李白《与韩荆州书》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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与韩荆州书

李白
A Letter to Han Jingzhou
Li Bai
 
白闻天下谈士相聚而言曰:「生不用封万户侯,但愿识韩荆州。」
I have heard that when scholars who like to discuss matters of national importance get together, their conversation invariably leads to you. They say, 「I would rather see Han Jingzhou in person than become a nobleman with a fief of ten thousand households. 」
🎈「天下谈士」意即「天下一些谈论世事的人」,译作了「scholars who like to discuss matters of national importance」
🎈「their conversation invariably leads to you」是原文中后文直接引语中的信息,这里是将后文的信息的提炼,有助于读者的理解和后文更好的衔接。

 

何令人之景慕至于此耶?
Why is it that they cherish such a deep admiration for you?
🎈这句话是问这些人为什么如此崇拜您呢?动词选用了「cherish」,是「怀有(好感)」之意。

 

岂不以有周公之风,躬吐握之事,使海内豪俊奔走而归之,一登龙门则声誉十倍,所以龙蟠凤逸之士,皆欲收名定价于君侯?
Are you treating men of virtue and talent like Duke of Zhou So that they will come from all over the country to seek your patronage, hoping that once they are recommended by you, they will be like the carp leaping over the Dragon’s Gate and their social status will be boosted tenfold? Therefore, those promising scholars, who have not yet entered the government service, expect to gain fame and a favorable appraisal of their talent through you. They are like curled up dragons and inert phoenixes, waiting for their chance to soar up.
🎈「周公」:即姬旦,周文王子,周武王弟。因采邑在周(今陕西歧山县北),故称周公。
🎈「吐握」:吐哺(口中所含食物)握发(头发)。周公自称「我一沐(洗头)三握发,一饭三吐哺,起以待士,犹恐失天下之贤人」(见《史记•鲁世家》),后世因以「吐握」形容礼贤下士。这里蕴含典故,译文没有将典故全部译出,而是简单化处理,否则译文会过于冗长。
🎈「龙蟠凤逸之士」在文中实际译了两遍。第一遍译为「those promising scholars, who have not yet entered the government service」,第二遍译为「They are like curled up dragons and inert phoenixes」。第二遍的翻译实则是对「龙蟠凤逸」这一比喻的复现。如果是第一遍翻译是为了便于外国读者理解句意,那么第二遍翻译就是为了把原文的修辞美浮现出来。

 

君侯不以富贵而骄之,寒贱而忽之,则三千之中有毛遂,使白得颖脱而出,即其人焉。
Your wealth and power do not make you proud, nor do poverty and low station incite your prejudice. It is only natural that among your followers there is no lack of such man like Mao Sui. If the chance arises to have my talent recognized, I would burst into the open, the way a sharp awl pierces through the thin cloth sack. I would be another Mao Sui.
🎈「忽之」意即「轻视他人」,译作了「incite your prejudice」
🎈「have my talent recognized」意即「我的才能得到赏识」
🎈「脱颖而出」采取了意译,译作了「I would burst into the open, the way a sharp awl pierces through the thin cloth sack」

 

白,陇西布衣,流落楚汉。
I, Li Bai, am of common origin from Longxi, and have roamed in the Chu-Han region.
🎈「origin」意为「出身」,「be of common origin」意即「出身平平」

 

十五好剑术,遍干诸侯;三十成文章,历抵卿相。
I loved sword playing at the age of fifteen and paid respect to all local government officials. By the age of thirty I could write good essays and had paid homage to all influential high-ranking officials at court.
🎈「历抵卿相」意为「屡次拜谒朝廷高官」,译作了「paid homage to all influential high-ranking officials at court」。其中「paid homage to」与前文的「paid respect to」同义。

 

虽长不满七尺,而心雄万夫。
Though I am less than seven chi in stature, I cherish an ambition loftier than that of ten thousand people.
🎈「cherish」释义为「to keep an idea, a hope or a pleasant feeling in your mind for a long time 抱有(信念、希望);怀有(好感);怀念」,注意表达积累
例句
cherish the memory of the past day, but I can not go back. 
我怀念过去的日子,可是岁月无法回头。

 

王公大人,许与气义。
Princes and ministers have praised my moral integrity and my spirit.
🎈「许」意为「赞许」,译作了「praise」

 

此畴曩心迹,安敢不尽于君侯哉!
This has been the scope of what I thought and what I did. How could I not let you know?
🎈这句话意为「这是我从前的思想和行迹,怎敢不尽情地向您倾诉呢」,译文从中断句,减轻读者的负担。

 

君侯制作侔神明,德行动天地,笔参造化,学究天人。
Your achievements are godlike; your meritorious deeds have moved heaven and earth; your essays expound the law of nature, and your knowledge is all embracing, including the ways of heaven and earth.
🎈「制作」:指文章著述。「侔」:相等,齐同。「制作侔神明」译作了「Your achievements are godlike」
🎈「德行」译作了「meritorious deeds」,其中「meritorious」释义为「deserving praise 值得赞扬的」
例句
Perform meritorious service to atone for one’s crimes so as to obtain clemency from the people. 
立功赎罪, 以求得人民的宽恕。
🎈「造化」:自然的创造化育。「天人」:天道和人道。「笔参造化,学究天人」意为「您的文章阐明了宇宙变化规律,学问探究了天道与人事的关系」,译作了「your essays expound the law of nature, and your knowledge is all embracing, including the ways of heaven and earth」,其中「expound」释义为「to explain sth by talking about it in detail 详解;详述;阐述」
例句
He expounded his views on the subject to me at great length. 
他详细地向我阐述了他在这个问题上的观点。

 

幸愿开张心颜,不以长揖见拒。
It is my hope to receive your genial and sincere reception, not to be refused because of my simple courtesy by making a bow with hands clasped.
🎈在原文中,「开张心颜」的主语是「君侯」,而「不以长揖见拒」的主语是「我」,中文中会有主语不同的情况出现,但在英文中要注意主语的统一,这句话将前半句的主语进行转换,两个小句都用「我」做了主语,译作「It is my hope to receive your genial and sincere reception, not to be refused because of my simple courtesy by making a bow with hands clasped」
🎈「长揖」:相见时拱手高举自上而下以为礼。译文对此进行了具体化,既译出了具体动作,即「making a bow with hands clasped」,还译出了这一动作的特点,即「simple courtesy」,帮助读者理解。

 

必若接之以高宴,纵之以清谈,请日试万言,倚马可待。
I have no doubt that you will welcome me generously with a banquet, at which you will allow my thoughts to cascade from my brimming mind. And if you don’t mind, I will write an essay of ten thousand words a day and finish it as quickly as Yuan Hu did.
🎈「倚马可待」:喻文思敏捷。东晋时袁宏随同桓温北征,受命作露布文(檄文、捷书之类),他倚马前而作,手不辍笔,顷刻便成,而文极佳妙。这个词有丰富的中国文化内涵,是作者将自己与袁宏作比,体现出自己写作速度之快,文思之敏捷,译作了「allow my thoughts to cascade from my brimming mind」,其中「cascade」释义为「to flow downwards in large amounts 倾泻;流注」
例句
Water cascaded down the mountainside. 
水从山腰倾泻而下。

 

今天下以君侯为文章之司命,人物之权衡,一经品题,便作佳士;而君侯何惜阶前盈尺之地,不使白扬眉吐气,激昂青云耶?
The world looks upon you as an authoritative evaluator of writings and a supreme judge of people’s moral quality. Anyone who is favorably judged by you is regarded as excellent both in character and scholarship. Therefore, why should you grudge that little space less than a foot in width before the terrace of your house to receive me and let me feel proud and elated, fully exert my abilities, and soar up in my career?
🎈「司命」:原为神名,掌管人之寿命。此指判定文章优劣的权威。「权」:秤锤;「衡」:秤杆。此指品评人物的权威。这里将原文译作了「an authoritative evaluator of writings and a supreme judge of people’s moral quality」,采用了对称平衡的结构,使得译文非常有节奏感。
🎈「佳士」结合前文进行了具体化,即「character and scholarship」这两个方面。
🎈「惜阶前盈尺之地」:意即不在堂前接见我。译作「grudge that little space less than a foot in width before the terrace of your house to receive me」,其中「grudge」释义为「to do or give sth unwillingly 勉强做;不情愿地给;吝惜」
例句
He grudges the time he spends travelling to work. 
他不情愿上班花这么多时间在路上。
🎈使…扬眉吐气let sb feel proud and elated

昔王子师为豫州,未下车,即辟荀慈明,既下车,又辟孔文举;山涛作冀州,甄拔三十余人,或为侍中、尚书,先代所美。
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, when Wang Zishi was appointed as governor of Yuzhou, he employed Xun Ciming before he arrived at the post. After he took office, he employed Kong Wenju. When Shan Tao of the Western Jin Dynasty was the prefectural governor of Jizhou, he chose more than thirty people and they were all assigned to different government positions, some to be shizhong, and some to be shangshu. Both Wang Zishi and Shan Tao were highly praised by previous scholars.
🎈「昔王子师为豫州」意为「从前王允任豫州剌史」,译作「In the Eastern Han Dynasty, when Wang Zishi was appointed as governor of Yuzhou」,其中「In the Eastern Han Dynasty」是补充的背景信息,在翻译时要有这样的意识,将原文中没有说出但对译文读者理解有用的信息补充出来,会给译文加分。
🎈「被任命为…」可译作「be appointed as」或「be assigned as」
🎈「下车」就是「到任」之意,这个词在这句话中出现了两次,分别译作了「arrived at the post」和「took office」,变换了不同的说法,这是因为中文中倾向于重复同一个词,而英文中倾向于使用不同的说法来表达一个意思,变换说法是常见的汉英翻译方法,在翻译时要有这个意识。
🎈「山涛作冀州」意即「山涛任冀州剌史」,译作了「Shan Tao of the Western Jin Dynasty was the prefectural governor of Jizhou」,其中「刺史」译作了「prefectural governor」,注意表达积累。
🎈「先代所美」意为「这都是为前代所赞美的」,译作「Both Wang Zishi and Shan Tao were highly praised by previous scholars」,其中「be highly praised by…」意为「受到…的高度赞誉」

 

而君侯亦荐一严协律,入为秘书郎,中间崔宗之、房习祖、黎昕、许莹之徒,或以才名见知,或以清白见赏。
You have recommended Yan Wu and he is promoted to be mishulang. And there are other people like Cui Zongzhi, Fang Xizu, Li Xin, and Xu Ying, who are either discovered by you because of their uncommon brilliance or praised by you for their honesty and integrity.
🎈举荐recommend
🎈「入」即为「担任」之意,这里使用了被动语态,译作了「be promoted to be」
🎈「见」是中文中的被动,翻译时要注意被动语态的体现,「见知」和「见赏」分别译作了「be discovered」和「be praised」
🎈「清白」意即品行端正,译作「honesty and integrity」

 

白每观其衔恩抚躬,忠义奋发,以此感激,知君侯推赤心于诸贤腹中,所以不归他人,而愿委身国士。
I often see them showing their gratitude to you for the support you have given them in their official career. They fully display their loyalty and righteousness. I am very much moved and know very well that you open your heart to persons of virtue. This is why I am anxious for your patronage above all others.
🎈翻译这句话时要注意的是「衔恩抚躬,忠义奋发」指的是「君侯」提拔过的人的所作所为,而「以此感激,知君侯推赤心于诸贤腹中,所以不归他人,而愿委身国士」表达的是李白自己的想法。
🎈「衔恩抚躬,忠义奋发」意为「他们感恩戴德,抚躬自问,以忠义奋发自勉。」译作「I often see them showing their gratitude to you for the support you have given them in their official career. They fully display their loyalty and righteousness」
🎈「推赤心于诸贤腹中」意为「对许多贤人赤诚相待」,译作了「open your heart to persons of virtue」,其中「persons of virtue」是「贤才」之意。
🎈「patronage」释义为「the support, especially financial, that is given to a person or an organization by a patron 资助;赞助」
例句
Patronage of the arts comes from businesses and private individuals. 
对艺术的资助来自企业和个人。
 

 

傥急难有用,敢效微躯。
I would dedicate my humble life to you, if it might help you in case of emergency.
🎈这句话的意思为「倘使君侯在急难之际,有用得着我的地方,我自当献身效命」。其中「危难之际」译作了「in case of emergency」。这里要注意区分两个短语的用法:
in case of是「万一」,「以防」之意
in the case of是「在…情况下」之意。
🎈dedicate one’s life to献身于…

 

且人非尧舜,谁能尽善;白谟猷筹画,安能自矜;至于制作,积成卷轴,则欲尘秽视听,恐雕虫小技,不合大人。
Since none of us is Yao or Shun, how can we be perfect? How could I brag that I could give counsels on affairs of the state? As for writings, I have many scrolls in store, each waiting its turn for your perusal. But perhaps these trifles of mine are not to your taste.
🎈「谟猷」:谋划,谋略。这里进行了意译,译作了「give counsels on affairs of the state」
🎈「brag」释义为「to talk too proudly about sth you own or sth you have done 吹嘘;自吹自擂」
例句
He bragged to his friends about the crime. 
他向朋友炫耀他的罪行。
🎈「尘秽视听」:请对方观看自己作品的谦语,这里译出「请君侯看自己的作品」之意即可,译作了「waiting its turn for your perusal」。其中「perusal」在词典中的释义为「Perusal of something such as a letter, article, or document is the action of reading it.」
例句
They undertook to send each of us a sample contract for perusal. 
他们答应给我们每人寄送一份合同样本以供阅读。
🎈「不合大人」意为「不能受到大人的赏识」,译作了「perhaps these trifles of mine are not to your taste」

 

若赐观刍荛,请给纸墨,兼之书人。然后退扫闲轩,缮写呈上。
If you so grant me the favor, please have paper, brushes, and a scribe ready, and I will go back to clean up my study and copy them down for you.
🎈「刍荛」:割草为刍,打柴为荛,刍荛指草野之人,这里是作者的自谦之词,「赐观刍荛」意即「(君侯)若愿意垂怜」,译作了「grant me the favor」
🎈「闲轩」:静室,「缮写」誊写。这一小句译作了「I will go back to clean up my study and copy them down for you」

 

庶青萍、结绿,长价于薛、卞之门。
In your hands their value would increase like the Qingping sword in the hands of Xue Zhu and the rare jade in the hands of Bian He.
🎈「青萍」:宝剑名。「结绿」:美玉名。「薛」:薛烛,古代善相剑者。「卞」:卞和,古代善识玉者。「长价」意为「提高价值」。这句话蕴含多个典故,翻译时要补充必要的信息,帮助读者理解。但是背景信息的补充不宜过多,否则会造成译文信息冗杂。
🎈这句话的翻译还要注意的一点是其蕴含的逻辑关系,即「青萍」长价于「薛」而「洁绿」长价于「卞」,译文根据这一关系在翻译时对语序进行了调整,译作了「In your hands their value would increase like the Qingping sword in the hands of Xue Zhu and the rare jade in the hands of Bian He」

 

幸惟下流,大开奖饰,惟君侯图之。
In all sincerity I hope I might win your favor and obtain your recommendation. Please give me your kindest consideration.
🎈「惟」,一作「推」。「下流」:指地位低的人,这里是指作者自己,这句话意为「但愿君侯推恩于身处下位的人,大开奖励之门」,译作了「In all sincerity I hope I might win your favor and obtain your recommendation」。其中「win sb’s favor」是「获得某人青睐」之意。
🔥重点词汇
meritorious    adj.值得赞扬的
英义
deserving praise 
例句
Perform meritorious service to atone for one’s crimes so as to obtain clemency from the people. 
立功赎罪, 以求得人民的宽恕。
 
expound     v.详解;详述;阐述
英义
to explain sth by talking about it in detail
例句
He expounded his views on the subject to me at great length. 
他详细地向我阐述了他在这个问题上的观点。
 
grudge     v. 勉强做;不情愿地给;吝惜
英义
to do or give sth unwillingly
例句
He grudges the time he spends travelling to work. 
他不情愿上班花这么多时间在路上。
 
patronage     n.资助;赞助
英义
the support, especially financial, that is given to a person or an organization by a patron 
例句
Patronage of the arts comes from businesses and private individuals. 
对艺术的资助来自企业和个人。
 
brag      v. 吹嘘;自吹自擂
英义
to talk too proudly about sth you own or sth you have done
例句
He bragged to his friends about the crime. 
他向朋友炫耀他的罪行。
 
cherish     v. 抱有(信念、希望);怀有(好感);怀念
英义
to keep an idea, a hope or a pleasant feeling in your mind for a long time
例句
I cherish the memory of the past day, but I can not go back. 
我怀念过去的日子,可是岁月无法回头。
🔥重点表达
出身平平be of common origin
使…扬眉吐气let sb feel proud and elated 
被任命为…be appointed as/be assigned as/ be promoted to be
到任take office
刺史prefectural governor
受到…的高度赞誉be highly praised by…
品行端正honesty and integrity
贤才persons of virtue
万一/以防in case of
在…情况下in the case of
献身于…dedicate one’s life to 
获得某人青睐win sb’s favor
🔥表达对比
「被任命为…」有几种译法?
1.昔王子师(为)豫州,未下车,即辟荀慈明,既下车,又辟孔文举;山涛作冀州,甄拔三十余人,或(为)侍中、尚书,先代所美。
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, when Wang Zishi was appointed as governor of Yuzhou, he employed Xun Ciming before he arrived at the post. After he took office, he employed Kong Wenju. When Shan Tao of the Western Jin Dynasty was the prefectural governor of Jizhou, he chose more than thirty people and they were all assigned to different government positions, some to be shizhong, and some to be shangshu. Both Wang Zishi and Shan Tao were highly praised by previous scholars.
 
2.而君侯亦荐一严协律,(入)为秘书郎,中间崔宗之、房习祖、黎昕、许莹之徒,或以才名见知,或以清白见赏。
You have recommended Yan Wu and he is promoted to be mishulang. And there are other people like Cui Zongzhi, Fang Xizu, Li Xin, and Xu Ying, who are either discovered by you because of their uncommon brilliance or praised by you for their honesty and integrity.
 
3. 他很快将会(被任命为)下一任主席。
He will soon be named as the next president. 

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 李白《与韩荆州书》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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