《野 草 –夏衍 》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

朗读这篇文章

野 草 –夏衍 

Wild Grass –Xia Yan
🔥注释:《野草》是夏衍(1900-1995)于抗战期间写的一篇寓理散文,赞颂小草的那种为常人看不见的顽强生命力,以象征手法鼓舞国人坚定抗战胜利的决心。文章包含的深理对处于任何困难环境中的革命者都有启发性。
 
🔥学习建议:文中列出了两种译文(选自《张培基散文选》和《散文佳作108篇》),句子解析部分只针对译文1。大家可自行从选词、句式、冗长or精简、直译or意译、修辞手法等角度对两种译文进行供对比赏析。两种译文没有对错之分,都是学习的好材料,可以借鉴模仿。(说明:对于翻译学习者来讲,除了积累表达和运用翻译技巧,对不同的译文进行对比也是一种好的学习方式。对比时注意①自己想不到的地方②各译文的不同之处。提供多种译文版本的材料真的很难得,请一定珍惜这些材料并进行对比赏析,这会让翻译学习有一个质的提升的^_^。本期活动会穿插几篇提供两种译文的文章,供大家学习&练习。)
 
有这样一个故事。
There is a story which goes like this: 
🎈 有这样一个故事也可译作there is such a story that…
 
有人问:世界上什么东西的气力最大?
译文1:Someone asked, “What has the greatest strength on earth?” 
译文2:Someone asked, “What is the most powerful thing in the world?”
🎈“世界上什么东西的气力最大”译为What has the greatest strength on earth,其中on earth和in the world同义,但此句用on earth较为合适,因它通常用于疑问词或最高级词后加强语气。 

 
回答纷纭的很,有的说“象”,有的说“狮”,有人开玩笑似的说:是“金刚”,
译文1:The answers varied. Some said, “The elephant.” Some said, “The lion.” Some said jokingly, “The fierce-browed guardian gods to Buddha.” 
译文2:There was a variety of answers. “Elephant,” someone said. “Lion,” another said. “Buddha’s guardian warrior,” still another said half-jokingly.
🎈“众说纷谈”,即说法多种多样,故选用vary一词。
🎈“some said”中“some”的用法:some作代词(pron.)。E.g. When the chicken is cooked I’ll freeze some.鸡肉做好以后,我会把一部分冷冻起来。
 

金刚有多少气力,当然大家全不知道。
译文1:But nobody of course could tell how strong the guardian gods were.
译文2:As to how powerful the Buddha’s guardian warrior was, no one was sure.
🎈“金刚”是“金刚力士”之略,指守护佛法的天神,常怒目作勇猛之相,现把它意译为the fierce-browed guardian gods to Buddha,其中fierce-browed的意思是“怒目横眉”。 

 
结果,这一切答案完全不对,世界上气力最大的,是植物的种子。
译文1:All the answers turned out to be wide of the mark. The mightiest thing on earth is the seed of a plant.  
译文2:In fact none of the answers was correct. The most powerful thing in the world is the seed of plants.
🎈“结果,这一切答案完全不对”译为All the answers turned out to be wide of the mark,其中wide of the mark或far from the mark为成语,意即“离谱”、“不正确”;turn out to be事实证明是……。 

 
一粒种子所可以显现出来的力,简直是超越一切,这儿又是一个故事。
译文1:The great strength which a seed is capable of is simply matchless. Here goes another story:
译文2:The force displayed by a seed is simply incomparable. Here goes another story:
🎈which引导定语从句,The great strength which a seed is capable of其实是a seed is capable of the great strength. 注意be capable of后是可以跟名词的
例句
We’re capable of great things when we work together.
众人拾柴火焰高。
🎈这儿又是一个故事Here goes another story:。其中go意为“进行,进展(故事展开如下)”
 

人的头盖骨,结合得非常致密与坚固,生理学家和解剖学者用尽了一切的方法,要把它完整地分出来,都没有这种力气,
译文1:The bones forming a human skull are so tightly and perfectly fit together that all physiologists or anatomists, hard as they try, fail to take them apart without damaging them.
译文2:The bones of a human skull are so tightly and firmly joined that no physiologist and anatomist had succeeded in taking them apart whatever means they tried.
🎈forming a human skull作bones的后置定语。
🎈“so tightly and perfectly fit together that all physiologists……”中包含so…that…结构。
🎈“把它完整地分出来”即“把它完好无损地分开”,故译为to take them apart without damaging them;其中take sth. apart或take apart sth.意为“把……分开/分离”。

 
后来忽然有人发明了一个方法,就是把植物的种子放在要解剖的头盖骨里,给它以温度与湿度,使它发芽,
译文1:It so happened that, at the suggestion of someone, some seeds of plant were placed inside a human skull awaiting dissection before heat and moisture were applied to cause them to grow.
译文2:Then someone invented a method. He put some seeds of a plant in the skull to be dissected and provided the necessary temperature and moisture to make them germinate.
🎈 It so happened that…中it是形式主语,that后面的成分是真正主语;so为adv.,修饰happen,表示……就那么发生了。
🎈结构划分:some seeds of plant /were placed inside a human skull (awaiting dissection) //before heat and moisture were applied /to cause them to grow.其中,awaiting dissection是skull的后置定语。
🎈“使它发芽”的译文为to cause them grow。也可译为to cause them to put out fresh shoots。 

 
一发芽,这些种子便以可怕的力量,将一切机械力所不能分开的骨骼,完整地分开了。
译文1:Once they started to grow, they let loose a terrific force to separate all the skull bones, leaving each of them intact. This would have been impossible with any mechanical power under the sun.
译文2:Once the seeds germinated, they manifested a terrible force with which he succeeded in opening up the human skull that had failed to be opened even by mechanical means.
🎈let loosen是固定搭配,意为“放任;给予完全的自由;或者指常指地发声,讲话
例句
He let loose a long, deep sigh…
他突然喟然长叹了一声。
🎈leaving each of them intact是结果状语
🎈将一切机械力所不能分开的骨骼,完整地分开了→这句话处理成了:把“骨骼完整地分开”这一fact是一切机械里所不能做到的。故译为This would have been impossible with any mechanical power under the sun,其中this指代事实,any…under the sun表示“一切”之意。

 
植物种子力量之大,如此如此。
译文1:See, how powerful the seeds of a plant can be!
译文2:This story tells us how powerful the seeds of plants can be.
🎈此句为how引导的感叹句。

 
这,也许特殊了一点,常人不容易理解,
译文1:This story may be somewhat too unusual for you to understand.
译文2:You may think this is too unusual a story to be grasped by the common mind.
🎈 也许特殊了一点→或许有点太特殊,现译为be somewhat too unusual
🎈“常人不容易理解”中的“常人”译作了“you”,细想也对,正在阅读此篇文章的你我皆为常人。

 
那么,你看见笋的成长吗?你看见被压在瓦砾和石块下面的一颗小草的生成吗?
译文1:Well, have you ever seen the growth of a bamboo shoot? Or the growth of tender grass from under a heap of rubble or rocks?
译文2:Well, have you ever seen how the bamboo shoots grow? Have you ever seen how frail young grass grow out from under debris and rubble?
🎈竹笋 bamboo shoot
Q: from 是介词,为什么之后还有一个介词under,两个介词不是重叠了吗?
🎈这是介词from的一个特殊用法,就是说,from之后还可以跟一个介词词组。有的语法书称之为双重介词(double preposition)。
从句义上看,两个介词一个都不能少,如果删去任何一个,意思都不完整:①rose from the floor 是从地板的上面还是下面,我们无从判断②rose under the floor 在地板下面升起来,让人不知所云 。 
那么,from under the floor 究竟包含什么意义呢?经过分析我们发现,在from和under之间确实省略了一个词somewhere(某个地方)。也就是说,上面的英语句子可以理解为“一张桌子和几把椅子像魔术般地从地板下面的某个地方升了出来。”此处from under用法同理。 

 
它为着向往阳光,为着达成它的生之意志,不管上面的石块如何重,石块与石块之间如何狭,它必定要曲曲折折地,但是顽强不屈在透到地面上来,它的根往土壤里钻,它的芽往地面挺,
译文1:Seeking sunlight and survival, the young plant will labour tenaciously through twists and turns to bring itself to the surface of the ground no matter how heavy the rocks overhead may be or how narrow the opening between them. While striking its roots deep into the soil, the young plant pushes its new shoots aboveground.
译文2:In order to get the sunshine and bring its will to grow into play, no matter how heavy the rocks are and how narrow the space between the rocks, it will wind its way up irresistibly, its roots drilling downward and its sprouts shooting upward.
🎈“为着向往阳光,为着达成它的生之意志”实际上的意思是“为了争取阳光和生存”,故译为Seeking sunlight and survival即可。
🎈结构划分:Seeking sunlight and survival,// the young plant //will labour tenaciously /through twists and turns /to bring itself to the surface of the ground //no matter how heavy the rocks overhead may be /or how narrow the opening between them.其中,seeking sunlight and survival是目的状语;曲曲折折地译为through twists and turns;no matter how引导让步状语从句。最后的how narrow the opening between them省略了may be。
🎈While striking its roots deep into the soil: while引导时间状语从句,因为主从句主语一致,且从句谓语中有be动词,故从句省略主语和be动词。

 
这是一种不可抗拒的力,阻止它的石块,结果也被它掀翻,
译文1:The irresistible strength it can muster is such as to overturn any rock in its way.
译文2:This is an irresistible force. Any rock lying in its way will be overturned.
🎈它的芽往地面挺→使新芽破土而出,现译为pushes its new shoots aboveground。
🎈The irresistible strength it can muster中it can muster是省略that的定语从句。
🎈 is such as to= is so+ adj./adv. +as to 

 
一粒种子的力量的大,如此如此。
译文1:See, how powerful a seed can be!
译文2:This again shows how powerful a seed can be.
🎈此处“一粒种子的力量的大,如此如此。”的翻译与上文基本保持一致。
 

没有一个人将小草叫做“大力士”,但是它的力量之大,的确是世界无比,
译文1:Though nobody describes the little grass as a “husky”, yet its herculean strength is unrivalled.
译文2:Though the little grass has never been said to be herculean, the power it shows is matchless in the world.
🎈“没有一个人将小草叫做‘大力士’”译为Though nobody describes the little grass as a “husky”,其中describe…as的意思是“把……说成”、“把……称为”;husky除去“高大强壮的人”之意外,还可以指adj.声音沙哑的;n.雪橇犬哈士奇。 
🎈though不可与but连用,但可以与yet连用。
 

这种力,是一般人看不见的生命力,只要生命存在,这种力就要显现,
译文1:It is the force of life invisible to the naked eye. It will display itself so long as there is life.
译文2:It is an invisible force of life. So long as there is life, the force will show itself.
🎈invisible to the naked eye是the force of life的后置定语。
🎈只要 so/as long as
 

上面的石块,丝毫不足以阻挡,因为它是一种“长期抗战”的力,有弹性,能屈能伸的力,有韧性,不达目的不止的力。 
译文1:The rock is utterly helpless before this force—a force that will forever remain militant, a force that is resilient and can take temporary setbacks calmly, a force that is tenacity itself and will never give up until the goal is reached.
译文2:The rock above it is not heavy enough to prevent it from growing because it is a force that keeps growing over a period of time, because it is an elastic force that can shrink and expand, because it is a tenacious force that will not stop growing until it is grown.
🎈“ 丝毫不足以阻挡处理”成了”is utterly helpless”,运用了拟人的修辞手法。
🎈破折号起解释说明的作用。
🎈能屈能伸的力→即能根据眼前具体情况采取具体措施,即能理智冷静对待眼前困难,故译为take temporary setbacks calmly,temporary属增译成分,作欣赏。
🎈“有韧性,不达目的不止的力”译为a force that is tenacity itself and will never give up until the goal is reached,其中itself一词用来加强前面的抽象名词tenacity,属习惯用法。 
 

种子不落在肥土而落在瓦砾中,有生命力的种子决不会悲观和叹气,因为有阻力才有磨炼。
译文1:When a seed falls under debris instead of on fertile soil, it never sighs in despair because to meet with obstruction means to temper itself.
译文2:The seed does not choose to fall on fertile land but among debris. If it is filled with life, it is never pessimistic or sad, for it is tempered by resistance and pressure.
🎈 “悲观和叹气”译作“sighs in despair”,in despair作状语修饰动词sigh。
🎈“有阻力才有磨炼”→遇到阻力就要(利用阻力)来磨练自己的脾气。

 
生命开始的一瞬间就带了斗争来的草,才是坚韧的草,也只有这种草,才可以傲然地对那些玻璃棚中养育着的盆花哄笑。
译文1:Indomitable is the grass that begins its very life with a tough struggle. It is only fit and proper that the proud grass should be jeering at the potted flowers in a glass house.
译文2:The grass that fights its way out since the moment it is born can be called “strong” and “tenacious”; only the grass that fights its way up since its birth has the right to laugh with justified pride at the potted plants in glassed green houses.
🎈 Indomitable is the grass that begins its very life with a tough struggle.一句,运用倒装结构将indomitable这个表语成分提到系动词is前,是为了强调表语,即草的坚韧;that begins its very life…则是限制性定语从句,其先行词为grass。
🎈英语中,有些倒装是出于语法上的需要,非用倒装语序不可,具有强制性;有些则是为了达到某种修辞效果,如强调、平衡、衔接等。
🎈第二个句子中,it为形式主语,that后的成分为真正主语。
🎈也只有这种草,才可以傲然地对那些玻璃棚中养育着的盆花哄笑→也只有这种骄傲的草,才可以对那些玻璃棚中养育着的盆花哄笑。译文把原本修饰“哄笑”这一动作的“傲然proud”一词转移到了grass身上,即proud grass。
🔥必背词汇
Buddha         cn.佛像
英义
A Buddha is a statue or picture of the Buddha.
例句
buddha statue
天坛大佛;佛像
 
matchless         adj.无与伦比的,举世无双的
英义
You can use matchless to emphasize that you think something is extremely good.
例句
A timeless comic actor—his simplicity and his apparent ease are matchless
作为喜剧界的常青树——他的简单淳朴与自然大方无人能及。
 
dissection         n.解剖
英义
the act of cutting up a dead person, animal or plant in order to study it.
例句
dissection of a human body
人体解剖
 
tenaciously         adv.坚韧地
英义
in a way that shows that you will not stop holding something or give up something easily; in a determined way.
例句
Though seriously ill, he still clings tenaciously to life.
尽管病得很重,他仍然坚强地活着。
 
herculean        adj.艰巨的,费力的
英义
A herculean task or ability is one that requires extremely great strength or effort.
例句
Maintaing five friendships promises to be a Herculean task, so…
维持五个朋友的友情太困难了 所以…
 
🔥重点表达
有这样一个故事 There is a story which goes like this:
回答纷纭的很The answers varied
金刚The fierce-browed guardian gods to Buddha.
结果,这一切答案完全不对 All the answers turned out to be wide of the mark
这儿又是一个故事Here goes another story:
一粒种子所可以显现出来的力The great strength which a seed is capable of
人的头盖骨The bones forming a human skull
用尽了一切的方法 hard as they try
把它完整地分出来take them apart without damaging them/intact
使它发芽to cause them grow
释放出可怕的力量let loose a terrific force
一切机械力any mechanical power under the sun
竹笋 bamboo shoot
也许特殊了一点be somewhat too unusual
为着向往阳光Seeking sunlight and survival
曲曲折折地through twists and turns
它的芽往地面挺pushes its new shoots above-ground
掀翻阻止它的石块 overturn any rock in its way
一粒种子的力量的大,如此如此See, how powerful a seed can be!
大力士husky
只要生命存在,这种力就要显现It will display itself so long as there is life.
能屈能伸temporary setbacks calmly
不达目的不止will never give up until the goal is reached
不落在肥土而落在瓦砾中falls under debris instead of on fertile soil
决不会悲观和叹气 never sighs in despair
有阻力才有磨炼to meet with obstruction means to temper itself
生命开始的一瞬间就带了斗争来的草the grass that begins its very life with a tough struggle
对那些玻璃棚中养育着的盆花哄笑be jeering at the potted flowers in a glass house.
 
🔥复盘测试
有这样一个故事
回答纷纭的很
金刚
结果,这一切答案完全不对
这儿又是一个故事
一粒种子所可以显现出来的力
人的头盖骨
用尽了一切的方法
把它完整地分出来
使它发芽
释放出可怕的力量
一切机械力
竹笋
也许特殊了一点
为着向往阳光
曲曲折折地
它的芽往地面挺
掀翻阻止它的石块
一粒种子的力量的大,如此如此
大力士
只要生命存在,这种力就要显现
能屈能伸
不达目的不止
不落在肥土而落在瓦砾中
决不会悲观和叹气
有阻力才有磨炼
生命开始的一瞬间就带了斗争来的草
对那些玻璃棚中养育着的盆花哄笑
 
🔥表达对比
「不同」有几种表达?
 
有人问:世界上什么东西的气力最大?回答(纷纭)的很。
Someone asked, “What has the greatest strength on earth?” The answers varied
 
至于此前是否有其他的接触,说法(各异)。
Accounts differ as to whether there were other contacts earlier.
 
观点(迥异)。
There are different opinions.
 
这部电影和原著比(相去甚远)。
The movie is a far cry from the book.
 
弗兰克和我永远也玩不到一块去。我俩根本(不是一类人)。
Frank and I will never get along. We’re chalk and cheese.
 
两者(毫无相同之处)。
The two have nothing in common.
 
追求浪漫是一回事儿,但婚姻(又是另一回事儿)。
Romance is one thing, marriage is quite another.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《野 草 –夏衍 》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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