物偶尔才能避免被吃掉的命运。
🎈whether it be plant or animal, dead or alive 是让步状从,其中plant or animal属于单词成双成对出现的情况,其前无需加冠词。it is only by chance that such a fate is avoided是强调句。
🎈靠做某事为生live by doing sth. 
例句
It has been said that everyone lives by selling something.
按照……生活live sth. ive accordin to …
例句
I have always tried to live by my faith.
我总是遵从自己的信仰而活。
🎈(动物)以…为食feed on sth.
(食肉动物)以…为食;捕食prey on sth.
(人)以…为生live on sth.
🎈Whether it be bird, fish or beast, the porpoise is intrigued with anything that is alive.和Though he be the President himself, he shall listen to us.中的be都可以换作is。表面上看是虚拟语气,实则不然,只是使文言气息更强。此外,whether it be bird, fish or beast…也可写作be it the bird, fish or beast…
🎈偶然地,无意识地by chance /be accident /accidentally 
有意地,成心地on purpose /intentionally /deliberately

 
The remains of plants and animals that lived on land are much more rarely preserved, for there is seldom anything to cover them over.
曾在陆地上生活过的动植物的遗体被保存下来的更为罕见,因为陆地上几乎没有什么东西覆盖它们。
🎈定从that lived on land修饰plants and animals。are much more rarely preserved是句子的谓语部分。for there is seldom anything to cover them over.是原因状从。
🎈将…完全覆盖住cover sth. ⇔ over [to put sth. on top of sth. else so that it is completely hidden]
例句
The female(雌鸟) lays a single egg and covers it over.

 
When you think of the innumerable birds that one sees flying about, not to mention the equally numerous small animals like field mice and voles which you do not see, it is very rarely that one comes across a dead body, except, of course, on the roads.
你可以想象出天上有看得见的飞来飞去、数不清的鸟,更不用说同样众多的老鼠和田鼠之类的不显眼的小动物,但是,除非在路上,很少有人遇到这些动物的尸体。
🎈定从that one sees flying about修饰birds。like field mice and voles which you do not see作animals的后置定语。that one comes across a dead body…是主语从句。
🎈数不胜数的,无数的innumerable
numerous
countless
a host of … a mass of …
a great many …
a large number of …
🎈更不用说let alone …/not to mention …
注意区分:let alone后可接各种词性和从句,通常在否定句后;not to mention后只能接名词词性或从句,通常在肯定句后。
例句
The baby can’t talk, let alone run.
The dampness is unpleasant, not to mention the cold.
much less / still less = let alone
to say nothing of = not to mention
🎈偶遇,邂逅come across = encounter 
例句
I came across a group of children playing.
我偶遇了一群玩耍的孩子。
🎈except后接宾语常为介词短语。
例句
Staff are not permitted to make personal phone calls except in an emergency.
The weather has been fine except in the north.
The store is open every day from 9:00 to 5:00, except on Sundays.

 
They decompose and are quickly destroyed by the weather or eaten by some other creature.
因为它们腐败之后很快就被风化掉,或被别的动物吃掉了。
🎈and连接并列成分decompose和are quickly destroyed… or eaten…
🎈some other creature中some不指“一些”,而是限定词,指“某一”。

 
It is almost always due to some very special circumstances that traces of land animals survive, as by falling into inaccessible caves, or into an ice crevasse, like the Siberian mammoths, when the whole animal is sometimes preserved, (as in a refrigerator).
几乎总是由于某些特殊的条件,陆地动物的遗体才被存下来,如掉进难以到达的洞穴,或掉进冰河裂缝里,就像这些西伯利亚长毛象。有时整个动物像被放在冰箱里一样被保存下来。
🎈It is almost always due to some very special circumstances that…是强调句,强调部分是原因(due to…)。as by falling into inaccessible caves, or into an ice crevasse, … as in a refrigerator.整个是方式状从,省略了主句中出现的成分,相当于as (traces of land animals survive) by…。其中when the whole animal is sometimes preserved, (as in a refrigerator)是嵌在方式状从中的时间状从,而(as in a refrigerator)又是潜在时间状从的方式状从。
🎈crevasse n. (冰川的)裂缝deep open crack in the ice of a glacier 
🎈mammoth n. 猛犸象an animal similar to an elephant with long hair that lived a very long time ago 

 
This is what happened to the famous Beresovka mammoth which was found preserved and in good condition.
著名的那林索夫卡长毛象就是这样被保存下来的,而且保存得很好。
🎈what happened…是表语从句。定从which was found preserved and in good condition修饰Beresovka mammoth,其中preserved and in good condition是主语补足语。

 
In his mouth were the remains of fir trees—the last meal that he had before he fell into the crevasse and broke his back.
它嘴里还留着冷杉——它掉进冰河裂隙折断脊椎柱之前的最后一顿饭。
🎈破折号后的成分整个都是the remains of fir trees的同位语。
🎈该句的正常语序为The remains of fir trees ― the last meal that he had before he fell into the crevasse and broke his back ― were in his mouth,但这样写有些头重脚轻。在主语较长时,常使用“表语 + 系动词 + 主语”的倒装结构。
例句
On the floor were piles of books, magazines and newspapers.
Happy is he who has a sound mind in a sound body.
Gone are the days when my heart was young and gay.

 
The mammoth has now been restored in the Palaeontological Museum in St. Petersburg.
这头长毛象已被修复,现存于圣彼得堡古生物学博物馆。
🎈in the Palaeontological Museum in St. Petersburg是地点状语,其中in St. Petersburg修饰的是the Palaeontological Museum。

 
Other animals were trapped in tar pits, like the elephants, sabre-toothed cats, and numerous other creatures that are found at Rancho la Brea, which is now just a suburb of Los Angeles.
有的动物掉进天然沥清坑里被保存下来,如在兰桥•拉•布里——现在是洛杉矶的郊区发现的大象、剑齿虎和许多其他动物。
🎈trap v. 使困在某处to prevent sb. from leaving a place, especially a dangerous place 
例句
Twenty miners were trapped underground.
二十名矿工被困在了地下。
🎈tar n. 焦油,沥青
pit n. 地表的大坑(a large deep hole in the ground )
tar pit n. 沥青坑:地表中天然沥青的集聚场所,尤指使动物不慎陷入其中并保存了它们的骨骼的天然沥青聚集点(an accumu ation of natura tar at the earth’s surface, especia one that acts as a trap for animals and preserves their bones )
🎈剑齿虎saber-toothed cat / sabre-toothed cat

 
Apparently what happened was that water collected on these tar pits and the bigger animals like the elephants ventured out on to the apparently firm surface to drink, and were promptly bogged in the tar.
显然,事情的经过是这样:沥青坑里积存了水,大象那样的大动物冒险到似乎坚固的水面上去饮水,立即掉进了沥青坑。
🎈what happened是主语从句。that water collected …in the tar是表语从句,其中,like the elephants是the bigger animals的后置定语。
🎈collect 1 vi.(物体)聚集 2 vt.收集
例句
Rain collected in pools on the road. (雨水汇集)
Dust had collected on the window-sill.(窗台积灰)
🎈bog n.沼泽v.(使某物)陷入泥沼
例句
The tank got bogged down in mud.
这辆坦克陷进了泥巴里。

 
And then, when they were dead, the carnivores, like the sabre-toothed cats and the giant wolves, came out to feed and suffered exactly the same fate. There are also endless numbers of birds in the tar as well. 
大象死后,一些食肉动物,如剑齿虎和大灰狼就来吃大象,结果遭到了同样的命运。沥青坑里还有无数只鸟的尸体。
🎈恐狼giant wolf / dire wolf
🎈遭遇了……命运suffer a … fate 
例句
The refugees have suffered an appalling fate.
难民们遭受了可怕的命运。
 
🔥必背词汇
preservation     n. [U]保护,保存
建筑物保护building preservation
环境保护environmental  preservation
食品保存food preservation
对…的保护/保存preservation of …
对文化遗产的保护the preservation of our cultural heritage
【形近词】
①conservation n. 1. [U]保护(动植物,自然环境等)2. [U] 保存
野生动物保护wildlife conservation
对乡村环境的保护conservation of the countryside
保存体力energy conservation
②reservation n. 1. [C]预定 2. [C, U]保留意见
例句
I’ll call the restaurant and make a reservation. 
我会给餐厅打电话预定一个座位。
I have serious reservations about his ability to do the job.
我严重怀疑他能否胜任这份工作。
 
scavenger    n. 食腐动物
scavenger n. 食腐动物
vertebrate n. 脊椎动物
invertebrate n. 无脊椎动物
mammal n. 哺乳动物
primate n. 灵长类动物
rodent n. 啮齿类动物
marsupial n. 有袋类动物
crustacean n. 甲壳类动物
biped n. 两足动物
quadruped n. 四足动物
prey n. 被捕食者,猎物
predator n. 捕食者
 
decompose    v. 腐烂
例句
Fallen leaves gradually decompose.
落叶会逐渐腐烂。
【近义词】rot / decay
例句
吃太多糖果会让腐蚀你的牙齿。
Too much candy will rot your teeth / make your teeth rot.
Too much candy will decay your teeth / make your teeth decay.
【词根】
pose:放置
impose v. 强加
expose v. 暴露
propose v. 建议,求婚
oppose v. 反对,对抗
dispose v. 布置,安排
interpose v. 插入,介入
depose v. 罢免,废黜
compose v. 组成,构成
decompose v. 腐烂,分解
transpose v. 使互换位置
juxtapose v. 将……并列
 
inaccessible      adj. 难以到达的,无法到达的
accessible adj. 可以到达的
对…来说无法/可以到达 inaccessible/ accessible to…
access n. 
1.(接近或进入某地的)方法,通道 
2.(使用某物或接近某人的)机会或权利
通往…方法/通道的access to …
有…的权利,能够使用…have access to …
 
palaeontological/ paleontological  adj. 古生物学的
古生物博物馆Paleontological Museum
国际古生物协会International Paleontological Association
【词根】paleo= ancient
palaeontology / paleontology n. 古生物学
palaeontologist / paleontologist n. 古生物学家
paleobotany n. 古植物学
paleoanthropology n. 古人类学
paleolithic / Paleolithic adj. 旧石器时代的
旧石器时代the Paleolithic Age
neolithic / Neolithic adj. 新石器时代的
新石器时代the Neolithic Age
 
venture     v. 冒险去某地
例句
When darkness fell, he would venture out.
夜幕降临时,他会出去冒险。
暗指治安不好
【词根】vent / ven = come
advent n. 基督降临节;(重要人物、事件等的)来临,到来
adventure n. 冒险,奇遇
invent v. 发明
inventor n. 发明家
invention n. 发明
prevent v. 预防
prevention n. 预防
intervene v. 干涉,干预,调解,斡旋
intervention n. 干涉,干预,调解,斡旋
convene v. 召集,集会
convention n. 大会;习俗,惯例;协议
contravene v. 违犯(法律等)
contravention n. 违犯(法律等)
revenue n. 收入,岁入,税收
 
🔥重点表达
建筑物保护building preservation
环境保护environmental  preservation
食品保存food preservation
对…的保护/保存preservation of …
野生动物保护wildlife conservation
保存体力energy conservation
对…来说无法/可以到达 inaccessible/ accessible to…
通往…方法/通道的access to …
有…的权利,能够使用…have access to …
可能…  be likely / unlikely to do sth.
等等,诸如此类and the like / and such like
有利条件favourable circumstances
逆境/不利条件adverse / unfavorable circumstances
例外的/特殊的情况exceptional / special / unusual circumstances
无法避免/无法预测的情况unavoidable / unforeseen circumstances
经济/财政/政治/社会状况(环境)economic / financial / political / social circumstances
在…情况/条件下in / under … circumstances
由于…情况 due to … circumstances
……的一小部分a fraction of …
……极小的一部分a small / tiny / mere fraction of …
(不愉快的事物)开始并可能继续下去set in
靠做某事为生live by doing sth. 
按照……生活live sth. ive accordin to …
(动物)以…为食feed on sth.
(食肉动物)以…为食;捕食prey on sth.
(人)以…为生live on sth.
偶然地,无意识地by chance /be accident /accidentally 
有意地,成心地on purpose /intentionally /deliberately
更不用说let alone …/not to mention …
偶遇,邂逅come across = encounter 
沥青坑tar pit
恐狼giant wolf / dire wolf
遭遇了……命运suffer a … fate
 
🔥复盘测试
建筑物保护
环境保护
食品保存
对…的保护/保存
野生动物保护
保存体力
对…来说无法/可以到达 
通往…方法/通道的
有…的权利,能够使用…
可能… 
等等,诸如此类
有利条件
逆境/不利条件
例外的/特殊的情况
无法避免/无法预测的情况
经济/财政/政治/社会状况(环境)
在…情况/条件下
由于…情况 
……的一小部分
……极小的一部分
(不愉快的事物)开始并可能继续下去
靠做某事为生
按照……生活
(动物)以…为食
(食肉动物)以…为食;捕食
(人)以…为生
偶然地,无意识地
有意地,成心地
更不用说
偶遇,邂逅
沥青坑
恐狼
遭遇了……命运

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《The past life of the earth 地球上的昔日生命》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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